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Canadian immigration

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  • Jenny Brichta
    Julie, They may have gone to Canada for a land deal that the Canadian govt was offering at the time. To encourage immigration, land was offered for very low
    Message 1 of 4 , Oct 24, 1999
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      Julie,

      They may have gone to Canada for a land deal that the Canadian govt was
      offering at the time. To encourage immigration, land was offered for very
      low cost IF the family could survive there for a certain number of years and
      farm the land. My g-Aunt went this route. Says she and her husband were
      very poor, got assigned a plot that was mostly rock, and barely managed to
      make enough profit to survive. As soon as the time was up, they sold the
      plot and high-tailed it out of there to the city where he became an opera
      singer and she became a seamstress. She's still up there.

      Jenny Brichta
      -----Original Message-----
      From: SLOVAK-ROOTS@onelist.com <SLOVAK-ROOTS@onelist.com>
      To: SLOVAK-ROOTS@onelist.com <SLOVAK-ROOTS@onelist.com>
      Date: Saturday, October 23, 1999 3:32 AM
      Subject: [SLOVAK-ROOTS] Digest Number 103


      >
      >>
      >There are 14 messages in this issue.
      >
      >Topics in today's digest:
      >
      > 1. Re: Slovak migration patterns
      > From: "RMH" <rmharing@...>
      > 2. Ships & comments
      > From: Alice <alice7@...>
      > 3. Re: Slovak migration patterns
      > From: "J. Michutka" <jmm@...>
      > 4. Re: Slovak migration patterns
      > From: "Andrea Vangor" <drav@...>
      > 5. Re: Slovak migration patterns
      > From: MJESKO@... (mark JESKO)
      > 6. Re: Slovak migration patterns
      > From: "RMH" <rmharing@...>
      > 7. Re: Ships & comments
      > From: BobHORGOS@...
      > 8. Re: Slovak migration patterns
      > From: Maureen Pulignano <deefalt@...>
      > 9. Re: Ships & comments
      > From: sabinov@... (Maura Petzolt)
      > 10. Re: Slovak migration patterns
      > From: sabinov@... (Maura Petzolt)
      > 11. Hortek Bohemia
      > From: leroy_s@...
      > 12. Re: Slovak migration patterns
      > From: "RMH" <rmharing@...>
      > 13. Re: Slovak migration patterns
      > From: JArcher360@...
      > 14. Re: Slovak migration patterns
      > From: "RMH" <rmharing@...>
      >
      >
      >___________________________________________________________________________
      ____
      >___________________________________________________________________________
      ____
      >
      >Message: 1
      > Date: Fri, 22 Oct 1999 08:48:35 -0400
      > From: "RMH" <rmharing@...>
      >Subject: Re: Slovak migration patterns
      >
      >Hello, All - It seems that after a few brave souls had arrived and found
      >work and established themselves, they wrote back home and others followed
      to
      >the same town. As has been mentioned before, men often came alone and lived
      >in boarding houses till they could afford to bring over a family. Searching
      >through the census records shows clusters of Slovak names at the same
      >address. Ships' records include the state of destination.
      >
      >The main incentive seems to have been knowing other Slovaks in the area
      they
      >were moving to, and knowing work was available. My four grandparents came
      in
      >the 1880's and 1890's, and met and married here. The paternal grandparents
      >went to Haverstraw, NY, where very many Slovaks worked in the huge brick
      >industry that existed at the time. My grandmother's brother was one who
      >lived here for some years, saved his money, and went back to Europe - I
      >wonder how common a practice that was?
      >
      >Anthony X. Sutherland wrote a excellent feature which appeared in "South of
      >the Mountains", the publication of the Rockland Historical Society, in the
      >April-June 1986 issue, titled "The Slovaks of Haverstraw". He writes that
      >in 1880, approximately 10,000 Slovaks lived in America; by 1899, over
      >200,000. He also says that *most* went to PA or Ohio to work in the coal
      >mines or mills. So many came from the same town in Austria-Hungary,
      >Secovska Polianka, to Haverstraw, that it was called The New Secovska
      >Polianka. They began a church, called St. Mary's of the Assumption, where
      >their own language and customs could be followed - it celebrated a 100th
      >anniversary last year.
      >
      >My maternal grandparents went to the Scranton, PA area, and dzeda worked in
      >the coal mines. He met my baba at the home of her married sister, and
      >decided she was the one after he tasted the delicious bread she baked. I
      >can vouch for it - when we visited I ate it to the exclusion of anything
      >else!
      >
      >Regina Haring - grandparents names Rabatin, Makohus, Kraynak and Konechny
      >
      >
      >----- Original Message -----
      >From: Andrea Vangor <drav@...>
      >To: <SLOVAK-ROOTS@onelist.com>
      >Sent: Friday, October 22, 1999 4:03 AM
      >Subject: Re: [SLOVAK-ROOTS] Slovak migration patterns
      >
      >
      >> From: "Andrea Vangor" <drav@...>
      >>
      >> The 1880's is probably when the first wave of Slovaks hit the shores.
      >Then
      >> they disappear for a while! That's what I am trying to grasp -- how to
      >> track them in the 1880's when a few scattered family members, the real
      >> pioneers, came over. They did not marry or have babies -- a few died --
      >but
      >> in general they left few traces.
      >>
      >> ----- Original Message -----
      >> From: <Rosamken@...>
      >> To: <SLOVAK-ROOTS@onelist.com>
      >> Sent: Thursday, October 21, 1999 8:15 PM
      >> Subject: Re: [SLOVAK-ROOTS] Slovak migration patterns
      >>
      >>
      >> > From: Rosamken@...
      >> >
      >> > In a message dated 10/20/99 12:05:19 AM Pacific Daylight Time,
