Links: Anglo Saxon
> Subject: [EKSouth] Links: Saxon England
> Hw?t! Wes tu, cynn, Hal!
> This, my readers, in my undoubtedly mangled attempt to write Old English,
> means roughly "Hear Me! I bid you, my kindred, Hail!"
> This is one of the many skills you can pick up by reading this week's links
> list (heck, I can say this much after only 5 minutes perusal of the
> site"Hw?t "). Perhaps you'd like to learn Old English, Dress like a Saxon,
> cook like a Saxon, replicate the calligraphy in Beowulf's only surviving
> manuscript, or learn about their artifacts. This week, it's all about Saxons
> (and Angles, Jutes and Frissians by association), and it's all fascinating.
> Please share this list wherever it is likely to find a ready readership.
> AND, if you appreciate my attempts to put some of my finds in context with
> the rest of culture, let me know! Got suggestions for future Links Lists?
> Dame Aoife Finn of Ynos Mon
> Riverouge, Aethelmearc
> (Site excerpt) Beowulf , written in Old English sometime before the tenth
> century A.D., describes the adventures of a great Scandinavian warrior of
> the sixth century. A rich fabric of fact and fancy, Beowulf is the oldest
> surviving epic in British literature. Beowulf exists in only one manuscript.
> This copy survived both the wholesale destruction of religious artifacts
> during the dissolution of the monasteries by Henry VIII and a disastrous
> fire which destroyed the library of Sir Robert Bruce Cotton (1571-1631).
> (note: Facsimile of an original page included. Also included: Link to the
> Beowulf Bookstore).
> The Electronic Beowulf (CD ROMs with entire facsimile text)
> (Site Excerpt) The great Old English poem, Beowulf, survives in a single
> manuscript that was badly damaged by fire in 1731, and further deteriorated
> before it was rebound in 1845. Some sections are now preserved only in the
> two eighteenth-century transcripts by the Icelander Gr?mur J?nsson Thorkelin
> and his hired scribe. Making innovative use of a digital camera, ultraviolet
> fluorescence, and fiber-optic backlighting, Kevin Kiernan has assembled an
> archive of digital images that provides not only high-quality facsimiles of
> what is readily visible in the manuscript, but also of hundreds of letters
> and parts of letters hidden by the nineteenth-century restoration binding.
> Joining modern technology with knowledge of the poem in its manuscript
> context, Kiernan significantly advances our understanding of the manuscript
> and offers important new information about this major literary work.
> ORB Anglo-Saxon England: A Guide to Online Resources
> Section Editor: Brad Bedingfield, Tokyo Metropolitan University
> (Site Excerpt) Introduction by Stuart Lee, Oxford University Computing
> This section of the On-Line Reference Book for Medieval Studies concentrates
> on the period of English history dating from the mid-fifth century to the
> mid-eleventh century. As with all dating in the medieval period these
> chronological boundaries are open to question. The starting date represents
> the beginning of the Anglo-Saxon invasions, i.e. the invasion/migration of
> the tribes termed the Angles, Saxons, and Jutes from the northern part of
> modern Germany to the island of Britain. Similarly, the end-date of the
> mid-eleventh century centres on the Battle of Hastings (14th October, 1066)
> which saw the defeat of Harold Godwineson, the last Saxon king, at the hands
> of William the Conqueror thus transferring control of England to the
> Saint Bede the Venerable 673-735
> (Site Excerpt) Such scant information as we have on the life of St. Bede the
> Venerable comes from two principal sources: an autobiographical note
> appended to his Ecclesiastical History of the English People and a
> description of his death, contained in a letter from his student Cuthbert
> (afterwards Abbot of Wearmouth and Jarrow) to an otherwise unknown lector
> named Cuthwine.
> Bede's World: The Museum of Early Medieval Northumbria at Jarrow.
