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RE: [S-R] Re: 1869 Hungarian census

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  • Bill Tarkulich
    Ron, Thanks for doing this. It is great and very insightful. _______ Bill Tarkulich ... From: amiak27 [mailto:rmat@pobox.mtaonline.net] Sent: Saturday, August
    Message 1 of 34 , Aug 7, 2004
      Thanks for doing this. It is great and very insightful.

      Bill Tarkulich

      -----Original Message-----
      From: amiak27 [mailto:rmat@...]
      Sent: Saturday, August 07, 2004 3:20 AM
      To: SLOVAK-ROOTS@yahoogroups.com
      Subject: [S-R] Re: 1869 Hungarian census


      Your comment on village architecture shows someone else is also
      interested, so I will offer this:
      On the topic of the number of rooms in a house, the following is from
      an English summary of a chapter in "Lidová Stavební Kultura", from
      Nakladatesltví Blok Brné 1981. I have taken liberties with length
      and wording. The German language summary is often much better than
      the English, so I changed a few passages and deleted others.
      Sometimes Europeans will translate to English „stone" when they
      mean „brick". I had trouble with the spell checker and ther may be a
      residual c that should be e and perhaps l an i. That is a problem
      with scanning some fonts and having a word processor that skips what
      it thinks is Slovak.

      The English title of the paper is "The building culture of the
      villages in Slovakia at the beginning and the climax of the Middle
      Ages on the basis of archaeological researches" By Alexander Ruttkay,
      Archeologický ústav SAV, Nitra.

      The building culture of the villages in Slovakia at the beginning and
      the climax of the Middle Ages on the basis of archaeological
      The author gives a brief summary survey of the current <1981>
      knowledge of village archaeology in Slovakia from the 9th/10th
      centuries up to the 15th century.
      The sources are severely limited by objective methodical and
      interpretative problems, and by the still developing research of
      medieval villages. A more profound research of microregions is
      necessary. …the great number of researches however, did not entirely
      uncover any one village, a certain disproportion is evident both from
      a geographical point of view (there are still relatively few
      researches in mountainous areas) and from a chronological point of
      view (a small number of researches of villages in the period from the
      14th century to the 16th century). …the application of the pieces of
      medievalistic research (ethnography, historical geography), gives
      only mosaic conclusions for the time being.
      The author points out the significance of the geographic-ecological
      phenomenon in the development of settlement. He states that the basic
      criterion is a division into a mountain (northern) part and a lowland
      (southern) part. The importance of ethnic determinants (in this
      period predominantly the relations between Slavonic and Hungarian
      inhabitants in southern Slovakia) was only a secondary factor as to
      this problem. As early as in the 11th century ethnic aspects in the
      characterization of a village receded almost entirely and a dominant
      position was occupied by the vertical social division into the sphere
      of exploiters and that of feudal subjects.

      There were about 3,200 villages in the second half of the 13th
      century in Slovakia and in the 15th century about 2,800 villages.
      There were many structural changes in their lay-out and mutual
      relations. For example about 1,500 villages disappeared as they were
      destroyed or became depopulated or they became a part of other
      villages. Archaeological excavations give evidence of the existence
      of more than 1,000 medieval villages; archeological research has - been done
      only in 48 of these. In the 10th-13th centuries „zahloubené" and
      „nezahloubené" houses
      (houses with a lowered floor) existed side by side. According to the
      author the „zahloubené" houses occurred in lowlands and
      the „nezahlubené" in mountainous areas. However, he also speaks about
      exceptions, for example local hydrological situations or by
      adaptation of the inhabitants of newly founded villages to local
      conditions. In the period wood was the main and almost the only
      material which was used for the building of both the types of houses.
      A log cabin construction and also various form of woodpile
      construction of walls and local verities of trees of this area were
      used for this purpose. From the 9th century there are, however,
      evidence of the rafting of needle-leaved trees from mountainous
      areas. The author writes about the relatively long lasting importance
      and many-sided application of wood even in the architecture of the
      feudal class. The decrease of wood in lowland areas led to the
      codification of the transport of wood down the rivers as early as the
      12th-13th centuries and this fact gave rise to a new feudal duty. As
      to the log cabin village architecture in the mountain environment, it
      existed in various forms even in the recent past, and from the 14th
      century to the 15th century a stone/brick sustaining wall can be
      found. Builders of village houses, owing to a considerable scarcity
      of wood. tried to find and use new materials. The number
      of „zahloubené" houses decreased. The foundation of the new type of
      houses arc usually built of clay (the technique of „nabíjeni" - clay
      is bedded in a wooden frame) <half-timbered or Tudor> as to the walls
      of these house, their builders used both a wooden whickered
      construction and a clay construction. Fitted bricks we re also used
      for this purpose.

