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29021Re: [S-R] Re: Emigration of Young Women

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  • Julie Michutka
    Feb 21 11:17 AM
    • 0 Attachment
      Thank you, Carolyn!

      Julie Michutka
      jmm@...

      On Feb 21, 2011, at 2:05 PM, nilo3rak wrote:

      > Julie Michutka asked for my reference. I thought others may want
      > this information, especially those with a propensity for legal
      > research.
      >
      > Reference: EMIGRATION AND IMMIGRATION: LEGISLATION AND TREATIES
      > Author: International Labour Office
      > Publisher: Geneva, 1922
      >
      > Available online through the Internet Archive, digitizer/
      > contributor: University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign
      > http://www.archive.org/stream/emigrationimmigr00inte/emigrationimmigr00inte_djvu.txt
      >
      > This work is over 400 pages and deals only with measures, laws,
      > regulations and treaties, of 76 countries adopted before January
      > 1922. These countries are Albania, Algeria, Argentina, Australia,
      > Austria, Belgium, the
      > Bermudas, Bolivia, Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada, Chile, China, Colombia,
      > the Belgian Congo, Corea, Costa Rica, Cuba, Curacao, Czechoslovakia,
      > Denmark, Ecuador, Esthonia, Finland, France, Germany, Great Britain
      > and Ireland, Greece, Guatemaia, British Guiana, Dutch Guiana, Haiti,
      > Honduras, Hungary, India, Netherlands Indies, Italy, Japan, Latvia,
      > Liberia, Lichtenstein, Lithuania, Luxemburg, the Republic of San
      > Marino, Morocco, Mexico, the Principality of Monaco, Mozambique,
      > Netherlands, Newfound-land, New Zealand, Norway, Palestine, Panama,
      > Paraguay, Persia, Peru, Poland, Portugal, Rhodesia. Roumania,
      > Russia, Salvador, Kingdom of the Serbs, Croats and Slovenes, Siam,
      > Spain, South Africa, Sweden, Switzerland, Tanganyika, Tunis, Turkey,
      > United States, Uruguay, Venezuela, Zanzibar.
      >
      > Happy reading!
      > Carolyn
      >
      >
      >
      >
      >
      > --- In SLOVAK-ROOTS@yahoogroups.com, "nilo3rak" <eirrac25@...> wrote:
      >>
      >> In Hungary, two legislative acts prior to WWI address the
      >> emigration of young women and children in general:
      >> Order of 1869 concerning the emigration of women and girls and
      >> Emigration Act of 18 February 1909.
      >>
      >> (7) According to the Hungarian Act (1909), minors who
      >> are under parental authority may emigrate without their father
      >> only if they have authority in writing, stamped with the
      >> official visa. Those who are under the care of a guardian must
      >> have the formal permission of their guardian and of the
      >> guardians' authorities. In either case they are not allowed to
      >> emigrate unless it can be shown that their support is provided
      >> for at the place to which they are going.
      >>
      >> — 18 —
      >> Women who are not yet of age and boys less than 16 years
      >> of age may emigrate without their parents only if it can be
      >> shown, apart from the conditions mentioned above, that they
      >> are travelling to their destination with an adult person abso-
      >> lutely worthy of confidence.
      >>
      >> (3) In Hungary, in addition to the general provisions of
      >> the Emigration Act of 1909, the instruction issued to all muni-
      >> cipalities by the Minister of the Interior in 1869 requires them
      >> to prevent" the journey of young girls or women to the East
      >> for immoral purposes.
      >>
      >> After WWI:
      >> (5) According to the Czechoslovak Bill, minors not tra-
      >> velling with their parents must be provided with the autho-
      >> risation of the official Council of Guardians. This provision does
      >> not apply to minors over 18 years of age going to a European
      >> country. The Council of Guardians may, however, prohibit
      >> the journey if it considers that the effects would be detrimental
      >> to the morality or health of the person concerned. Women under
      >> age and boys of less than 16 years of age may further emigrate
      >> without their parents if accompanied to their final destination
      >> by adults of over 24 years of age who are fully reliable.
      >>
      >> (4) By Hungarian law, emigration is forbidden to parents
      >> who leave children less than 16 years of age behind them with-
      >> out having made arrangements for their welfare in the future,
      >> and also to persons who have not made arrangements for
      >> dependents incapable of working.
      >>
      >> In addition there were several international conventions and
      >> agreements prohibiting white slavery and prostitution. They are
