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Links: Anglo Saxon

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  • Jennifer Heise
    Message 1 of 1 , May 29, 2003
      > Subject: [EKSouth] Links: Saxon England
      > Hw?t! Wes tu, cynn, Hal!
      > This, my readers, in my undoubtedly mangled attempt to write Old English,
      > means roughly "Hear Me! I bid you, my kindred, Hail!"
      > This is one of the many skills you can pick up by reading this week's links
      > list (heck, I can say this much after only 5 minutes perusal of the
      > site"Hw?t "). Perhaps you'd like to learn Old English, Dress like a Saxon,
      > cook like a Saxon, replicate the calligraphy in Beowulf's only surviving
      > manuscript, or learn about their artifacts. This week, it's all about Saxons
      > (and Angles, Jutes and Frissians by association), and it's all fascinating.
      > Please share this list wherever it is likely to find a ready readership.
      > AND, if you appreciate my attempts to put some of my finds in context with
      > the rest of culture, let me know! Got suggestions for future Links Lists?
      > Ditto.
      > Cheers
      > Aoife
      > liontamr@...
      > Dame Aoife Finn of Ynos Mon
      > Riverouge, Aethelmearc
      > Beowulf
      > http://www.lone-star.net/literature/beowulf/
      > (Site excerpt) Beowulf , written in Old English sometime before the tenth
      > century A.D., describes the adventures of a great Scandinavian warrior of
      > the sixth century. A rich fabric of fact and fancy, Beowulf is the oldest
      > surviving epic in British literature. Beowulf exists in only one manuscript.
      > This copy survived both the wholesale destruction of religious artifacts
      > during the dissolution of the monasteries by Henry VIII and a disastrous
      > fire which destroyed the library of Sir Robert Bruce Cotton (1571-1631).
      > (note: Facsimile of an original page included. Also included: Link to the
      > Beowulf Bookstore).
      > The Electronic Beowulf (CD ROMs with entire facsimile text)
      > http://www.press.umich.edu/titles/00260.html
      > (Site Excerpt) The great Old English poem, Beowulf, survives in a single
      > manuscript that was badly damaged by fire in 1731, and further deteriorated
      > before it was rebound in 1845. Some sections are now preserved only in the
      > two eighteenth-century transcripts by the Icelander Gr?mur J?nsson Thorkelin
      > and his hired scribe. Making innovative use of a digital camera, ultraviolet
      > fluorescence, and fiber-optic backlighting, Kevin Kiernan has assembled an
      > archive of digital images that provides not only high-quality facsimiles of
      > what is readily visible in the manuscript, but also of hundreds of letters
      > and parts of letters hidden by the nineteenth-century restoration binding.
      > Joining modern technology with knowledge of the poem in its manuscript
      > context, Kiernan significantly advances our understanding of the manuscript
      > and offers important new information about this major literary work.
      > ORB Anglo-Saxon England: A Guide to Online Resources
      > Section Editor: Brad Bedingfield, Tokyo Metropolitan University
      > http://orb.rhodes.edu/encyclop/early/pre1000/ASindex.html
      > (Site Excerpt) Introduction by Stuart Lee, Oxford University Computing
      > Services
      > This section of the On-Line Reference Book for Medieval Studies concentrates
      > on the period of English history dating from the mid-fifth century to the
      > mid-eleventh century. As with all dating in the medieval period these
      > chronological boundaries are open to question. The starting date represents
      > the beginning of the Anglo-Saxon invasions, i.e. the invasion/migration of
      > the tribes termed the Angles, Saxons, and Jutes from the northern part of
      > modern Germany to the island of Britain. Similarly, the end-date of the
      > mid-eleventh century centres on the Battle of Hastings (14th October, 1066)
      > which saw the defeat of Harold Godwineson, the last Saxon king, at the hands
      > of William the Conqueror thus transferring control of England to the
      > Normans.