      >drav@...
      >> > writes:
      >> >
      >> > <<
      >> > about ancestors that I have not been able to keep up with it.
      However,
      >I
      >> > would like to ask a question, concerning a branch of the family that
      >> > appeared in Nanaimo B.C. around 1888. Like other Slovak miners, they
      >> came
      >> > from the US -- Hazelton, PA where they oldest son was born.
      >> >
      >> > When did the Slovak migration to America start, and was it in full
      >flood
      >> by
      >> > the 1880's? I know there is a web page with some information about
      >> this --
      >> > but specifically, when did Slovaks start going to the mining areas of
      >the
      >> > upper Midwest, like Ohio and Pennsylvania?
      >> >
      >> > Thanks,
      >> >
      >> > Andrea >>
      >> >
      >> >
      >> > Dear Andrea:
      >> >
      >> > My GrGrandmother immigrated from Bohemia, Penn around 1883 and settled
      >in
      >> > Pennsylvannia. I have requested my grandmother's death cert to see if
      >she
      >> > was born in Penn or Czech. I have found a woman, I believe to be my
      >> > grgrandmother but until I get that cert I won't know....I am not sure
      of
      >> the
      >> > "port of entry" either. But since my suspected grgrandmother came to
      >this
      >> > country in 1883, and my grandmother was born in 1888, I can only
      believe
      >> that
      >> > my grandmother was born here.
      >> >
      >> > It is such a mystery.....plus my grandfather was a rock miner
      >> also...worked
      >> > on the subway system in NY.
      >> >
      >> > Rosemary - Las Vegas
      >> >
      >> > still searching for CERNY
      >> >
      >> > >
      >>
      >> >
      >>
      >
      >
      >
      >___________________________________________________________________________
      ____
      >___________________________________________________________________________
      ____
      >
      >Message: 2
      > Date: Fri, 22 Oct 1999 11:10:33 -0400
      > From: Alice <alice7@...>
      >Subject: Ships & comments
      >
      >Does anyone know where I can find a ships list URL?
      >
      >Also, about the emigration of Slovaks and Rusyns to PA. Many of them just
      came
      >over for a year to make some money and returned to SK. Some returned again
      and
      >again and many stayed and sent for their families. I think this is what
      inspired
      >the second wave of immigration at that is what happened in our family.
      >Alice
      >
      >
      >
      >
      >
      >___________________________________________________________________________
      ____
      >___________________________________________________________________________
      ____
      >
      >Message: 3
      > Date: Fri, 22 Oct 1999 16:17:45 -0400
      > From: "J. Michutka" <jmm@...>
      >Subject: Re: Slovak migration patterns
      >
      >I have a different migration pattern in my family (if you can call it
      >migration!). My grandparents arrived in NYC, met there and married there
      >in Feb 1913. Sometime before Jan. 1914, they moved to London Ontario; by
      >Nov 1916 they were back in NYC; later they moved to Michigan.
      >
      >No one knows why they moved to London. As far as I know (big
      >qualification!), there was no family connection there. Was there a Slovak
      >community in London Ontario?
      >
      >I'm glad someone mentioned that some Slovak men came over to work the mines
      >for a year and then went back; that may explain the one uncle of my
      >grandfather, who went to PA and whom I can't track beyond his arrival--and
      >then he seems to show up in the village records in Slovakia later.
      >
      >Julie Michutka
      >jmm@...
      >
      >
      >___________________________________________________________________________
      ____
      >___________________________________________________________________________
      ____
      >
      >Message: 4
      > Date: Fri, 22 Oct 1999 13:30:23 -0700
      > From: "Andrea Vangor" <drav@...>
      >Subject: Re: Slovak migration patterns
      >
      >Dear Regina and List,
      >
      >I think this is exactly right. The fun part is trying to reconstruct the
      >process. Who was the first brave soul or two from the village who decided
      >to cross the Atlantic? Does anyone know, moreover, how these people got
      the
      >idea to go to a particular place? Did the mine owners actively recruit
      >Slovaks and Hungarians by some means? Or did the first pioneers just take
      >off for parts unknown and see what they could find?
      >
      >Of course, the Polish migration had started several decades earlier -- may
      >that influenced them. On the genealogical side, it's clear that churches
      >are a great resource for the early Slovak community, especially once it
      >became established in an area. But other than that, do other list members
      >find that their relatives show up on census data, or with marriage, birth,
      >and death certificates? I should think that many of our people slipped in
      >and out of the country, if they just came for a few years and then returned
      >to Slovakia.
      >
      >----- Original Message -----
      >From: RMH <rmharing@...>
      >To: <SLOVAK-ROOTS@onelist.com>
      >Sent: Friday, October 22, 1999 5:48 AM
      >Subject: Re: [SLOVAK-ROOTS] Slovak migration patterns
      >
      >
      >> From: "RMH" <rmharing@...>
      >>
      >> Hello, All - It seems that after a few brave souls had arrived and found
      >> work and established themselves, they wrote back home and others followed
      >to
      >> the same town. As has been mentioned before, men often came alone and
      >lived
      >> in boarding houses till they could afford to bring over a family.
      >Searching
      >> through the census records shows clusters of Slovak names at the same
      >> address. Ships' records include the state of destination.
      >>