> (Site Excerpt) The extraordinary life of the Venerable Bede (AD 673-735)
> created a rich legacy that is celebrated today at Bede's World, Jarrow,
> where Bede lived and worked 1300 years ago. Visit the:
> *interactive Age of Bede exhibition in the stunning new museum building
> *site of the Anglo-Saxon monastery of St Paul, and medieval monastic ruins
> *herb garden
> *rare breeds of animals and recreated timber buildings on Gyrwe, the
> Anglo-Saxon demonstration farm
> *attractive caf? within historic Jarrow Hall
> *museum gift and book shop
> K E M B L E: THE WEBSITE OF THE BRITISH ACADEMY / ROYAL HISTORICAL SOCIETY
> JOINT COMMITTEE ON ANGLO-SAXON CHARTERS
> (Site Excerpt) KEMBLE named after John Mitchell Kemble (1807-57), of Trinity
> College, Cambridge, editor and translator of Beowulf (1833, 1837), editor of
> the Codex Diplomaticus Aevi Saxonici (1839-48), author of The Saxons in
> England (1849), and author of Horae Ferales (1863).....The term 'Anglo-Saxon
> charter' covers a multitude of documents ranging in kind from the royal
> diplomas issued in the names of Anglo-Saxon kings between the last quarter
> of the seventh century and the Norman Conquest, which are generally in
> Latin, to the wills of prominent churchmen, laymen, and women, which are
> generally in the vernacular. A large proportion of the surviving corpus of
> charters is made up of records of grants of land or privileges by a king to
> a religious house, or to a lay beneficiary. The corpus also includes records
> of settlements of disputes over land or privileges, leases of episcopal
> property, and records of bequests of land and other property.
> The Voyage of Ohthere
> first section edited and translated by Grant Chevallier
> A side-by-side translation of the work, with linked Anglo-Saxon dictionary
> to each word in early-medieval English. There is also an audio function
> which I was not able to make work on my computer (Windows Media). An
> excellent source, though I cannot judge the quality of the translation.
> Hw?t! (A Course in Old English pronunciation)
> http://www.georgetown.edu/faculty/ballc/hwaet/hwaet06.html (Click the
> Contents link)
> (Site Excerpt from Forward) Hw?t! This is the first word of Beowulf, where
> translators render it variously as Lo, Listen, Hear me, and Yes. There is in
> fact no translation equivalent in Modern English, and using a dictionary
> isn't much help. To understand this word, you must see how it is used in a
> number of contexts: i.e., in Old English texts. It is the premise of the
> present book that all words in another language ought to be learned in
> context, and that they can be learned in this way. Hw?t! (the electronic
> book) is designed for those who would like to learn some basic Old English
> without having to hold a grammar book in one hand and a dictionary in the
> other. It is based on the notion that at least some aspects of the language
> can be acquired simply by reading. Of course, you can't sit down and read a
> difficult text like Beowulf without any pre-existing knowledge of Old
> English: but using your knowledge of Modern English and how the world is,
> you can read a number of samples from Old English texts. In the process of
> reading, your brain will figure out how Old English works.
> Labrynth Library: Old English Literature
> Listed at this page are 25 texts presented as close to their original as is
> possible. Included are poetry, prose, a section on Runic text (under
> development) and Litergical documents.
> West Stowe Anglo-Saxon Village
> (Site Excerpt) Archaeology has provided most of the information we have, and
> the West Stow Anglo-Saxon Village Trust has attempted to explore some of the
> problems raised by practical experiment in the form of reconstructions. The
> first of these were carried out by a group of Cambridge students, but the
> work has been continued by West Stow staff. Each reconstruction tests
> different ideas. Wherever possible, tools and techniques available to the
> Anglo-Saxons have been used. Oak timbers and planks have been shaped by
> hand, mainly using axes. The thatch for the roofs is tied on, as there is no
> evidence for metal fixings at West Stow.
