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Help with Geography!

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  • scorpioforu
    I m ashamed to say I know nothing about the geography of any other countries and pretty little about my own USA. Little did I realize when I was in school how
    Message 1 of 11 , Sep 18, 2005
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      I'm ashamed to say I know nothing about the geography of any other
      countries and pretty little about my own USA. Little did I realize
      when I was in school how I would wish later on that I had paid more
      attention.
      Anyway, I need some help badly and a geography lesson in as basic of
      terms as possible for a totally geography illiterate person to
      understand.

      For instance, if someone's last residence was Kutna Hora, Bohemia is
      Kutna Hora a city, village, state or what? It's listed this way on a
      passenger record. Also, how about Cervena Shotz, Bohemia or
      Isowabanfakvu, Slovak? Are these places still called that?
      Thanking you in advance for any insight or direction!

      Becki
    • Bill Tarkulich
      Hello Becky, It would be too much to try and give you a history of this region via email. I will provide pointed answers to your questions and we can go from
      Message 2 of 11 , Sep 18, 2005
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        Hello Becky,
        It would be too much to try and give you a history of this region via email.
        I will provide pointed answers to your questions and we can go from there.

        The former lands of Bohemia are today encompassed by the new nation of the
        Czech Republic. Since this is a Slovak-oriented research list, our help
        will be limited. You'll need some Czech-specific help. See below.

        1. Kutna Hora, Bohemia
        The town of Kutna Hora is located in today's Czech Republic. Here is a
        contemporary map. http://tinyurl.com/7fge2

        2. Cervena Shotz, Bohemia
        I can't place this one for certain, but I would bet it too is in the Czech
        republic.
        Here are some villages in present-day Czech republic. I find no close match
        with phonetic spellings:
        Format: Village name, district name.
        Stará Červená Voda
        Jeseník
        Červená Třemešná
        Jičín
        Červená Hora
        Náchod
        Červená Řečice
        Pelhřimov
        Červená Lhota
        Třebíč
        Červená Voda
        Ústí nad Orlicí

        Sometimes we try the sounds-like feature in Shtetlseeker for clues:
        http://www.jewishgen.org/ShtetlSeeker/LocTown.asp but nothing arises, in all
        of eastern Europe. I suspect something got lost in the transcription of
        "schotz".

        If this village is where George's sister is, I'd be inclined to look at a
        map (I gave you in (1) for a nearby village of the similar name.

        You can also check ship manifests at ellisisland.org for other Pavlik
        immigrants to see what villages they came from. Perhaps you'll hit on
        another from the same village.

        3. Isowabanfakvu, Slovak
        This one is for sure pretty mangled. It is a Magyar (Hungary) name, and the
        author was presumably writing about the "Slovak-lands). The village names
        were in Magyar before 1918 when Hungary ruled this region. Afterwards, in
        general, they assumed Slovak names.

        I am going to take a shot here at the village of " Isowabanfakvu". How
        about
        ZSOLNABANFALVA ?
        This is the present day BANOVA, a suburb of (or more fairly stated, annexed
        into) ZILINA.
        See it on a map here http://tinyurl.com/c3zps
        In 1910, this village had a population of 833, 6 Magyar, 14 German, 797
        Slovaks.; 817 Roman catholic, 14 Jews. It would be likely that this
        immigrant would be ethnic Slovak and Roman Catholic. Does this fit? (I
        don't have these data for Bohemia/Czech Republic, sorry.)


        HISTORY

        Now, for a bigger, but fairly simplistic perspective. These are
        generalizations with exceptions, but for the most part it applies to your
        research.

        1. Before WWI, Hungary ruled what is the Slovak Republic (Slovakia)
        2. Before WWI, Austria ruled the Czech Republic, which then was called the
        province of Bohemia and Moravia.
        3. Between WWI and 1993, the nation of Czechoslovakia was composed of
        present-day Slovak and Czech Republics, except for some pieces over in
        Ukraine.
        I can provide you with links to Slovakia history. See
        http://www.iabsi.com/gen/public/history.htm or http://tinyurl.com/75bm9
        Sorry, I don't have a similar reference to Austria/Czech.

        BTW, I think you know " Turaj" is a mis-transcription of "Juraj" = George

        Hope this helps.

        Regards,

        ______________
        Bill Tarkulich

        p.s., It's really a shot in the dark to expect anyone to be familiar with
        your families. Many families that share the same surname are entirely
        unrelated.