      > Saint Bede the Venerable 673-735
      > http://www.ehsbr.org/faculty/houghtonj/medstud/bede.htm
      > (Site Excerpt) Such scant information as we have on the life of St. Bede the
      > Venerable comes from two principal sources: an autobiographical note
      > appended to his Ecclesiastical History of the English People and a
      > description of his death, contained in a letter from his student Cuthbert
      > (afterwards Abbot of Wearmouth and Jarrow) to an otherwise unknown lector
      > named Cuthwine.
      > Bede's World: The Museum of Early Medieval Northumbria at Jarrow.
      > http://www.bedesworld.co.uk/
      > (Site Excerpt) The extraordinary life of the Venerable Bede (AD 673-735)
      > created a rich legacy that is celebrated today at Bede's World, Jarrow,
      > where Bede lived and worked 1300 years ago. Visit the:
      > *interactive Age of Bede exhibition in the stunning new museum building
      > *site of the Anglo-Saxon monastery of St Paul, and medieval monastic ruins
      > *herb garden
      > *rare breeds of animals and recreated timber buildings on Gyrwe, the
      > Anglo-Saxon demonstration farm
      > *attractive caf? within historic Jarrow Hall
      > *museum gift and book shop
      > http://www.trin.cam.ac.uk/chartwww/
      > (Site Excerpt) KEMBLE named after John Mitchell Kemble (1807-57), of Trinity
      > College, Cambridge, editor and translator of Beowulf (1833, 1837), editor of
      > the Codex Diplomaticus Aevi Saxonici (1839-48), author of The Saxons in
      > England (1849), and author of Horae Ferales (1863).....The term 'Anglo-Saxon
      > charter' covers a multitude of documents ranging in kind from the royal
      > diplomas issued in the names of Anglo-Saxon kings between the last quarter
      > of the seventh century and the Norman Conquest, which are generally in
      > Latin, to the wills of prominent churchmen, laymen, and women, which are
      > generally in the vernacular. A large proportion of the surviving corpus of
      > charters is made up of records of grants of land or privileges by a king to
      > a religious house, or to a lay beneficiary. The corpus also includes records
      > of settlements of disputes over land or privileges, leases of episcopal
      > property, and records of bequests of land and other property.
      > The Voyage of Ohthere
      > first section edited and translated by Grant Chevallier
      > http://www.ucalgary.ca/UofC/eduweb/engl401/texts/ohthfram.htm
      > A side-by-side translation of the work, with linked Anglo-Saxon dictionary
      > to each word in early-medieval English. There is also an audio function
      > which I was not able to make work on my computer (Windows Media). An
      > excellent source, though I cannot judge the quality of the translation.
      > Hw?t! (A Course in Old English pronunciation)
      > http://www.georgetown.edu/faculty/ballc/hwaet/hwaet06.html (Click the
      > Contents link)
      > (Site Excerpt from Forward) Hw?t! This is the first word of Beowulf, where
      > translators render it variously as Lo, Listen, Hear me, and Yes. There is in
      > fact no translation equivalent in Modern English, and using a dictionary
      > isn't much help. To understand this word, you must see how it is used in a
      > number of contexts: i.e., in Old English texts. It is the premise of the
      > present book that all words in another language ought to be learned in
      > context, and that they can be learned in this way. Hw?t! (the electronic
      > book) is designed for those who would like to learn some basic Old English
      > without having to hold a grammar book in one hand and a dictionary in the
      > other. It is based on the notion that at least some aspects of the language
      > can be acquired simply by reading. Of course, you can't sit down and read a
      > difficult text like Beowulf without any pre-existing knowledge of Old
      > English: but using your knowledge of Modern English and how the world is,
      > you can read a number of samples from Old English texts. In the process of
      > reading, your brain will figure out how Old English works.
      > Labrynth Library: Old English Literature
      > http://www.georgetown.edu/labyrinth/library/oe/oe.html
      > Listed at this page are 25 texts presented as close to their original as is
      > possible. Included are poetry, prose, a section on Runic text (under
      > development) and Litergical documents.