> Angelcynn: Anglo-Saxon Living History 400-900 AD
> (Site Excerpt) "449 In this year Mauricius and Valentinian obtained the
> Kingdom and reigned seven years. In their days Hengest and Horsa, invited by
> Vortigern, King of the Britons, came to Britain at a place called Ebbsfleet
> at first to help the Britons, but later they fought against them. The king
> ordered them to fight against the Picts, and so they did and had victory
> wherever they came. They then sent to Angeln; ordered them to send them more
> aid and to be told of the worthlessness of the Britons and of the excellence
> of the land. They sent them more aid. These men came from three nations of
> Germany: from the Old Saxons, from the Angles, from the Jutes."
> So wrote a monk in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicles many centuries ago. The fifth
> to ninth centuries were some of the most turbulent of British history. This
> was the time when England was born, the time of Hengest and Horsa, King
> Arthur, Beowulf, Redwald of Sutton Hoo, St. Augustine, King Offa, King
> Alfred, the Viking Invasions and the foundation of the English church.
> Anglo-Saxon Cemetaries
> (Site Excerpt) This site contains pointers to a series of resources and
> datasets relating to early Anglo-Saxon cemeteries. My PhD research involved
> an analysis of social aspects of burial, and as part of this work an early
> Anglo-Saxon cemeteries database was assembled, consisting primarily of
> cemeteries from central and central southern England.
> Germanic History and Culture
> (Site Excerpt) This page offers a collection of links which explore the
> history and cultures of various Germanic peoples from ancient heathen times
> through the middle ages.
> ANGLO-SAXON WOMEN: MORE THAN "FRITHUWEBBAS" By Cathy Coone-McRary
> (Site Excerpt) In the mead-hall, gold-adorned Wealhtheow dispenses ale to
> Hrothgar's warriors and pleads for Beowulf's kindness to her sons. By the
> funeral pyre, despondent Hildeburh laments the loss of her son, brother, and
> husband in battle and is returned, weeping, to her people. Such is the
> presentation of women in the great Anglo-Saxon work Beowulf; thanks to this
> and other Old English works, we have been led to believe that women in
> Anglo-Saxon times were helpless creatures struggling to survive in a
> male-dominated society. It is erroneous, however, to think that Anglo-Saxon
> women had no rights. In fact, women enjoyed many benefits under the sanction
> of Anglo-Saxon law; they were not simply the tragic, powerless
> "peaceweavers" found in Old English literature.
> The Anglo-Saxon Invasion of Britain
> (Site Excerpt) This account of the migrations from Germany, following the
> collapse of the Roman Empire, is taken from the Anglo-Saxon Chronicles, and
> is how the later Anglo-Saxons saw the first arrival of their people. Since
> then, until quite recently, it has remained the accepted view of what
> happened. However, recent researches have shown it to be wrong in almost
> every detail It is even uncertain whether Hengest andHorsa existed, or
> whether they were actually the same person! #1 Although Hengest may have
> been the first Germanic chieftain of Kent, he was probably no more than a
> warlord. The first Germanic king was probably his son Oisc, giving the
> Kentish royal house the name of the 'Oiscingas'. Whilst it may be true that
> a British king (who may or may not have been called Vortigern) employed
> Germanic mercenaries to aid him in his battles against the Picts (or perhaps
> just another British king), it would certainly not be the first instance of
> Germanic settlers in this country.
> ?a Engliscan Gesi?as...
> (Site Excerpt) ?a Engliscan Gesi?as is the only major historical society
> devoted to the study of the Anglo-Saxon period. All aspects are covered,
> including language and literature, archaeology, anthropology, architecture,
> art, religion, mythology, folklore and material culture. ?a Engliscan
> Gesi?as is Old English for 'The English Companions'.
> It is pronounced approximately 'Tha Englishan yeseethas'
> Readings of Old English Poetry
> (Site Excerpt) Old English poetry was meant to be declaimed aloud before an
> audience, the poet, or Scop, being both a creative and a performing artist.