        -----Original Message-----
        From: SLOVAK-ROOTS@yahoogroups.com [mailto:SLOVAK-ROOTS@yahoogroups.com] On
        Behalf Of scorpioforu
        Sent: Sunday, September 18, 2005 5:42 PM
        To: SLOVAK-ROOTS@yahoogroups.com
        Subject: [S-R] Help with Geography!

        I'm ashamed to say I know nothing about the geography of any other
        countries and pretty little about my own USA. Little did I realize
        when I was in school how I would wish later on that I had paid more
        attention.
        Anyway, I need some help badly and a geography lesson in as basic of
        terms as possible for a totally geography illiterate person to
        understand.

        For instance, if someone's last residence was Kutna Hora, Bohemia is
        Kutna Hora a city, village, state or what? It's listed this way on a
        passenger record. Also, how about Cervena Shotz, Bohemia or
        Isowabanfakvu, Slovak? Are these places still called that?
        Thanking you in advance for any insight or direction!

        Becki





        To unsubscribe from this group, go to
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      • Armata, Joseph R. (JArmata)
        I checked the Ellis Island records for these three: I checked the Ellis Island records for these three: Turaj Bahak Paolik was misread from Juraj Bahak
        Message 3 of 11 , Sep 18, 2005
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          I checked the Ellis Island records for these three:
          I checked the Ellis Island records for these three:

          "Turaj Bahak Paolik" was misread from Juraj Bahak Pavlik (Juraj = George).
          His birthplace was Marikova Hungary, which today is Dolna Marikova in NE
          Slovakia, while Kutna Hora in Bohemia was just his last place of residence.

          His wife's record (Anna Duratin, the last name is pretty clear) has her born
          in Zsolanfalu (I can't imagine how the transcribers could have misread that
          as Isowabanfakvu!), which probably should have been Zsolnafalu, which is
          today Cachtice in western Slovakia. Did you notice the manifest lists her
          mother as Ewa (I think, at any rate it doesn't look like Beata or Hila)
          Duratin back in Europe, and her destination was to her father Andras
          (Andrew) Duratin in West Virginia?

          His sister Eva's last place of residence was Cervena Lhota, Bohemia. Her
          birth place is Marikova too. Her sister is Maria Micik? in Marikova
          "Bohemia" - an error, as Marikova was in Hungary then.

          Joe A.

          > Himself:
          > Turaj Bahak Paolik
          > Ethnicity: Hungary Slovak
          > Last Place of Residence: Kutna Hora, Bohemia
          > Date of Arrival: Nov. 23, 1906
          > Age on Arrival: 22 years Gender: Male Marital Status: S
          > Ship of Travel: Main
          > Port of Departure: Bremen
          >
          > His future wife:
          > Anna Duratin (we beleive this is mispelled and could be Duranty or
          > Duratny)
          > Ethnicity: Hungary
          > Place of Residence: Isowabanfakvu, Slovak
          > Date of Arrival: July 13, 1910
          > Age on Arrival: 21 Gender: Female Marital Status: S
          > Ship of Travel: Bremen
          > Port of Departure: Bremen, Germany
          >
          > George's sister:
          > Eva Pavlik
          > Ethnicity: Hungary, Slovak
          > Place of Residence: Cervena Shotz, Bohemia
          > Date of Arrival: Nov. 24, 1913
          > Age on arrival: 24 Gender: Female marital Status: S
          > Ship of Travel: George Washington
          > Port of Departure: Bremen, Germany
          >
          > from him. His parents names were George Bahok Pavlik and his mother
          > Bara Nemchk (maiden name) Pavlik. He had the following siblings:
          > Casper Pavlik
          > Mary Pavlik
          > Evea Pavlik
          > Anna Pavlik
          > and two died in infancy.
          > George's wife, Anna M. Duratny's parents: Andrew Duratny and Beata
          > (Hila) Duratny. She had the following siblings:
          > Andy Duratny
          > Anna Duratny
          > John Duratny
          > Paul Duratny
          > George told his daughter that his wife Anna was from Banova, Czech
          > and he was from Marikova, Czech.
          >
          > If anyone knows anything about any of these people, our family would
          > certainly appreciate any and all info.
          > Also, We all seem to be very confused as to the geography of these
          > places as to whether they are villages, towns, cities, counties
          > states or what. Any insight into this area would sure help give us
          > some place to start.
          >
          > Thank you for taking the time to read all this! I can be reached
          > directly at beckiblair@....
          >
          > Sincerely,
          >
          > Becki Blair
          >
          >
          >
          >
          >
        • scorpioforu
          Joseph, Thank you so much for your response. You said His wife s record (Anna Duratin, the last name is pretty clear) has her born ... misread that ...
          Message 4 of 11 , Sep 19, 2005
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            Joseph,
            Thank you so much for your response.
            You said " > His wife's record (Anna Duratin, the last name is pretty
            clear) has her born
            > in Zsolanfalu (I can't imagine how the transcribers could have
            misread that
            > as Isowabanfakvu!), which probably should have been Zsolnafalu,
            which is
            > today Cachtice in western Slovakia. Did you notice the manifest
            lists her
            > mother as Ewa (I think, at any rate it doesn't look like Beata or
            Hila)
            > Duratin back in Europe, and her destination was to her father Andras
            > (Andrew) Duratin in West Virginia?"
            Where do you see that information about her mother? I didn't see it
            and was just looking at the manifset again. Anna traveled alone and
            her mother's maiden name was Beata Hila (this is probably not spelled
            correctly but it should be phonetically close) Her father Andrew
            Duratny did come over for the wedding, but traveled alone.
            Again, thank you for your help.

