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  • Frank Kurchina
    It is difficult to transliterate words when not using Slavic diacritical marks, but everyone seems to be guessing the word meanings correctly and not using
    Message 1 of 2 , Mar 10, 2000
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      It is difficult to transliterate words when not using
      Slavic diacritical marks, but everyone seems to be guessing
      the word meanings correctly and not using diacritics.

      Before WW I, there was no Slovenija.
      Its later territory was part of the Austrian Empire, so
      German was often used in vital records.
      Croatia was under Hungarian rule, also as part of the
      Austrian Empire.
      German was also used there for records until about 1880.
      The records had greater linguistic diversity than for most
      other geographic regions.
      Latin, Croatian, Slovene, Serbian, German, Hungarian, or
      Italian were possible languages used.

      Ledig means 'unmarried' in German.

      gest. : gestorben d. : died, deceased (German)

      Lebensjahr year of one's life (German)
      im 62 Lebensjahr at the age of 62

      rôjstni dan ni kraj (Slovenian)
      birthplace

      [ leto year (Sl) metai (Lith) rok (P) rok (Sv) godine (SC) ]

      priimek, imé, stán, véra (Slovenian)
      surname, name, class,status faith

      unréti za rakom (Slovenian)
      to die of cancer

      opómba remark,comment (Slovenian)

      poséstnik(ov) owner's, proprietor's (Slovenian)
      sín son

      Although Jozefa can mean Josephine in Slovene, you can be led
      astray when grammatical case is used in Slavic languages.
      For example, 'dcera Josefa Polácha' means daughter of Joseph Polach
      and not a woman's name.

      How much land a farmer owned pretty much determined his class or
      status in all the Slavic lands.
      Since so many different languages are being used at SLOVAK-ROOTS
      will use a Czech example which is still applicable.

      To the end of the 19th century the rural population in middle Europe
      was stratified in several categories.
      In process of colonization of the country the area of an established
      village with all fields, forests and meadows was divided into basic
      economic units, called in Czech LAN (German: HUFE, HUBE, Lat. LANEUS,
      MANSUS, Eng. VIRGATA, YARDLAND).

      The LAN represented so much agricultural soil that can be cultivated
      by a couple of oxen and can offer a sufficient living for a medium
      family.
      Very roughly we may say that one LAN was 30 - 45 acres (in Czech
      JITRO="morning",
      in German the same: MORGEN) ONE JITRO is an area that can be plowed
      within one day
      (originally within the MORNING which was the period between daybreak
      and sunset)

      A) Thus at the origin one LAN was owned by one farmer's family. This
      was the top stratum of village population.
      The Czech equivalents for a farmer are:

      SEDLAK, ROLNIK, LANIK , the German equivalents:

      BAUER, HUFNER, LAHNER.

      B) Later, when the population increased and newcomers came to the
      village, the land had to be re-divided and partly sold. The original
      farmer's sons started to farm on a portion of the original LAN.
      So, a subcategory of farmers came into existence:

      Czech: PULNIK, POLOLANIK (pul, polo = one half)

      German:HALBHUFNER, HALBLAHNER, HALBBAUER

      or

      CTVRTNIK, CTVRTLANIK (ctvrt= a quarter) resp. VEIRTELBAUER,
      VIERTELLAHNER.

      C) The middle stratum of the village population were those, who owned
      only a small farm, with less than a 1/4 of LAN, upto 15 - 18 acres.
      Their name was originally PODSEDNIK or ZAHRADNIK.

      Podsednik in German was a HINTERSASSER or in Latin SUBSES.

      Zahradnik is from a Czech word ZAHRADA - a garden. So the German
      equivalent was GAERTNER.
      Later, in 18th and 19th century they were called CHALUPNIK
      (CHALUPPNER).

      D) The lower stratum of the population were DOMKAR or BARACNIK. In
      German KOTSASSER, KAETNER, HAEUSLER, in English COTTAGER.
      They still did have some properties - but only a small cottage and a
      piece of yard or garden in front or behind their cottage. In many
      cases they rented a piece of land that was in community's possession.

      E) Apart of above mentioned farmers in common, there were people
      without any property who worked for very low reward on the
      farmers´land. They were so called PODRUH in Czech, or INWOHNER,
      resp.INMAENNER in German. In English we say FARM LABOURER.
      They lived somewhere in a farmer's house, or in a barn or shed.

      It is said that the differences between various strata were at least
      the same as the gap between the classes of nobility, town-dwellers
      and the common people.
      And hardly a member of farmer's family was allowed to marry a
      daughter of a CHALUPNER or even PODRUH because their status was too
      low.
    • Debbie O'Connor
      Hi everyone, I was unable to get through to the archives, so I apologize for repeating any questions that may have already been answered. I have recently found
      Message 2 of 2 , Mar 29, 2000
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        Hi everyone,

        I was unable to get through to the archives, so I apologize for
        repeating any questions that may have already been answered.

        I have recently found a marriage record for my gr/gr/gr grandparents.

        They were married in 1848 - (in Cadca)

        The headings are difficult to read/much less decipher (and I was doing
        alright with the Latin, but this appears to be Hungarian? I did find two
        of the words in a Hungarian word list...) The record is as follows:


        6au-Gabriss Jozsef -Ozvegy(widowed) -*Ozavus Josef -Segedpaz -*Haronuszou
        Berger Ansonia -Hajadon(single) -Gabriss Janos - *Kihisdcs-ik
        Rom. Kash. -*Polgarok -*Polgarok
        -Csattra(Cadca)

        So, the questions have to do with the starred items (and the fact that
        all of Ansonia's children have Andreas and Rosalia Berger as Godparents -
        (I thought might be her parents) so I don't recognize the person who I
        assume is listed as her father?)

        1- I have not been able to find a translation for polgarnok (is it the
        same thing as pleb. in Latin?)
        2- I assume that the single name is the officating clergy - but what are
        the last two words? (the title is very difficult to read - looks like
        az hindesis sul vagy aka daly sol folman us elbocsisas)


        Thank you in advance!!!
        -Debbie O'Connor

        searching: GABRIS, BERGER, STRBA
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