> Accompanied by harp he would entertain the guests of his patron with tales
> of past deeds, battles of old and the prowess of his lord's ancestors. In
> this manner was history kept alive for the Anglo-Saxons. The scop had to be
> a master of his art, being able to recite thousands of lines from memory
> (the epic Beowulf alone has 3182 lines) and no doubt poor performances would
> mean ridicule for the scop and the withdrawal of patronage. This is not to
> mean that the scop worked purely from memory as there is evidence that the
> swift composition of fitting verse was also the mark of a skilled man.
> Some Thoughts on the Origin of the Fu?ark
> by Steve Pollington (Anglo-Saxon Runic Writing)
> (Site Excerpt) The origins of the Germanic writing system known as the
> fu?ark is a hotly debated issue in scholarly circles, and the present paper
> is intended only to air some views and perhaps inspire others to contribute
> to the debate. I name the script 'fu?ark' in this article in order to avoid
> the much misunderstood word 'runes': briefly, a rune (OE run) is a secret, a
> mystery and the characters used for writing were called runstafas
> 'rune-staves' in Old English The characters are not themselves runes but
> mere ciphers or symbols pointing to or marking out the mysteries proper. In
> this piece, I shall use the word 'runstave' when referring to an alphabetic
> character. The origins of the script have been sought in three main areas:
> the Greek, Roman and North Italic alphabets. I shall deal with each of these
> in turn.
> The Anglo-Saxon Calendar
> (Site Excerpt) The calendar used by the Anglo-Saxons in pre-christian times
> remains a mystery, albeit not a complete mystery. In De Temporum Ratione
> Bede left us enough information to paint a rough picture of the early
> calendar, but not enough to understand the detail of how the calender was
> applied and (more importantly) regulated. This collection of pages is
> intended to shed a little light on what is known, or can be surmised, about
> our ancient Englisc calendar.
> Dr. Sam Newton's Wuffing's Website
> (Site Excerpt) Welcome to Dr Sam Newton's Wuffings' Website, which aims to
> provide a focus for the study of the Wuffing Kingdom of East Anglia in
> particular and for Anglo-Saxon England in general.
> SEE ALSO: Sutton Hoo: Burial-Ground of the Wuffings
> An artist's rendering of the King R?dwald gravesite's contents on the wearer
> (click on items in the painting for articles about them and photos at the
> British Museum) http://www.wuffings.co.uk/WuffMapLinks/RedwaldFrm.html
> Compass: The search Engine of Artifacts and Articles at the British Museum
> (Beware of wrapped URLs, whose entire length may not be included in
> hyper-linked URLs in emails. To be sure you've got the correct address,
> copy-paste the entire address into the address bar of your web browser.)
> To view Ssutton Hoo Finds and articles, type "Sutton Hoo" into the Quick
> Search bar and hit enter. Also useful for other collections. For instance,
> entering the term Saxon brings up 119 items!
> The Sutton Hoo Society
> (Site Excerpt) Welcome to the Sutton Hoo Society web site. It has been
> produced to give you a brief introduction to the work of the Sutton Hoo
> Society and the story behind the Anglo Saxon Royal Cemetery at Sutton Hoo in
> Suffolk in the UK. (Site include a newsletter, archaeology information, and
> an interactive tour).
> Anglo-Saxon History: A Select Bibliography by Simon Keynes
> (Site Excerpt) This bibliography is intended to serve as a general guide to
> the primary and secondary sources for the study of Anglo-Saxon history.
> No-one would be expected, able, or inclined to read more than a small
> selection of the items listed...Section A is for general guidance. Section B
> provides a rough classification of the primary sources for our knowledge of
> Anglo-Saxon history. The aim is to indicate the range of the source material
> at our disposal, and (in the case of written texts) to guide the reader
> towards the most accessible editions and translations. The rest of the
> bibliography comprises references organized under broad historical themes.
> The coverage is by no means comprehensive, but within its own terms the
> choice of reading should serve as a guide to the main areas of interest and
> debate. It should be noted that the numbering of the entries is deliberately
> discontinuous, to allow for further expansion.