            Becki
          • Bill Tarkulich
            Most manifests from 1904+ are two pages.
            Message 5 of 11 , Sep 19, 2005
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              Most manifests from 1904+ are two pages.

              > Joseph,
              > Thank you so much for your response.
              > You said " > His wife's record (Anna Duratin, the last name is pretty
              > clear) has her born
              >> in Zsolanfalu (I can't imagine how the transcribers could have
              > misread that
              >> as Isowabanfakvu!), which probably should have been Zsolnafalu,
              > which is
              >> today Cachtice in western Slovakia. Did you notice the manifest
              > lists her
              >> mother as Ewa (I think, at any rate it doesn't look like Beata or
              > Hila)
              >> Duratin back in Europe, and her destination was to her father Andras
              >> (Andrew) Duratin in West Virginia?"
              > Where do you see that information about her mother? I didn't see it
              > and was just looking at the manifset again. Anna traveled alone and
              > her mother's maiden name was Beata Hila (this is probably not spelled
              > correctly but it should be phonetically close) Her father Andrew
              > Duratny did come over for the wedding, but traveled alone.
              > Again, thank you for your help.
              >
              > Becki
              >
              >
              >
              >
              >
              > To unsubscribe from this group, go to
              > http://www.yahoogroups.com/group/SLOVAK-ROOTS -or- send blank email to
              > SLOVAK-ROOTS-unsubscribe@yahoogroups.com
              > Yahoo! Groups Links
              >
              >
              >
              >
              >
              >
              >
            • Armata, Joseph R. (JArmata)
              As someone else posted, these manifests are two pages. Go back one page to see the rest of her manifest. Taking a second look, I see where they misread
              Message 6 of 11 , Sep 19, 2005
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                As someone else posted, these manifests are two pages. Go back one page
                to see the rest of her manifest. Taking a second look, I see where they
                misread "Isowabanfakvu" from - on that page, her last permanent residence is
                given as "Zsona-banfalva", and her mother is living in "Zsobanfalva".

                Not sure what to make of all this, as we have Zsolnafalva, Zsolnabanfalva,
                and Zsobanfalva as what must be the same place! Zsolnafalva is today
                Cachtice, but I couldn't find matches for the other versions, they might
                just be errors for the first. Alternatively, the Zsolna part could refer to
                the town of Zilina, which is near Dolna Marikova, so that might make more
                sense. That leaves the "banfalva" part unexplained though - maybe somebody
                else on the list has some good ideas here.

                For "Meako, Austria-Hungary", I'm betting that was supposed to be Marikova.

                Joe

                -----Original Message-----
                From: SLOVAK-ROOTS@yahoogroups.com
                [mailto:SLOVAK-ROOTS@yahoogroups.com]On Behalf Of scorpioforu
                Sent: Monday, September 19, 2005 12:09 PM
                To: SLOVAK-ROOTS@yahoogroups.com
                Subject: [S-R] Re: Help with Geography!