      >> The main incentive seems to have been knowing other Slovaks in the area
      >they
      >> were moving to, and knowing work was available. My four grandparents came
      >in
      >> the 1880's and 1890's, and met and married here. The paternal
      grandparents
      >> went to Haverstraw, NY, where very many Slovaks worked in the huge brick
      >> industry that existed at the time. My grandmother's brother was one who
      >> lived here for some years, saved his money, and went back to Europe - I
      >> wonder how common a practice that was?
      >>
      >> Anthony X. Sutherland wrote a excellent feature which appeared in "South
      >of
      >> the Mountains", the publication of the Rockland Historical Society, in
      the
      >> April-June 1986 issue, titled "The Slovaks of Haverstraw". He writes
      that
      >> in 1880, approximately 10,000 Slovaks lived in America; by 1899, over
      >> 200,000. He also says that *most* went to PA or Ohio to work in the coal
      >> mines or mills. So many came from the same town in Austria-Hungary,
      >> Secovska Polianka, to Haverstraw, that it was called The New Secovska
      >> Polianka. They began a church, called St. Mary's of the Assumption, where
      >> their own language and customs could be followed - it celebrated a 100th
      >> anniversary last year.
      >>
      >> My maternal grandparents went to the Scranton, PA area, and dzeda worked
      >in
      >> the coal mines. He met my baba at the home of her married sister, and
      >> decided she was the one after he tasted the delicious bread she baked. I
      >> can vouch for it - when we visited I ate it to the exclusion of anything
      >> else!
      >>
      >> Regina Haring - grandparents names Rabatin, Makohus, Kraynak and Konechny
      >
      >
      >
      >
      >___________________________________________________________________________
      ____
      >___________________________________________________________________________
      ____
      >
      >Message: 5
      > Date: Fri, 22 Oct 1999 17:18:19 -0400 (EDT)
      > From: MJESKO@... (mark JESKO)
      >Subject: Re: Slovak migration patterns
      >
      >Since we are finding miners in our family trees, everyone does know that
      >most of the mining techniques for deep coal mining were developed in
      >Slovakia. That is why so many men worked in the mines. There a mining
      >museum in Banska Stavnice.
      >
      >"TRADITION is the JOYFUL memory of a people!"
      >
      >
      >
      >___________________________________________________________________________
      ____
      >___________________________________________________________________________
      ____
      >
      >Message: 6
      > Date: Fri, 22 Oct 1999 17:21:22 -0400
      > From: "RMH" <rmharing@...>
      >Subject: Re: Slovak migration patterns
      >
      >Tony Sutherland's article mentioned in my previous post also has this to
      >say:
      >
      >"Haverstraw was one of the earliest Slovak settlements in NY, beginning at
      >least in the mid-1880's. A few Slovaks lived in America before then, and a
      >Slovak regiment was formed during the Civil War (never would have guessed
      >that!). But the bulk of the immigration came after 1880 when Slovaks left
      in
      >large numbers from the Slovak region of Hungary, which was then part of the
      >Austro-Hungarian Empire.....main (reason) being economic. Land was scarce
      in
      >a growing population. A Slovak peasant with only a few hectares of land had
      >too little to divide if he had several sons. Usually some sons would
      >receive the land; the others had to leave. Some migrated to the larger
      >towns to work in manufacturing; others left for America."
      >
      >"Another reason for emigration was the gowing Magyar national suppression.
      >After 1875 Magyar chauvinists sought to de-nationalize the non-Magyar
      >language in schools. The campaign was so successful that by 1914 there were
      >no Slovak secondary schools in Hungary and the number of Slovak primary
      >schools was rapidly dwindling. The Slovak cultural institution, the Matica
      >Slovenska, as well as the Slovak gymnasia were closed by Budapest. Also,
      >scores of Slovak journalists and leaders were brought before Hungarian
      >courts on charges such as "inciting against the Magyar nationality."
      >
      >"It is not known when the first Slovak came to the Haverstraw area. The
      >earliest known Slovak born in Haverstraw was Anofrin Novak on Feb 4, 1877.
      >Into another early Slovak family, the Hlasz (Hlas) family, a Jozef Hlasz
      was
      >born in 1886.....At its peak the Slovak colony had from 250 to 300 Slovak
      >families...the (total) number in Rockland was probably close to 400
      >(families)......most came from the same five or six villages in Slovakia.
      >Once one or two families were established in the New World, they wrote home
      >and encouraged others to come."
      >
      >"....the names of many early settlers: Andro Bopcak, Juraj Besterci, Michal
      >Cervenak, Vaclav Hrubis, Pavol Jakubec, Jan Jancosek, Jan Kopcej, Jozef
      >Kristan, Jan Matis, Jozef Petricko and Andro Stefanic. All were in
      >Haverstraw by 1890."
      >
      >One county represented was Spis, and the families named were:
      >L'orko, Jakubec, Fifik, Mecko, Hajer and Schuster. Saris County was
      >another: Minarik, Svitanek, Rubacky, Kansky, Kopcak, Jancosek, Sacek and
      >Velgas. The Slovak village that had the most settlers in Haverstraw was
      >Secovska Polianka: Cervenak, Ihnat, Madar, Kohut, Stec, Kusnir, Hatala,
      >Rabatin, Urban, Stasko, Blangor, Dudas and Senko. Please excuse the
      absence
      >of the diacritical marks or accents or whatever they are properly called.
      >
      >Most of Sutherland's information comes from records found in 16 books in
      St.
      >Mary's church, and this 1986 article is an excerpt from a book which was