      >> too numerous to mention here. (Note that this problem exists
      >> today. No amount of legislation or international agreements have
      >> wiped it out. Immoral, illegal, but highly profitable much like
      >> the drug trade.)
      >>
      >> Carolyn
      >>
      >>
      >>
      >>
      >>
      >>
      >> --- In SLOVAK-ROOTS@yahoogroups.com, "Michael Mojher" <mgmojher@>
      >> wrote:
      >>>
      >>> Bill,
      >>> It looks like this subject needs some research. Most of the
      >>> information
      >>> on single women of a young age emigrating to America has been
      >>> "hearsay". We
      >>> now have three real young women of 15 coming here alone. So we
      >>> know it was
      >>> done, but what were the rules and regulations?
      >>>
      >>> --------------------------------------------------
      >>> From: "William F Brna" <wfbrna@>
      >>> Sent: Sunday, October 03, 2010 5:16 AM
      >>> To: <SLOVAK-ROOTS@yahoogroups.com>
      >>> Subject: Re: [S-R] Re: Castle near Hromos
      >>>
      >>>> Michael,
      >>>>
      >>>> My mother was 15 when she landed in Baltimore on December 23, 1906.
      >>>> There is no indication that she was traveling with anyone,
      >>>> though she
      >>>> did have a sponsor (her aunt) in Cleveland.
      >>>>
      >>>> Bill Brna
      >>>>
      >>>> On Sat, 2 Oct 2010 19:58:05 -0700 "Michael Mojher" <mgmojher@>
      >>>> writes:
      >>>>
      >>>> Laurie,
      >>>> In 1902/3 I would doubt that "Kata" at 15 came alone. There was a
      >>>> rule
      >>>> about young women being 19 or older being allowed in. But then my
      >>>> Mother
      >>>> says her mother was 15 and came in during the same years. A
      >>>> genealogist
      >>>> in Slovakia said that a legal paper showing a girl to be 19 was
      >>>> reused
      >>>> many times. One the girl got to America she would mail it home for
      >>>> someone else to use. Since I don't know the name on that document.
      >>>> Because of that it will be impossible to find my grandmother's
      >>>> entry into
      >>>> the USA. Look at the original Ships Manifest and see if someone
      >>>> from the
      >>>> same place was listed by Kata. That could have been the person
      >>>> that got
      >>>> her into the USA.
      >>>> Also during this period the shipping companies had agents all over
      >>>> Europe. One of their duties was to guide the passengers to the
      >>>> port they
      >>>> were leaving from. They offered many helpful services. They were
      >>>> virtually handed over to the agent who passed them on to the next
      >>>> agent.
      >>>> So getting to the port was not a problem.
      >>>> The problem would have been raising enough money for the trip.
      >>>> With that
      >>>> nine month lapse between leaving Hromos and arriving John
      >>>> presumes she
      >>>> must have worked to raise the funds during those nine months. My
      >>>> grandmother gave her earnings to her god-mother. When there was
      >>>> enough
      >>>> god-mother arrived with the money and grandmother left the next
      >>>> day.
      >>>>
      >>>> From: lmkennyjr
      >>>> Sent: Friday, October 01, 2010 5:29 PM
      >>>> To: SLOVAK-ROOTS@yahoogroups.com
      >>>> Subject: [S-R] Re: Castle near Hromos
      >>>>
      >>>> John, I'm new to this. I don't under stand your comment...
      >>>> <One can only wonder how she paid for the transit. That might
      >>>> explain the
      >>>> length of time that passed.>
      >>>>
      >>>> Is that because of her age (15) and travelling alone?
      >>>>
      >>>> Laurie
      >>>>
      >>>> --- In SLOVAK-ROOTS@yahoogroups.com, "John" <johnqadam@> wrote:
      >>>>>
      >>>>>>>> John wondered about the info in the last column. It is Exr.
      >>>>>>>> 1902
      >>>> IX/16 Am or Immigrated 1902 September 16 to America. . . . She
      >>>> came in
      >>>> under the name Kata Hanzelka. Arrived May 6 1903. Age 15. So it
      >>>> took her
      >>>> 9 months from the time she left Plavec to get to America. She was
      >>>> headed
      >>>> to Bridgeport (I call it little Hromos because so many immigrants
      >>>> settled
      >>>> there) to join her Uncle Pal Hanzelko at 688 Pembrook (I believe
      >>>> that is
      >>>> correct). <<<
      >>>>>
      >>>>> Good work on the EI reference. I checked EI but could not pin
      >>>>> down the
      >>>> connection. >
      >>>>
      >>>> [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
      >>>>
      >>>>
      >>>>
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      >>>> [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
      >>>>
      >>>>
      >>>>
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      >>>>
      >>>>
      >>>
      >>
      >
      >
      >
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