> The Anglo-Saxon Homepage
> Produced by Prof. Michael Hanly
> (Site Excerpt) This page was put together for the use of the graduate
> students in Old English at Washington State University, and serves as the
> virtual "command post" for all my students reading Anglo-Saxon texts. It's
> not restricted to our students, however, so anyone happening upon this page
> should feel free to have a look and follow the links to some wonderful
> sites. There's nothing very original here outside of my old slides (see
> "Images from Anglo-Saxon England" at the bottom of this page); if you find
> them useful somehow, please drop me a line before reproducing them. And
> while I'm on that subject: the "Anglo-Saxon clip art" reproduced on this
> page is by Eva Wilson, Early Medieval Designs from Britain for Artists and
> Craftspeople, Dover Books, 1983.
> Richard Rawlinson Center for Anglo-Saxon Sytudies and Manuscript Research
> (Site Excerpt) The Richard Rawlinson Center fosters teaching and research in
> the history and culture of Anglo-Saxon England and in the broader field of
> manuscript studies. Dedicated to the memory of the founder of the chair of
> Anglo-Saxon at Oxford University, and established through a gift from
> Georgian Rawlinson Tashjian and the late David Reitler Tashjian, the Center
> opened in May 1994. It houses a growing specialist library of books,
> microfiches, microfilms, and slides. Other resources are being actively
> Map: Anglo-Saxon England
> Image by Matthew White. Please do not reproduce without permission of the
> author (mwhite28@...).
> Angel-cynn Anglo-Saxon Clothing (both Pagan and Christian)
> Menu includes: Anglo-Saxon Clothing : Pagan Dress :
> Male Clothing | Female Clothing | Appearance | Clothing Photos |
> Kentish-Frankish Dress
> Christian Dress :
> Male Clothing | Female Clothing | Clothing Photos
> (Site Excerpt) Manuscript painting offers the greatest number of
> illustrations of Anglo-Saxon garments, with the kings, queens, saints and
> clerics depicted in raiment appropriate to their respective classes. Be
> mindful that our surmises are thus weighted towards the luxurious tastes of
> the wealthy. Ivory, wood, and bone carvings, stone crosses and wall
> paintings provide another glimpse into prevailing fashion. Lords and ladies,
> thegns and merchants describe and name particular articles of clothing in
> their wills, and leave them to favoured heirs. Grave finds and occasional
> cess-pit remnants of clothing provide additional, more egalitarian sources
> for study. (Article goes on to talk about conjectured women's undergarments
> or lack thereof, including those conjectured to have been worn during times
> of flux).
> Anglo-Saxon and Viking Works of the Needle: Some Artistic Currents in
> Cross-Cultural Exchange
> ? 1992 Carolyn Priest-Dorman. Permission is granted to make and distribute
> verbatim copies of this document for non-commercial private research
> purposes provided the copyright notice and this permission notice are
> preserved on all copies.
> (Site Excerpt) This paper contains a typology and brief discussion of some
> stitches that have been discovered on extant textiles from the period
> between the seventh and eleventh centuries in Anglo-Saxon, Viking, and
> related cultures. Embroidery, construction stitches, style, and usage are
> considered. Information is organized in a comparative framework based on
> techniques, not on culture or period, in order to facilitate a practical
> understanding by needleworkers. An appendix lists the cultures and sites
> Anglo Saxon Women's Clothing for the 11th Century
> (Site Excerpt) Overtunic: This Tunic is made again of wool, although the
> very rich may have had elaborate heavy silk ones for best. As you can see
> from the diagram the main difference is that the sleeves become much larger
> at the wrist end, illustrations vary, but the hem comes mid calf to ankle
> length usually. The inside of the sleeves may be of a contrasting colour.
> Borders may have tablet woven or embroidered decoration.