      >available at the local history center, but which unfortunately was no
      longer
      >available when I looked for it. Tony, are you on the list?
      >
      >Regards to all, Regina Rabatin Haring, Nanuet, NY
      >
      >
      >
      >----- Original Message -----
      >From: Andrea Vangor <drav@...>
      >To: <SLOVAK-ROOTS@onelist.com>
      >Sent: Friday, October 22, 1999 4:30 PM
      >Subject: Re: [SLOVAK-ROOTS] Slovak migration patterns
      >
      >
      >> From: "Andrea Vangor" <drav@...>
      >>
      >> Dear Regina and List,
      >>
      >> I think this is exactly right. The fun part is trying to reconstruct the
      >> process. Who was the first brave soul or two from the village who
      decided
      >> to cross the Atlantic? Does anyone know, moreover, how these people got
      >the
      >> idea to go to a particular place? Did the mine owners actively recruit
      >> Slovaks and Hungarians by some means? Or did the first pioneers just
      take
      >> off for parts unknown and see what they could find?
      >>
      >> Of course, the Polish migration had started several decades earlier --
      may
      >> that influenced them. On the genealogical side, it's clear that churches
      >> are a great resource for the early Slovak community, especially once it
      >> became established in an area. But other than that, do other list
      members
      >> find that their relatives show up on census data, or with marriage,
      birth,
      >> and death certificates? I should think that many of our people slipped
      in
      >> and out of the country, if they just came for a few years and then
      >returned
      >> to Slovakia.
      >>
      >> ----- Original Message -----
      >> From: RMH <rmharing@...>
      >> To: <SLOVAK-ROOTS@onelist.com>
      >> Sent: Friday, October 22, 1999 5:48 AM
      >> Subject: Re: [SLOVAK-ROOTS] Slovak migration patterns
      >>
      >>
      >> > From: "RMH" <rmharing@...>
      >> >
      >> > Hello, All - It seems that after a few brave souls had arrived and
      found
      >> > work and established themselves, they wrote back home and others
      >followed
      >> to
      >> > the same town. As has been mentioned before, men often came alone and
      >> lived
      >> > in boarding houses till they could afford to bring over a family.
      >> Searching
      >> > through the census records shows clusters of Slovak names at the same
      >> > address. Ships' records include the state of destination.
      >> >
      >> > The main incentive seems to have been knowing other Slovaks in the area
      >> they
      >> > were moving to, and knowing work was available. My four grandparents
      >came
      >> in
      >> > the 1880's and 1890's, and met and married here. The paternal
      >grandparents
      >> > went to Haverstraw, NY, where very many Slovaks worked in the huge
      brick
      >> > industry that existed at the time. My grandmother's brother was one who
      >> > lived here for some years, saved his money, and went back to Europe - I
      >> > wonder how common a practice that was?
      >> >
      >> > Anthony X. Sutherland wrote a excellent feature which appeared in
      "South
      >> of
      >> > the Mountains", the publication of the Rockland Historical Society, in
      >the
      >> > April-June 1986 issue, titled "The Slovaks of Haverstraw". He writes
      >that
      >> > in 1880, approximately 10,000 Slovaks lived in America; by 1899, over
      >> > 200,000. He also says that *most* went to PA or Ohio to work in the
      coal
      >> > mines or mills. So many came from the same town in Austria-Hungary,
      >> > Secovska Polianka, to Haverstraw, that it was called The New Secovska
      >> > Polianka. They began a church, called St. Mary's of the Assumption,
      >where
      >> > their own language and customs could be followed - it celebrated a
      100th
      >> > anniversary last year.
      >> >
      >> > My maternal grandparents went to the Scranton, PA area, and dzeda
      worked
      >> in
      >> > the coal mines. He met my baba at the home of her married sister, and
      >> > decided she was the one after he tasted the delicious bread she baked.
      >I
      >> > can vouch for it - when we visited I ate it to the exclusion of
      anything
      >> > else!
      >> >
      >> > Regina Haring - grandparents names Rabatin, Makohus, Kraynak and
      >Konechny
      >>
      >> >
      >>
      >
      >
      >
      >___________________________________________________________________________
      ____
      >___________________________________________________________________________
      ____
      >
      >Message: 7
      > Date: Fri, 22 Oct 1999 17:40:22 EDT
      > From: BobHORGOS@...
      >Subject: Re: Ships & comments
      >
      >
      >You can find a list of Immigrant Passenger ships (including the listing of
      >all the passengers) at: http://istg.rootsweb.com/
      >
      >The istg stands for: Immigrant Ships Transcriber Guild. ISTG Web site
      allows
      >you to select ships by: (1) ship's name; (2) Point of Departure; (3) Point
      of
      >Arrival; (4) alphabetical listing of all the passengers (for those ships
      that
      >have been translated to date).
      >
      >
      >___________________________________________________________________________
      ____
      >___________________________________________________________________________
      ____
      >
      >Message: 8
      > Date: Fri, 22 Oct 1999 18:38:45 -0400
      > From: Maureen Pulignano <deefalt@...>
      >Subject: Re: Slovak migration patterns
      >
      >Please answer a dumb question: Where is Haverstraw?
      >Thanks,
      >Maureen
      >
      >RMH wrote:
      >
      >> From: "RMH" <rmharing@...>
      >>
      >> Tony Sutherland's article mentioned in my previous post also has this to
      >> say:
      >>
      >> "Haverstraw was one of the earliest Slovak settlements in NY, beginning
      at