      > West Stowe Anglo-Saxon Village
      > http://www.stedmunds.co.uk/lifestyle/wstow/village.html
      > (Site Excerpt) Archaeology has provided most of the information we have, and
      > the West Stow Anglo-Saxon Village Trust has attempted to explore some of the
      > problems raised by practical experiment in the form of reconstructions. The
      > first of these were carried out by a group of Cambridge students, but the
      > work has been continued by West Stow staff. Each reconstruction tests
      > different ideas. Wherever possible, tools and techniques available to the
      > Anglo-Saxons have been used. Oak timbers and planks have been shaped by
      > hand, mainly using axes. The thatch for the roofs is tied on, as there is no
      > evidence for metal fixings at West Stow.
      > Angelcynn: Anglo-Saxon Living History 400-900 AD
      > http://www.angelcynn.org.uk/
      > (Site Excerpt) "449 In this year Mauricius and Valentinian obtained the
      > Kingdom and reigned seven years. In their days Hengest and Horsa, invited by
      > Vortigern, King of the Britons, came to Britain at a place called Ebbsfleet
      > at first to help the Britons, but later they fought against them. The king
      > ordered them to fight against the Picts, and so they did and had victory
      > wherever they came. They then sent to Angeln; ordered them to send them more
      > aid and to be told of the worthlessness of the Britons and of the excellence
      > of the land. They sent them more aid. These men came from three nations of
      > Germany: from the Old Saxons, from the Angles, from the Jutes."
      > So wrote a monk in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicles many centuries ago. The fifth
      > to ninth centuries were some of the most turbulent of British history. This
      > was the time when England was born, the time of Hengest and Horsa, King
      > Arthur, Beowulf, Redwald of Sutton Hoo, St. Augustine, King Offa, King
      > Alfred, the Viking Invasions and the foundation of the English church.
      > Anglo-Saxon Cemetaries
      > http://www.gla.ac.uk/Acad/Archaeology/resources/Anglo-Saxon/cemeteries/index.html
      > (Site Excerpt) This site contains pointers to a series of resources and
      > datasets relating to early Anglo-Saxon cemeteries. My PhD research involved
      > an analysis of social aspects of burial, and as part of this work an early
      > Anglo-Saxon cemeteries database was assembled, consisting primarily of
      > cemeteries from central and central southern England.
      > Germanic History and Culture
      > http://www.anglo-saxon.demon.co.uk/lyfja/ghp/history.html
      > (Site Excerpt) This page offers a collection of links which explore the
      > history and cultures of various Germanic peoples from ancient heathen times
      > through the middle ages.
      > http://parallel.park.uga.edu/~abruce/mathi3.html#women
      > (Site Excerpt) In the mead-hall, gold-adorned Wealhtheow dispenses ale to
      > Hrothgar's warriors and pleads for Beowulf's kindness to her sons. By the
      > funeral pyre, despondent Hildeburh laments the loss of her son, brother, and
      > husband in battle and is returned, weeping, to her people. Such is the
      > presentation of women in the great Anglo-Saxon work Beowulf; thanks to this
      > and other Old English works, we have been led to believe that women in
      > Anglo-Saxon times were helpless creatures struggling to survive in a
      > male-dominated society. It is erroneous, however, to think that Anglo-Saxon
      > women had no rights. In fact, women enjoyed many benefits under the sanction
      > of Anglo-Saxon law; they were not simply the tragic, powerless
      > "peaceweavers" found in Old English literature.
      > The Anglo-Saxon Invasion of Britain
      > http://www.angelcynn.org.uk/history_invasion.html
      > (Site Excerpt) This account of the migrations from Germany, following the
      > collapse of the Roman Empire, is taken from the Anglo-Saxon Chronicles, and
      > is how the later Anglo-Saxons saw the first arrival of their people. Since
      > then, until quite recently, it has remained the accepted view of what
      > happened. However, recent researches have shown it to be wrong in almost
      > every detail It is even uncertain whether Hengest andHorsa existed, or
      > whether they were actually the same person! #1 Although Hengest may have
      > been the first Germanic chieftain of Kent, he was probably no more than a
      > warlord. The first Germanic king was probably his son Oisc, giving the
      > Kentish royal house the name of the 'Oiscingas'. Whilst it may be true that
      > a British king (who may or may not have been called Vortigern) employed
      > Germanic mercenaries to aid him in his battles against the Picts (or perhaps
      > just another British king), it would certainly not be the first instance of
      > Germanic settlers in this country.