> Lothene Experimetnal Archaeology; Early Medieval Clothes Patterns
> (Site Excerpt) The patterns and descriptions given here are intended for
> re-enactors rather than serious academic historians. Janet Arnold has
> written an excellent series of books which are based on disections of actual
> historical clothing from the 16th Century onwards and which give accurate
> Most of the evidence for Early Medieval clothing is in the form of fragments
> of garments and illustrations in manuscripts and other historical records,
> so there has to be a certain amount of guesswork involved in
> recreations.SIMPLE T- TUNIC: The pattern opposite can be used for a man's
> tunic or a woman's dress. Variations on this style were worn from the time
> of the Bronze Age. Arguably, the traditional peasant smock, which was worn
> in Britain up until the last century was an evolution of the garment.
> High class ladies began to wear fitted dresses which laced up the back in
> the 11th Century, and in the 13th Century fashionable men began to wear more
> fitted garments with buttons up the front.
> Anglo-Saxon Architecture in England
> (Site Excerpt) England is not blessed with an abundance of surviving
> Anglo-Saxon buildings. There is good reason for this scarcity; the
> Anglo-Saxon period was one beset by frequent warfare and violent invasions,
> particularly by the Vikings in the period 800-950. These invaders, quite
> naturally, burned and destroyed most of the settlements they came across, in
> their search for plunder and martial glory. For this reason most surviving
> examples of Anglo-Saxon architecture date from either 600-725 or 900-1050.
> Unfortunately for posterity, most Saxon buildings were constructed of wood
> with wattle and daub walls. The depredations of the Danes left very few of
> these flammable buildings standing. The only buildings the Anglo-Saxons
> tended to build in more permanent stone were their monasteries and churches.
> Here, at least, there are several good examples remaining to see today. (See
> our in-depth article on Anglo-Saxon churches here.)
> A Nice Little Earner: Slavery in Anglo-Saxon England
> (Site Excerpt) Slaves were an important part of early medieval society and
> appear in large numbers in charters and Doomsday Book, but the evidence for
> them is mostly fragmentary and widely scattered.
> Viking/Anglo Saxon Clothing- advanced and basic
> A list of links on the subject.
> 11th Century Anglo Saxon Men's Garb by Ethelwulf Kildare
> (Site Excerpt) Most of what we know on Anglo Saxon clothing is found from
> manuscripts and various archeological finds. From these we find that in many
> cases, Anglo Saxon clothing differed only slightly in appearance to the
> clothing on the continent during the same period. Fabrics: Most often,
> woolen fabrics would have been used although there are descriptions of furs
> being used on cloaks. Linen may have been used, especially among the wealthy
> since it would have had to been imported from Ireland and the continent.
> Woolen fabrics, as described at the Sutton Hoo burial varied from the heavy
> and rough textured to soft, lightweight and finer woolens. From the Sutton
> Hoo burial we find examples of the colors used in clothing. Most of the
> woolen fabrics at the site were dyed in indigo or woad, red and yellow
> although there were examples of many natural shades from pale creme to dark
> blackish brown. The burial also found pattern weaves and in other grave
> sites gold thread was often woven into the fabric in a variety of designs.
> As can be seen in the picture of King Knut, there seems to be areas that
> appear to be trim, around the sleeves, or of a different color, as can be
> seen around the hem and the collar.
> Regia Anglorum Food and Drink in Anglo Saxon England
> (Site Excerpt) When we visit the shops in England today, we are presented
> with a wealth of fruit and vegetables from all corners of the planet from
> which to choose. For people in this country in the tenth and eleventh
> century this could not happen. They had only such foods as could be
> cultivated seasonally or found wild. Exotic foods such as potatoes,
> tomatoes, bananas, pineapples - fruits and vegetables of the New World, were
> unknown here. Mediterranean fruits, such as lemons and oranges were, as far
> as we know, not imported, although we have documentary proof for the
> importation of such things as figs and grapes ( Viking Age England, Julian
> Richards, p94 ). We know that they grew wheat, rye, oats and barley. Wheat
> for bread, barley for brewing and oats for animal fodder and porridge. Along
> with these crops grew various weeds of cultivation - some of them poisonous.
> The harvesting methods made it difficult to separate the cereal from the
> weed, and many illnesses must have been caused in this way.