      >> least in the mid-1880's. A few Slovaks lived in America before then, and
      a
      >> Slovak regiment was formed during the Civil War (never would have guessed
      >> that!). But the bulk of the immigration came after 1880 when Slovaks left
      in
      >> large numbers from the Slovak region of Hungary, which was then part of
      the
      >> Austro-Hungarian Empire.....main (reason) being economic. Land was scarce
      in
      >> a growing population. A Slovak peasant with only a few hectares of land
      had
      >> too little to divide if he had several sons. Usually some sons would
      >> receive the land; the others had to leave. Some migrated to the larger
      >> towns to work in manufacturing; others left for America."
      >>
      >> "Another reason for emigration was the gowing Magyar national
      suppression.
      >> After 1875 Magyar chauvinists sought to de-nationalize the non-Magyar
      >> language in schools. The campaign was so successful that by 1914 there
      were
      >> no Slovak secondary schools in Hungary and the number of Slovak primary
      >> schools was rapidly dwindling. The Slovak cultural institution, the
      Matica
      >> Slovenska, as well as the Slovak gymnasia were closed by Budapest. Also,
      >> scores of Slovak journalists and leaders were brought before Hungarian
      >> courts on charges such as "inciting against the Magyar nationality."
      >>
      >> "It is not known when the first Slovak came to the Haverstraw area. The
      >> earliest known Slovak born in Haverstraw was Anofrin Novak on Feb 4,
      1877.
      >> Into another early Slovak family, the Hlasz (Hlas) family, a Jozef Hlasz
      was
      >> born in 1886.....At its peak the Slovak colony had from 250 to 300 Slovak
      >> families...the (total) number in Rockland was probably close to 400
      >> (families)......most came from the same five or six villages in Slovakia.
      >> Once one or two families were established in the New World, they wrote
      home
      >> and encouraged others to come."
      >>
      >> "....the names of many early settlers: Andro Bopcak, Juraj Besterci,
      Michal
      >> Cervenak, Vaclav Hrubis, Pavol Jakubec, Jan Jancosek, Jan Kopcej, Jozef
      >> Kristan, Jan Matis, Jozef Petricko and Andro Stefanic. All were in
      >> Haverstraw by 1890."
      >>
      >> One county represented was Spis, and the families named were:
      >> L'orko, Jakubec, Fifik, Mecko, Hajer and Schuster. Saris County was
      >> another: Minarik, Svitanek, Rubacky, Kansky, Kopcak, Jancosek, Sacek and
      >> Velgas. The Slovak village that had the most settlers in Haverstraw was
      >> Secovska Polianka: Cervenak, Ihnat, Madar, Kohut, Stec, Kusnir, Hatala,
      >> Rabatin, Urban, Stasko, Blangor, Dudas and Senko. Please excuse the
      absence
      >> of the diacritical marks or accents or whatever they are properly called.
      >>
      >> Most of Sutherland's information comes from records found in 16 books in
      St.
      >> Mary's church, and this 1986 article is an excerpt from a book which was
      >> available at the local history center, but which unfortunately was no
      longer
      >> available when I looked for it. Tony, are you on the list?
      >>
      >> Regards to all, Regina Rabatin Haring, Nanuet, NY
      >>
      >> ----- Original Message -----
      >> From: Andrea Vangor <drav@...>
      >> To: <SLOVAK-ROOTS@onelist.com>
      >> Sent: Friday, October 22, 1999 4:30 PM
      >> Subject: Re: [SLOVAK-ROOTS] Slovak migration patterns
      >>
      >> > From: "Andrea Vangor" <drav@...>
      >> >
      >> > Dear Regina and List,
      >> >
      >> > I think this is exactly right. The fun part is trying to reconstruct
      the
      >> > process. Who was the first brave soul or two from the village who
      decided
      >> > to cross the Atlantic? Does anyone know, moreover, how these people
      got
      >> the
      >> > idea to go to a particular place? Did the mine owners actively recruit
      >> > Slovaks and Hungarians by some means? Or did the first pioneers just
      take
      >> > off for parts unknown and see what they could find?
      >> >
      >> > Of course, the Polish migration had started several decades earlier --
      may
      >> > that influenced them. On the genealogical side, it's clear that
      churches
      >> > are a great resource for the early Slovak community, especially once it
      >> > became established in an area. But other than that, do other list
      members
      >> > find that their relatives show up on census data, or with marriage,
      birth,
      >> > and death certificates? I should think that many of our people slipped
      in
      >> > and out of the country, if they just came for a few years and then
      >> returned
      >> > to Slovakia.
      >> >
      >> > ----- Original Message -----
      >> > From: RMH <rmharing@...>
      >> > To: <SLOVAK-ROOTS@onelist.com>
      >> > Sent: Friday, October 22, 1999 5:48 AM
      >> > Subject: Re: [SLOVAK-ROOTS] Slovak migration patterns
      >> >
      >> >
      >> > > From: "RMH" <rmharing@...>
      >> > >
      >> > > Hello, All - It seems that after a few brave souls had arrived and
      found
      >> > > work and established themselves, they wrote back home and others
      >> followed
      >> > to
      >> > > the same town. As has been mentioned before, men often came alone and
      >> > lived
      >> > > in boarding houses till they could afford to bring over a family.
      >> > Searching
      >> > > through the census records shows clusters of Slovak names at the same
      >> > > address. Ships' records include the state of destination.
      >> > >
      >> > > The main incentive seems to have been knowing other Slovaks in the
      area
      >> > they
      >> > > were moving to, and knowing work was available. My four grandparents
      >> came
      >> > in
      >> > > the 1880's and 1890's, and met and married here. The paternal
      >> grandparents