                Joseph,
                Thank you so much for your response.
                You said " > His wife's record (Anna Duratin, the last name is pretty
                clear) has her born
                > in Zsolanfalu (I can't imagine how the transcribers could have
                misread that
                > as Isowabanfakvu!), which probably should have been Zsolnafalu,
                which is
                > today Cachtice in western Slovakia. Did you notice the manifest
                lists her
                > mother as Ewa (I think, at any rate it doesn't look like Beata or
                Hila)
                > Duratin back in Europe, and her destination was to her father Andras
                > (Andrew) Duratin in West Virginia?"
                Where do you see that information about her mother? I didn't see it
                and was just looking at the manifset again. Anna traveled alone and
                her mother's maiden name was Beata Hila (this is probably not spelled
                correctly but it should be phonetically close) Her father Andrew
                Duratny did come over for the wedding, but traveled alone.
                Again, thank you for your help.

                Becki
              • Frank
                ... page ... they ... residence is ... Zsobanfalva . ... Zsolnabanfalva, ... today ... might ... refer to ... more ... somebody ... Marikova. ... Joe, Becki,
                Message 7 of 11 , Sep 21, 2005
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                  --- In SLOVAK-ROOTS@yahoogroups.com, "Armata, Joseph R. (JArmata)"
                  <JArmata@g...> wrote:
                  > As someone else posted, these manifests are two pages. Go back one
                  page
                  > to see the rest of her manifest. Taking a second look, I see where
                  they
                  > misread "Isowabanfakvu" from - on that page, her last permanent
                  residence is
                  > given as "Zsona-banfalva", and her mother is living in
                  "Zsobanfalva".
                  >
                  > Not sure what to make of all this, as we have Zsolnafalva,
                  Zsolnabanfalva,
                  > and Zsobanfalva as what must be the same place! Zsolnafalva is
                  today
                  > Cachtice, but I couldn't find matches for the other versions, they
                  might
                  > just be errors for the first. Alternatively, the Zsolna part could
                  refer to
                  > the town of Zilina, which is near Dolna Marikova, so that might make
                  more
                  > sense. That leaves the "banfalva" part unexplained though - maybe
                  somebody
                  > else on the list has some good ideas here.
                  >
                  > For "Meako, Austria-Hungary", I'm betting that was supposed to be
                  Marikova.
                  >
                  > Joe

                  Joe, Becki, Bill et al,

                  As you know the online Ellis Island Records (1892-1924) ship
                  manifests are full of misspellings and mistranscriptions because the
                  Mormon "volunteers" who did the transcribing spoke no foreign
                  languages.


                  Zsolnafala, Zsolnafalva, Zolnafalwa (H) = Z^elovany' (Sk) now part of
                  C^achtice (Sk)
                  -falva, -falu, - falwa means "village" in Magyar.

                  Meako, Austria -H was Marikova, Marikowa, Marikó (H) = now Dolná
                  Mariková (Sk)

                  Interestingly the Juraj (George) Paolik ? Pavlik in the 1906 mainifest
                  was born in Mari ... ova.
                  He was going to his friend Juraj Pavolik ? in Pittsburgh PA.
                  Perhaps at Elizabeth Street in Pittsburgh ?

                  Anna Duratin in the 1910 manifest was Anna D^uratny' going to her
                  father's András (Andrew) address in Spince (Spencer) Roane CO W VA
                  where coal is no longer a business.

                  http://www.rootsweb.com/~wvcoal/

                  Anna's mother was listed as Ersa ? Erzsébth (H) Elizabeth back in
                  Zsobanfalu, Hungary.

                  Zsolnabánfalva, Bánfalva (H) = Bánová (Sk) now part of Z^ilina.

                  Today the Slovakia telephone directory lists the surname D^uratny'
                  under Z^ilina and Rosina.

                  Frank K


                  >
                  > -----Original Message-----
                  > From: SLOVAK-ROOTS@yahoogroups.com
                  > [mailto:SLOVAK-ROOTS@yahoogroups.com]On Behalf Of scorpioforu
                  > Sent: Monday, September 19, 2005 12:09 PM
                  > To: SLOVAK-ROOTS@yahoogroups.com
                  > Subject: [S-R] Re: Help with Geography!
                  >
                  >
                  > Joseph,
                  > Thank you so much for your response.
                  > You said " > His wife's record (Anna Duratin, the last name is
                  pretty
                  > clear) has her born
                  > > in Zsolanfalu (I can't imagine how the transcribers could have
                  > misread that
                  > > as Isowabanfakvu!), which probably should have been Zsolnafalu,
                  > which is
                  > > today Cachtice in western Slovakia. Did you notice the manifest
                  > lists her
                  > > mother as Ewa (I think, at any rate it doesn't look like Beata or
                  > Hila)
                  > > Duratin back in Europe, and her destination was to her father
                  Andras
                  > > (Andrew) Duratin in West Virginia?"
                  > Where do you see that information about her mother? I didn't see it
                  > and was just looking at the manifset again. Anna traveled alone and
                  > her mother's maiden name was Beata Hila (this is probably not
                  spelled
                  > correctly but it should be phonetically close) Her father Andrew
                  > Duratny did come over for the wedding, but traveled alone.
                  > Again, thank you for your help.
                  >
                  > Becki
                • Nick Holcz
                  ... I think it would also be because the people at Ellis island who took the details were not familiar with European languages . Nick
                  Message 8 of 11 , Sep 21, 2005
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                    At 07:19 PM 21/09/2005, you wrote:

                    >Joe, Becki, Bill et al,
                    >
                    >As you know the online Ellis Island Records (1892-1924) ship
                    >manifests are full of misspellings and mistranscriptions because the
                    >Mormon "volunteers" who did the transcribing spoke no foreign
                    >languages.


                    I think it would also be because the people at Ellis island who took the
                    details were not familiar with European languages .

                    Nick
                  • Armata, Joseph R. (JArmata)
                    Excellent, that explains it! Then my bet is those three versions of the placename where Anna came from all refer to what s now Banova, part of the town of
                    Message 9 of 11 , Sep 21, 2005
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                      Excellent, that explains it! Then my bet is those three versions of
                      the placename where Anna came from all refer to what's now Banova,
                      part of the town of Zilina, which is very near Dolna Marikova.
                      Cachtice is too far away to be a likely candidate.

                      Joe A.

                      -----Original Message-----
                      From: SLOVAK-ROOTS@yahoogroups.com
                      [mailto:SLOVAK-ROOTS@yahoogroups.com]On Behalf Of Laco R (Slovak
                      Roots)
                      Sent: Tuesday, September 20, 2005 4:30 PM
                      To: SLOVAK-ROOTS@yahoogroups.com
                      Subject: Fw: [S-R] Re: Help with Geography!



                      Zsolnaba'nfalva (or just B'anfalva) was the name of the
                      village Ba'nova', which is now a part of Zilina (since 1970)

                      Zsolno'falu or Zsolnafalu is the hungarian name for
                      Z~elovany, which is part of C~achtice since 1902

                      Laco

                      >> ----- Original Message -----
                      >> From: "Armata, Joseph R. (JArmata)"
                      >> <JArmata@...>
                      >> To: <SLOVAK-ROOTS@yahoogroups.com>
                      >> Sent: Tuesday, September 20, 2005 4:51 AM
                      >> Subject: RE: [S-R] Re: Help with Geography!
                      >>
                      >>
                      >>> As someone else posted, these manifests are two pages.
                      >>> Go back one page
                      >>> to see the rest of her manifest. Taking a second look,
                      >>> I see where they
                      >>> misread "Isowabanfakvu" from - on that page, her last
                      >>> permanent residence is
                      >>> given as "Zsona-banfalva", and her mother is living in
                      >>> "Zsobanfalva".
                      >>>
                      >>> Not sure what to make of all this, as we have
                      >>> Zsolnafalva, Zsolnabanfalva,
                      >>> and Zsobanfalva as what must be the same place!
                      >>> Zsolnafalva is today
                      >>> Cachtice, but I couldn't find matches for the other
                      >>> versions, they might
                      >>> just be errors for the first. Alternatively, the Zsolna
                      >>> part could refer to
                      >>> the town of Zilina, which is near Dolna Marikova, so
                      >>> that might make more
                      >>> sense. That leaves the "banfalva" part unexplained
                      >>> though - maybe somebody
                      >>> else on the list has some good ideas here.
                      >>>
                      >>> For "Meako, Austria-Hungary", I'm betting that was
                      >>> supposed to be Marikova.
                      >>>
                      >>> Joe
                      >>>
                      >>> -----Original Message-----
                      >>> From: SLOVAK-ROOTS@yahoogroups.com
                      >>> [mailto:SLOVAK-ROOTS@yahoogroups.com]On Behalf Of
                      >>> scorpioforu
                      >>> Sent: Monday, September 19, 2005 12:09 PM
                      >>> To: SLOVAK-ROOTS@yahoogroups.com
                      >>> Subject: [S-R] Re: Help with Geography!
                      >>>
                      >>>
                      >>> Joseph,
                      >>> Thank you so much for your response.
                      >>> You said " > His wife's record (Anna Duratin, the last
                      >>> name is pretty
                      >>> clear) has her born
                      >>>> in Zsolanfalu (I can't imagine how the transcribers
                      >>>> could have
                      >>> misread that
                      >>>> as Isowabanfakvu!), which probably should have been
                      >>>> Zsolnafalu,
                      >>> which is
                      >>>> today Cachtice in western Slovakia. Did you notice the
                      >>>> manifest
                      >>> lists her
                      >>>> mother as Ewa (I think, at any rate it doesn't look
                      >>>> like Beata or
                      >>> Hila)
                      >>>> Duratin back in Europe, and her destination was to her
                      >>>> father Andras
                      >>>> (Andrew) Duratin in West Virginia?"
                      >>> Where do you see that information about her mother? I
                      >>> didn't see it
                      >>> and was just looking at the manifset again. Anna
                      >>> traveled alone and
                      >>> her mother's maiden name was Beata Hila (this is
                      >>> probably not spelled
                      >>> correctly but it should be phonetically close) Her
                      >>> father Andrew
                      >>> Duratny did come over for the wedding, but traveled
                      >>> alone.
                      >>> Again, thank you for your help.
                      >>>
                      >>> Becki
                      >>>
                    • Frank
                      ... the ... the ... Nick Prepác^te. To nie je pravda ! The foreign language translators used at Ellis Island (NYC) pre-WW I period to interrogate the arriving
                      Message 10 of 11 , Sep 21, 2005
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                        --- In SLOVAK-ROOTS@yahoogroups.com, Nick Holcz <nickh@i...> wrote:
                        > At 07:19 PM 21/09/2005, you wrote:
                        >
                        > >Joe, Becki, Bill et al,
                        > >
                        > >As you know the online Ellis Island Records (1892-1924) ship
                        > >manifests are full of misspellings and mistranscriptions because
                        the
                        > >Mormon "volunteers" who did the transcribing spoke no foreign
                        > >languages.
                        >
                        >
                        > I think it would also be because the people at Ellis island who took
                        the
                        > details were not familiar with European languages .
                        >
                        > Nick