      > ?a Engliscan Gesi?as...
      > http://www.kami.demon.co.uk/gesithas/index.html
      > (Site Excerpt) ?a Engliscan Gesi?as is the only major historical society
      > devoted to the study of the Anglo-Saxon period. All aspects are covered,
      > including language and literature, archaeology, anthropology, architecture,
      > art, religion, mythology, folklore and material culture. ?a Engliscan
      > Gesi?as is Old English for 'The English Companions'.
      > It is pronounced approximately 'Tha Englishan yeseethas'
      > Readings of Old English Poetry
      > http://www.kami.demon.co.uk/gesithas/readings/readings.html
      > (Site Excerpt) Old English poetry was meant to be declaimed aloud before an
      > audience, the poet, or Scop, being both a creative and a performing artist.
      > Accompanied by harp he would entertain the guests of his patron with tales
      > of past deeds, battles of old and the prowess of his lord's ancestors. In
      > this manner was history kept alive for the Anglo-Saxons. The scop had to be
      > a master of his art, being able to recite thousands of lines from memory
      > (the epic Beowulf alone has 3182 lines) and no doubt poor performances would
      > mean ridicule for the scop and the withdrawal of patronage. This is not to
      > mean that the scop worked purely from memory as there is evidence that the
      > swift composition of fitting verse was also the mark of a skilled man.
      > Some Thoughts on the Origin of the Fu?ark
      > by Steve Pollington (Anglo-Saxon Runic Writing)
      > http://www.kami.demon.co.uk/gesithas/runes/index.html
      > (Site Excerpt) The origins of the Germanic writing system known as the
      > fu?ark is a hotly debated issue in scholarly circles, and the present paper
      > is intended only to air some views and perhaps inspire others to contribute
      > to the debate. I name the script 'fu?ark' in this article in order to avoid
      > the much misunderstood word 'runes': briefly, a rune (OE run) is a secret, a
      > mystery and the characters used for writing were called runstafas
      > 'rune-staves' in Old English The characters are not themselves runes but
      > mere ciphers or symbols pointing to or marking out the mysteries proper. In
      > this piece, I shall use the word 'runstave' when referring to an alphabetic
      > character. The origins of the script have been sought in three main areas:
      > the Greek, Roman and North Italic alphabets. I shall deal with each of these
      > in turn.
      > The Anglo-Saxon Calendar
      > http://www.kami.demon.co.uk/gesithas/calendar/index.html
      > (Site Excerpt) The calendar used by the Anglo-Saxons in pre-christian times
      > remains a mystery, albeit not a complete mystery. In De Temporum Ratione
      > Bede left us enough information to paint a rough picture of the early
      > calendar, but not enough to understand the detail of how the calender was
      > applied and (more importantly) regulated. This collection of pages is
      > intended to shed a little light on what is known, or can be surmised, about
      > our ancient Englisc calendar.
      > Dr. Sam Newton's Wuffing's Website
      > http://www.wuffings.co.uk/index.htm#Mainmenu1
      > (Site Excerpt) Welcome to Dr Sam Newton's Wuffings' Website, which aims to
      > provide a focus for the study of the Wuffing Kingdom of East Anglia in
      > particular and for Anglo-Saxon England in general.
      > SEE ALSO: Sutton Hoo: Burial-Ground of the Wuffings
      > http://www.wuffings.co.uk/MySHPages/SHPage.html
      > An artist's rendering of the King R?dwald gravesite's contents on the wearer
      > (click on items in the painting for articles about them and photos at the
      > British Museum) http://www.wuffings.co.uk/WuffMapLinks/RedwaldFrm.html
      > Compass: The search Engine of Artifacts and Articles at the British Museum
      > http://www.british-museum.ac.uk/compass/ixbin/hixclient.exe?_IXDB_=compass&search-form=graphical/main.html&submit-button=search
      > (Beware of wrapped URLs, whose entire length may not be included in
      > hyper-linked URLs in emails. To be sure you've got the correct address,
      > copy-paste the entire address into the address bar of your web browser.)