      >> > > went to Haverstraw, NY, where very many Slovaks worked in the huge
      brick
      >> > > industry that existed at the time. My grandmother's brother was one
      who
      >> > > lived here for some years, saved his money, and went back to Europe -
      I
      >> > > wonder how common a practice that was?
      >> > >
      >> > > Anthony X. Sutherland wrote a excellent feature which appeared in
      "South
      >> > of
      >> > > the Mountains", the publication of the Rockland Historical Society,
      in
      >> the
      >> > > April-June 1986 issue, titled "The Slovaks of Haverstraw". He writes
      >> that
      >> > > in 1880, approximately 10,000 Slovaks lived in America; by 1899, over
      >> > > 200,000. He also says that *most* went to PA or Ohio to work in the
      coal
      >> > > mines or mills. So many came from the same town in Austria-Hungary,
      >> > > Secovska Polianka, to Haverstraw, that it was called The New Secovska
      >> > > Polianka. They began a church, called St. Mary's of the Assumption,
      >> where
      >> > > their own language and customs could be followed - it celebrated a
      100th
      >> > > anniversary last year.
      >> > >
      >> > > My maternal grandparents went to the Scranton, PA area, and dzeda
      worked
      >> > in
      >> > > the coal mines. He met my baba at the home of her married sister, and
      >> > > decided she was the one after he tasted the delicious bread she
      baked.
      >> I
      >> > > can vouch for it - when we visited I ate it to the exclusion of
      anything
      >> > > else!
      >> > >
      >> > > Regina Haring - grandparents names Rabatin, Makohus, Kraynak and
      >> Konechny
      >> >
      >> > >
      >> >
      >>
      >>
      >
      >
      >___________________________________________________________________________
      ____
      >___________________________________________________________________________
      ____
      >
      >Message: 9
      > Date: Fri, 22 Oct 1999 17:50:28 -0500 (CDT)
      > From: sabinov@... (Maura Petzolt)
      >Subject: Re: Ships & comments
      >
      >It depends on why you want a url for ships lists..... there are many on
      >line in different places, but searching the actual films is always
      >better if you can do it. On line transcriptions, books , CDs etc have
      >many errors and omissions.
      >
      >Check the section on Ships and Immigration on Cyndi's List at
      >http://www.cyndislist.com
      >
      >~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
      >Maura Petzolt Mobile Alabama USA
      >sabinov@...
      >Helpful Hints for Successful Searching
      >http://www.rootsweb.com/~irlwat/instruct.htm
      >~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
      >
      >
      >
      >___________________________________________________________________________
      ____
      >___________________________________________________________________________
      ____
      >
      >Message: 10
      > Date: Fri, 22 Oct 1999 17:56:48 -0500 (CDT)
      > From: sabinov@... (Maura Petzolt)
      >Subject: Re: Slovak migration patterns
      >
      >In my opinion (and I'm certainly not an expert) any migration at this
      >time period boiled down to where they could get a job and make $$$.
      >
      >Word of mouth probably worked well in getting the word out as to where
      >jobs were, and of course sending over for the rest of the family who
      >then often worked in the same place.
      >
      >In my own Silhavy experience, my great uncle came over and worked in the
      >mines near Sheppton Pennsylvania, tho his uncle who sponsored him owned
      >the town's grocery store. His mother and siblings followed within a
      >year. And then after 6 months in the mines, the two boys (only aged 16
      >and 18) said "Enough of this" and they all moved to Bridgeport CT where
      >they promptly joined the fire department, where many other Slovak and
      >Irish immigrants worked.
      >
      >
      >I suppose in many ways it's not so different than today, when many
      >people still get jobs because they know someone who can get them on
      >somewhere. Sometimes I guess it does boil down to "who you know".
      >
      >~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
      >Maura Petzolt Mobile Alabama USA
      >sabinov@...
      >Helpful Hints for Successful Searching
      >http://www.rootsweb.com/~irlwat/instruct.htm
      >~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
      >
      >
      >
      >___________________________________________________________________________
      ____
      >___________________________________________________________________________
      ____
      >
      >Message: 11
      > Date: Fri, 22 Oct 1999 18:50:45 -0500
      > From: leroy_s@...
      >Subject: Hortek Bohemia
      >
      >Hello
      >
      >
      > My ggrandparents came to New York in 1872. They came with two other
      > families on the ship Silesia.
      >
      > The passenger ship list says that they came from a town called Hortek
      > Bohemia. I am having great difficulty finding this town. Would anyone
      > be able to help me figure this out?
      >
      > Thank you
      >
      > Sue
      >
      >
      >
      >___________________________________________________________________________
      ____
      >___________________________________________________________________________
      ____
      >
      >Message: 12
      > Date: Fri, 22 Oct 1999 20:03:14 -0400
      > From: "RMH" <rmharing@...>
      >Subject: Re: Slovak migration patterns
      >
      >
      >----- Original Message -----
      >From: Maureen Pulignano <deefalt@...>
      >To: <SLOVAK-ROOTS@onelist.com>
      >Sent: Friday, October 22, 1999 6:38 PM
      >Subject: Re: [SLOVAK-ROOTS] Slovak migration patterns
      >
      >
      >> From: Maureen Pulignano <deefalt@...>
      >>
      >> Please answer a dumb question: Where is Haverstraw?
      >> Thanks,