                        Nick

                        Prepác^te.
                        To nie je pravda !

                        The foreign language translators used at Ellis Island (NYC) pre-WW I
                        period to interrogate the arriving immigrants were well paid and spoke
                        many languages, on the average 5-7 different ones. Some knew more
                        foreign languages.
                        But, today the INS has a problem because they don't have enough
                        agents who know Arabic (the language of WMD) to check out immigrants
                        arriving in the USA.

                        Frank K
                      • Bill Tarkulich
                        I agree with Nick that the scribe probably introduced his own set of errors to the mix. To clarify one point however, the manifests were prepared by the
                        Message 11 of 11 , Sep 21, 2005
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                          I agree with Nick that the scribe probably introduced his own set of
                          errors to the mix. To clarify one point however, the manifests were
                          prepared by the Purser of the shipping company at port of departure.

                          "...It is true that immigrant names were mangled in the process...The
                          report that the clerk "wrote down" the immigrants surname is suspect.
                          During immigration inspection at Ellis Island, the immigrant confronted an
                          inspector who had a passenger list already created abroad. That inspector
                          operated under rules and regulations ordering that he was not to change
                          the or identifying information found for any immigrant UNLESS requested by
                          the immigrant, and unless inspection demonstrated the original information
                          was in error.

                          Furthermore, it is nearly impossible that no one could communicate with
                          the immigrant. One third of all immigrant inspectors at Ellis Island early
                          this century were themselves foreign-born, and all immigrant inspectors
                          spoke an of three languages. They were assigned to inspect immigrant
                          groups based on the languages they spoke. If the inspector could not
                          communicate, Ellis Island employed an army of interpreters full time, and
                          would call in temporary interpreters under contract to translate for
                          immigrants speaking the most obscure tongues."
                          Source:
                          http://uscis.gov/graphics/aboutus/history/articles/NameEssay.html or here
                          http://tinyurl.com/7vr9c

                          Bill

                          > At 07:19 PM 21/09/2005, you wrote:
                          >
                          >>Joe, Becki, Bill et al,
                          >>
                          >>As you know the online Ellis Island Records (1892-1924) ship
                          >>manifests are full of misspellings and mistranscriptions because the
                          >>Mormon "volunteers" who did the transcribing spoke no foreign
                          >>languages.
                          >
                          >
                          > I think it would also be because the people at Ellis island who took the
                          > details were not familiar with European languages .
                          >
                          > Nick
                          >
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