      > To view Ssutton Hoo Finds and articles, type "Sutton Hoo" into the Quick
      > Search bar and hit enter. Also useful for other collections. For instance,
      > entering the term Saxon brings up 119 items!
      > The Sutton Hoo Society
      > http://www.suttonhoo.org/
      > (Site Excerpt) Welcome to the Sutton Hoo Society web site. It has been
      > produced to give you a brief introduction to the work of the Sutton Hoo
      > Society and the story behind the Anglo Saxon Royal Cemetery at Sutton Hoo in
      > Suffolk in the UK. (Site include a newsletter, archaeology information, and
      > an interactive tour).
      > Anglo-Saxon History: A Select Bibliography by Simon Keynes
      > http://www.wmich.edu/medieval/rawl/keynes1/home.htm
      > (Site Excerpt) This bibliography is intended to serve as a general guide to
      > the primary and secondary sources for the study of Anglo-Saxon history.
      > No-one would be expected, able, or inclined to read more than a small
      > selection of the items listed...Section A is for general guidance. Section B
      > provides a rough classification of the primary sources for our knowledge of
      > Anglo-Saxon history. The aim is to indicate the range of the source material
      > at our disposal, and (in the case of written texts) to guide the reader
      > towards the most accessible editions and translations. The rest of the
      > bibliography comprises references organized under broad historical themes.
      > The coverage is by no means comprehensive, but within its own terms the
      > choice of reading should serve as a guide to the main areas of interest and
      > debate. It should be noted that the numbering of the entries is deliberately
      > discontinuous, to allow for further expansion.
      > The Anglo-Saxon Homepage
      > Produced by Prof. Michael Hanly
      > http://www.wsu.edu:8080/~hanly/oe/503.html
      > (Site Excerpt) This page was put together for the use of the graduate
      > students in Old English at Washington State University, and serves as the
      > virtual "command post" for all my students reading Anglo-Saxon texts. It's
      > not restricted to our students, however, so anyone happening upon this page
      > should feel free to have a look and follow the links to some wonderful
      > sites. There's nothing very original here outside of my old slides (see
      > "Images from Anglo-Saxon England" at the bottom of this page); if you find
      > them useful somehow, please drop me a line before reproducing them. And
      > while I'm on that subject: the "Anglo-Saxon clip art" reproduced on this
      > page is by Eva Wilson, Early Medieval Designs from Britain for Artists and
      > Craftspeople, Dover Books, 1983.
      > Richard Rawlinson Center for Anglo-Saxon Sytudies and Manuscript Research
      > http://www.wmich.edu/medieval/rawl/index.html
      > (Site Excerpt) The Richard Rawlinson Center fosters teaching and research in
      > the history and culture of Anglo-Saxon England and in the broader field of
      > manuscript studies. Dedicated to the memory of the founder of the chair of
      > Anglo-Saxon at Oxford University, and established through a gift from
      > Georgian Rawlinson Tashjian and the late David Reitler Tashjian, the Center
      > opened in May 1994. It houses a growing specialist library of books,
      > microfiches, microfilms, and slides. Other resources are being actively
      > developed.
      > Map: Anglo-Saxon England
      > http://www.georgetown.edu/faculty/ballc/oe/oe-map.html
      > Image by Matthew White. Please do not reproduce without permission of the
      > author (mwhite28@...).
      > Angel-cynn Anglo-Saxon Clothing (both Pagan and Christian)
      > http://www.angelcynn.org.uk/clothing.html
      > Menu includes: Anglo-Saxon Clothing : Pagan Dress :
      > Male Clothing | Female Clothing | Appearance | Clothing Photos |
      > Kentish-Frankish Dress
      > Christian Dress :
      > Male Clothing | Female Clothing | Clothing Photos
      > Clothing
      > http://www.octavia.net/9thclife/Clothing.htm
      > (Site Excerpt) Manuscript painting offers the greatest number of
      > illustrations of Anglo-Saxon garments, with the kings, queens, saints and
      > clerics depicted in raiment appropriate to their respective classes. Be
      > mindful that our surmises are thus weighted towards the luxurious tastes of
      > the wealthy. Ivory, wood, and bone carvings, stone crosses and wall
      > paintings provide another glimpse into prevailing fashion. Lords and ladies,
      > thegns and merchants describe and name particular articles of clothing in
      > their wills, and leave them to favoured heirs. Grave finds and occasional
      > cess-pit remnants of clothing provide additional, more egalitarian sources
      > for study. (Article goes on to talk about conjectured women's undergarments
      > or lack thereof, including those conjectured to have been worn during times
      > of flux).