      >> Maureen
      >>
      >>
      >Dear Maureen and List _
      >
      >Dear Maureen - not a dumb question at all, if you don't know, and why
      >should you if you don't live here?
      >
      >Haverstraw is in Rockland County, which is the smallest county in NY State
      >outside of NYC. It's on the west side of the Hudson River, about 20 miles
      >from NYC, and is the first county north of the NJ line. I actually live
      >only about a mile and a half from NJ.
      >
      >Because Haverstraw is right on the Hudson River, it was possible to ship
      the
      >bricks by barge to NYC. The Hudson is its widest at Haverstraw - it's four
      >miles wide at Haverstraw bay. Below is something I previously compiled:
      >
      >BRICKMAKING ALONG THE HUDSON RIVER
      >
      >The extent of the industry
      >
      >At its height, the brick industry in North Rockland employed some 2500 men
      >in the brick plants, and 10,000 men, women and children were supported by
      >the industry.
      >
      >The Haverstraw bay area, including Haverstraw, West Haverstraw, Grassy
      >Point, Garnerville, Stony Point, Tomkins Cove and Jones Point, was once the
      >greatest center of brick production in the world.
      >
      >When World War II came, brickmaking was considered a non-essential
      >industry - it had flourished for about 75 years, beginning to grow when an
      >improved brickmaking machine was invented in 1852 by Richard VerValen.
      >
      >A spectacular deposit of rich blue clay was formed by blankets of ice
      >weighing millions of tons during the last Ice Age, which had crushed the
      >rocks of many mountains into a flour-textured clay. This came to rest in
      the
      >bays and coves of the newly carved Hudson River. In 1928 test borings made
      >in the Hudson off the old Cofferdam in southern Haverstraw, drilled 100
      feet
      >deep without drilling through the clay.
      >
      >In 1883 there were 41 brickyards in North Rockland, and over a century of
      >manufacturing, 148 brands were moulded in the vicinity. In a single year
      >300,000,000 bricks were shipped out of the Haverstraw Bay area for the NY
      >metropolitan markets, which at times were using over a billion brick
      >annually. The Great Depression began the decline, coupled with European
      >brick coming into the markets after WWI, and then engineering ideas
      changed,
      >and glass, aluminum and veneers over poured concrete foundations were used
      >instead of brick for building.
      >
      >In 1835 there was a terrible fire in NYC and 674 buildings in the Wall
      >Street area were burned, and 13 acres of the financial district devastated.
      >This, along with the growing population of NYC due to immigration, created
      a
      >great need for building materials. Then, in the 1890's there was a
      >stupendous building boom in the NYC area.
      >
      >Regina Rabatin Haring, Nanuet, Rockland County, NY
      >
      >
      >
      >
      >___________________________________________________________________________
      ____
      >___________________________________________________________________________
      ____
      >
      >Message: 13
      > Date: Fri, 22 Oct 1999 22:09:50 EDT
      > From: JArcher360@...
      >Subject: Re: Slovak migration patterns
      >
      >My grandparents, and two of my grandmother's brothers came to the US around
      >1912. One of the brothers returned to Slovakia after several years, having
      >worked in the Pa. coal mines. Seemed strange to see things like an old
      >Singer sewing machine in the house of a cousin in Bratislava. In regard to
      >the immigration patterns---I have been told that the end of serf status or
      >whatever it is called influenced the numbers of people who left Slovakia.
      >Anyone have some dates/verification?
      >
      >
      >___________________________________________________________________________
      ____
      >___________________________________________________________________________
      ____
      >
      >Message: 14
      > Date: Fri, 22 Oct 1999 22:28:58 -0400
      > From: "RMH" <rmharing@...>
      >Subject: Re: Slovak migration patterns
      >
      >The most amazing thing to me is that the wages that our ancestors could
      earn
      >working in the mines, while they would seem so low to us, were nevertheless
      >enough that they could save, and go back to Europe, and consider themselves
      >"well off" when they got there. This is the story of my grandmother's
      >brother.
      >Regina Haring
      >----- Original Message -----
      >From: <JArcher360@...>
      >To: <SLOVAK-ROOTS@onelist.com>
      >Sent: Friday, October 22, 1999 10:09 PM
      >Subject: Re: [SLOVAK-ROOTS] Slovak migration patterns
      >
      >
      >> From: JArcher360@...
      >>
      >> My grandparents, and two of my grandmother's brothers came to the US
      >around
      >> 1912. One of the brothers returned to Slovakia after several years,
      >having
      >> worked in the Pa. coal mines. Seemed strange to see things like an old
      >> Singer sewing machine in the house of a cousin in Bratislava. In regard
      >to
      >> the immigration patterns---I have been told that the end of serf status
      or
      >> whatever it is called influenced the numbers of people who left Slovakia.
      >> Anyone have some dates/verification?
      >>
      >> >
      >>
      >
      >
      >
      >___________________________________________________________________________
      ____
      >___________________________________________________________________________
      ____
      >
    • J. Michutka
      ... This would make sense; supposedly it was my grandfather s dream to have his own farm. When they later moved to Michigan, they did become a farming family,
      Message 2 of 4 , Oct 24, 1999
      • 0 Attachment
        At 08:06 AM 10/24/99 -0700, you wrote:
        >From: "Jenny Brichta" <yump@...>