> Amazon.com Review: A Handbook of Anglo-Saxon Food: Processing and
> by Ann Hagen
> (Site Excerpt) For the first time information from various sources has been
> brought together in order to build up a picture of how food was grown,
> conserved, prepared and eaten during the period from the beginning of the
> 5th century to the 11th century. No specialist knowledge of the Anglo-Saxon
> period or language is needed, and many people will find it fascinating for
> the views it gives of an important aspect of Anglo-Saxon life and culture.
> In addition to Anglo-Saxon England the Celtic west of Britain is also
> covered. Subject headings include: drying, milling and bread making;
> dairying; butchery; preservation and storage; methods of cooking; meals and
> mealtimes; fasting; feasting; food shortages and deficiency diseases. (Note:
> Found a web reference to "A Second Handbook of Anglo.." etc. by the same
> author). See also http://www.asbooks.co.uk/food.htm
> Castle Furnishing Anglo-Saxon links
> Amazon.com: Anglo-Saxon Appetites: Food and Drink and Their Consumption in
> Old English and Related Literatureby Hugh Magennis
> Hard-to-find reference.
> The Forme of Cury, A Roll Of Ancient English Cookery, Compiled, about A.D.
> 1390, by the Master-Cooks of King Richard II, Presented afterwards to Queen
> Elizabeth, by Edward Lord Stafford, and now in the Possession of Gustavus
> Brander, Esq. Illustrated with Notes, And a copious Index, or Glossary. A
> Manuscript of the Editor, of the same Age and Subject, with other congruous
> Matters, are subjoined.
> Webbed by Greg Lindahl (Gregory Blount of Isenfir?). This is a reproduction.
> See also http://texts01.archive.org/dp/ , where members can proofread webbed
> copies of a translation of the Forme of Curye for Project Gutenburg---if you
> have the skill to do so, you are encouraged to participate.
> (NOTE: Though Forme of Curye post-dates the Saxon era according to the
> statements above, many of the recipes are believed to hail from the 11th
> century or so).
> Were the West Saxons guilty of Ethnic Cleansing? A news debate
> (Site Excerpt) Bede also refers to the Hampshire mainland as 'the nation of
> the Jutes'...Archaeology now supports these conclusions, as one of the only
> other Byzantine buckets was found in the sixth-century cemetery of Chessell
> Down on the Isle of Wight - also held by the Jutes...As the cemetery
> excavated by Time Team is firmly dated to the sixth century, it can only be
> Jutish as there were no Saxons in the region until over a century later,
> when Caedwalla did his best to exterminate all the Jutes living in those
> areas and replace them with his own tribesmen (Bede) - a peculiarly nasty
> example of genocide and ethnic cleansing.
> Anglo-Saxon 'planned town' revealed this month in Whitby
> House platforms, artifacts and a cemetery near the abbey
> (Site Excerpt) The excavations revealed that Anglo-Saxon settlements
> surrounding the royal abbey founded in 657 were far more extensive and
> well-planned than had previously been thought. An area of sloping ground
> north of the abbey, thought to have originally measured about 20 acres
> before centuries of cliff erosion, had been organised like a 'new town' and
> was covered in man-made terracing to provide level ground surfaces for
> An Anglian Time Line
> (Site Excerpt) The term "Anglo-Saxon" is a misnomer, used by the Normans for
> legal purposes. The migrant groups were distinct enough for Bede to refer to
> them as discrete groups, the Angles, the Saxons, the Jutes and Frisians
> (Site includes the following:)PAGE INDEX:
> Anglians The Battle of Winwaed
> Early Anglo-Saxon Settlement Mercia under Penda
> The Christian Unconformity Early English Topographic Names
> Anglian Grave Goods The origin of the Saxons, Angles and Jutes according to
> Anglian Boundaries Anglian Deities
> The Saints bring Christianity to The North Anglian Year according to Bede
> Northumbrian Kings Anglian Social Hierarchy
> Middle Anglo-Saxon Settlements Anglian place-names
> Notes on Anglo-Saxon History