      The author also mentions the problems concerning the social structure
      of a medieval village. As early as in the 13th century the
      development of a striking difference in property ownership between
      the inhabitants living in one village could be felt. The appearance
      of the houses of wealthier farmers could often compete with the
      buildings of petty feudals. In this sense the author calls attention
      to the fact that It is necessary to do research of the houses and
      farm buildings of subjects on the one hand and the researches of the
      buildings of feudals and the sacral buildings on the other hand.
      As early as in the 9th century there were two-room or three-room
      houses (palaces) in the feudal environment of Slovakia. As to the
      folk-architecture from the 12th century, we can exceptionally find a
      workshop room later built to the living-part of the house. The two- room and
      three-room houses appear in the folk-environment from the
      14th century; this was in connection with the changes in construction
      and building materials. The dynamísm of the development and the forms
      of the realization of this process cannot be reliably determined for
      the time being. It is beyond doubt that the process was neither
      similar nor simultaneous from region to region. It is evident that a
      decisive factor influencing the application of the types of
      constructions is determined by the striking social differentiation of
      a feudal village from the 13th century to the 14th century.
      The author further deals with the problem of the inner furnishings of
      houses. There were two possibilities of heating a house: a) a stone
      fireplace, b) a cupola oven hollowed in a clay floor in the corner of
      the house or in the exterior. A new contribution is that the second
      type of the oven is not of a nomadic origin (as is usually supposed),
      but that the earliest period of its occurrence in the Slavonic
      environment is the 9th century. The way to get rid of smoke was not
      perfect in either case. Many solutions how to rationalize the
      mentioned problem - how to remove smoke from the living-part of the
      house - appeared as early as in the 9th century. However, all the
      improvements, the most successful of which was the invention of a
      chimney, were realized only in the environment of feudals for a long
      time, from the end of the 14th century, however, simple variants of a
      tiled oven can be found even in the houses of wealthier farmers. The
      construction of the roofs of houses was a saddle one; straw, grass or
      reeds were used as their roofing. In connection with the problems of
      an entrance door into the houses of farmers the author mentions a
      relatively "wide constructive register of various safety mechanisms
      and keys which evidences the tenacious protection of the many-a-time
      relatively ample private property of some farmers. Light penetrated
      into village houses mostly through their entrances. There were
      probably also window slots there, about which, however, there are
      written documents only from the 15th century.

      In connection with the inner arrangement of a one-room house it is
      possible to make out that the room was sometimes divided into a
      sleeping part and a kitchen part. As to the furniture, little hollows
      can be sporadically found on the floor as a consequence of the legs
      of furniture (probably benches). A multi-room house is divided into
      an entrance room, a larder and a living- part. From the 14th century
      greater demands were made on the inner furnishings of the house - a
      chest which fulfilled the function of a vault <closet> can be found
      in the families of wealthier farmers. The vertical structure
      consisted only in a one storied house till the 14th-15th centuries is
      changed and a new element appears; it is a cellar corridor with
      warehousing, defensive and shelter functions. Multi-storied buildings
      known in the feudal environment did not appear in the milieu of
      medieval village houses.
      Further objects found in the precinct of medieval villages are for
      example ovens in an open area, the so-called bread ovens, mining,
      supply <storage> or grain pits and the remains of various fences,
      channels and troughs. A direct comparison with various out buildings
      in the neighbourhood of farmers' houses (these buildings are
      mentioned in documents) is not possible for the time being. We also
      lack a more accurate survey of the relative size of each historically
      known part of an inner plot (a house, a court, a garden). The author
      mentions particular pieces of information in connection with the
      ground plans of investigated villages. The typical forms of the
      period before the 14th century are scattered forms; eventually,
      within the framework of the mentioned system. Groups of several
      houses tended to form a one-sided street front. During the 13th
      century and the 14th century scattered forms of settlement are
      concentrated in a smaller space of land (usually very near the church
      or the residence of a feudal lord). However, the most typical types
      of street villages <cannot be firmly established as yet>. It may be
      supposed that a clearer expression of town planning can be found in
      such villages which came into existence owing to a planned system
      during both the inner <domestic> and outer <foreign> colonizations of
      less intensively inhabited parts of Slovakia during the period from
      the 14th century to the 16th century. However, the iconographical
      material gives evidence that the scattered form of villages are usual
      in the period from the 16th century to the 17th century as well as
      various types of street villages.

      --- In SLOVAK-ROOTS@yahoogroups.com, "Janet Kozlay" <kozlay@c...>
      > Frank,
      > Where did you get your information that most houses had only one
      room? A
      > search on "Slovak house architecture" resulted in the following
      > descriptions:is message have been removed]

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    • Vladimir Bohinc
      Trencin Census did not survive. Therefore it could not be filmed. Vladimir ... From: johnqadam To: SLOVAK-ROOTS@yahoogroups.com Sent: Tuesday, October 10, 2006
      Message 34 of 34 , Oct 12, 2006
        Trencin Census did not survive. Therefore it could not be filmed.

        ----- Original Message -----
        From: johnqadam
        To: SLOVAK-ROOTS@yahoogroups.com
        Sent: Tuesday, October 10, 2006 6:15 PM
        Subject: Re: [S-R] 1869 Hungarian census

        >>> Regarding the 1869 Hungarian Census . . . does anyone know if
        additional counties have been added (mainly interested in Trenscen)?<<<

        The list of census films is on line at the LDS web site. Sorry, no
        Trenscen listed.

        __________ Informacia od NOD32 1.1801 (20061012) __________

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