        >They may have gone to Canada for a land deal that the Canadian govt was
        >offering at the time. To encourage immigration, land was offered for very
        >low cost IF the family could survive there for a certain number of years and
        >farm the land.

        This would make sense; supposedly it was my grandfather's dream to have his
        own farm. When they later moved to Michigan, they did become a farming
        family, but always tenants, never owners. Never climbed out of poverty.

        On the other hand, all 8 of their children survived to adulthood, growing
        up the the USA; I've been going through the parish records in the village
        they came from, and fully one-half of the children died before the age of 5.

        May I ask what your source of info about the Canadian land deal is, and
        whether there are any records that can be checked?

        Thanks for your note--this may be our answer to a very old family question!

        Julie Michutka
        jmm@...
        >
      • Kate Cullinane
        Julie, This web site might be of some interest to you. It doesn t really describe the process but you might find your ancestors on it.
        Message 3 of 4 , Oct 24, 1999
        • 0 Attachment
          Julie,

          This web site might be of some interest to you. It doesn't really describe
          the process but you might find your ancestors on it.
          http://www.archives.ca/exec/naweb.dll?fs&020111&e&top&0

          Basically, as I understand it, agents of the government went to the States
          and other countries to encourage immigrants to settle in the Canadian West.
          Raw land was available for about $10.00 a quarter section (160 acres) with
          some conditions about clearing, cultivating, etc.

          I was just at a seminar where the speaker talked about this a bit and I have
          some references to published works that might give you more information. If
          you're interested, let me know.

          Kate Cullinane
          Kamloops, BC, Canada
          cullinan@...

          -----Original Message-----
          From: J. Michutka <jmm@...>
          To: SLOVAK-ROOTS@onelist.com <SLOVAK-ROOTS@onelist.com>
          Date: October 24, 1999 2:16 PM
          Subject: Re: [SLOVAK-ROOTS] Canadian immigration


          >From: "J. Michutka" <jmm@...>
          >
          >At 08:06 AM 10/24/99 -0700, you wrote:
          >>From: "Jenny Brichta" <yump@...>
          >
          >>They may have gone to Canada for a land deal that the Canadian govt was
          >>offering at the time. To encourage immigration, land was offered for very
          >>low cost IF the family could survive there for a certain number of years
          and
          >>farm the land.
          >
          >This would make sense; supposedly it was my grandfather's dream to have his
          >own farm. When they later moved to Michigan, they did become a farming
          >family, but always tenants, never owners. Never climbed out of poverty.
          >
          >On the other hand, all 8 of their children survived to adulthood, growing
          >up the the USA; I've been going through the parish records in the village
          >they came from, and fully one-half of the children died before the age of
          5.
          >
          >May I ask what your source of info about the Canadian land deal is, and
          >whether there are any records that can be checked?
          >
          >Thanks for your note--this may be our answer to a very old family question!
          >
          >Julie Michutka
          >jmm@...
          >>
          >
          >>
        • Jenny Brichta
          Hi Julie, What Kate wrote sounds like what I heard from my great-aunt Fritzi. She emigrated from Czech. into Canada and had a real struggle there the first
          Message 4 of 4 , Oct 25, 1999
          • 0 Attachment
            Hi Julie,

            What Kate wrote sounds like what I heard from my great-aunt Fritzi. She
            emigrated from Czech. into Canada and had a real struggle there the first
            few years. She said they were too poor to buy farm equipment so several
            families used a communal plow. I don't think they made any profit off the
            land, just managed to survive. So in answer to your question, I got the
            information from a live witness who is still live and well at the age of 73.
            I could write her via snail mail and ask her for more info if what Kate gave
            you isn't enough.

            Jenny

            P.S. Sorry for sending the entire list last time-Thanks, Ron, for pointing
            that out.

            >May I ask what your source of info about the >Canadian land deal is, and
            >whether there are any records that can be >checked?
            >Julie

            >Basically, as I understand it, agents of the >government went to the States
            >and other countries to encourage immigrants to >settle in the Canadian
            West.
            >Raw land was available for about $10.00 a quarter >section (160 acres) with
            >some conditions about clearing, cultivating, etc.

            >Kate Cullinane
            >Kamloops, BC, Canada
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