Re: Name endings and surname affixes
- One of most common Slavic surname affixes is the one denoting gender
of the bearer -ová (Slovak), -owa (Polish), and -oba (Russian).
As a rule of Slovak grammar, female surnames end in -á, -ská, or -ová.
The feminine form of the surnames is considered merely a separate form
of same surname, not a distinct surname in itself.
If the surname is adjectival in origin , i.e., ends in -y', the ending
changes to -á, so that wife of pán (Mr.) C^erny' would be pani (pi)
(Mrs.) C^erná and their daughter would be slec^na (sl) (Miss) C^erná
If surname is a noun in form or origin the suffix -ová is added to it,
e.g., pán Kovác^, pani Kovác^ová, slec^na Kovác^ová.
The male ending -ov makes the surname into an adjective.
While -c^ek, -ik, or -cek are diminutive forms of surnames.
A diminutive is sometimes used as a surname affix to indicate small
size or state or quality - a clipped form, e.g. kitchen-ette or
Slovak diminutive forms are -ko, -ak, -ek, and -ik used like a y in
e.g. kon = horse
kon + ak meaning little horse i.e., 'pony'.
Carpartho-Rusyns also used common surname endings such as -cak, -cik,
-ak, or -ko.