      > Anglo-Saxon and Viking Works of the Needle: Some Artistic Currents in
      > Cross-Cultural Exchange
      > ? 1992 Carolyn Priest-Dorman. Permission is granted to make and distribute
      > verbatim copies of this document for non-commercial private research
      > purposes provided the copyright notice and this permission notice are
      > preserved on all copies.
      > http://www.cs.vassar.edu/~capriest/asvembroid.html
      > (Site Excerpt) This paper contains a typology and brief discussion of some
      > stitches that have been discovered on extant textiles from the period
      > between the seventh and eleventh centuries in Anglo-Saxon, Viking, and
      > related cultures. Embroidery, construction stitches, style, and usage are
      > considered. Information is organized in a comparative framework based on
      > techniques, not on culture or period, in order to facilitate a practical
      > understanding by needleworkers. An appendix lists the cultures and sites
      > considered.
      > Anglo Saxon Women's Clothing for the 11th Century
      > http://members.lycos.co.uk/Wulfingas/11thdress.htm
      > (Site Excerpt) Overtunic: This Tunic is made again of wool, although the
      > very rich may have had elaborate heavy silk ones for best. As you can see
      > from the diagram the main difference is that the sleeves become much larger
      > at the wrist end, illustrations vary, but the hem comes mid calf to ankle
      > length usually. The inside of the sleeves may be of a contrasting colour.
      > Borders may have tablet woven or embroidered decoration.
      > Lothene Experimetnal Archaeology; Early Medieval Clothes Patterns
      > http://www.lothene.demon.co.uk/crafts6.html
      > (Site Excerpt) The patterns and descriptions given here are intended for
      > re-enactors rather than serious academic historians. Janet Arnold has
      > written an excellent series of books which are based on disections of actual
      > historical clothing from the 16th Century onwards and which give accurate
      > patterns.
      > Most of the evidence for Early Medieval clothing is in the form of fragments
      > of garments and illustrations in manuscripts and other historical records,
      > so there has to be a certain amount of guesswork involved in
      > recreations.SIMPLE T- TUNIC: The pattern opposite can be used for a man's
      > tunic or a woman's dress. Variations on this style were worn from the time
      > of the Bronze Age. Arguably, the traditional peasant smock, which was worn
      > in Britain up until the last century was an evolution of the garment.
      > High class ladies began to wear fitted dresses which laced up the back in
      > the 11th Century, and in the 13th Century fashionable men began to wear more
      > fitted garments with buttons up the front.
      > Anglo-Saxon Architecture in England
      > http://www.britainexpress.com/architecture/saxon.htm
      > (Site Excerpt) England is not blessed with an abundance of surviving
      > Anglo-Saxon buildings. There is good reason for this scarcity; the
      > Anglo-Saxon period was one beset by frequent warfare and violent invasions,
      > particularly by the Vikings in the period 800-950. These invaders, quite
      > naturally, burned and destroyed most of the settlements they came across, in
      > their search for plunder and martial glory. For this reason most surviving
      > examples of Anglo-Saxon architecture date from either 600-725 or 900-1050.
      > Unfortunately for posterity, most Saxon buildings were constructed of wood
      > with wattle and daub walls. The depredations of the Danes left very few of
      > these flammable buildings standing. The only buildings the Anglo-Saxons
      > tended to build in more permanent stone were their monasteries and churches.
      > Here, at least, there are several good examples remaining to see today. (See
      > our in-depth article on Anglo-Saxon churches here.)
      > A Nice Little Earner: Slavery in Anglo-Saxon England
      > http://www.regia.org/earner.htm
      > (Site Excerpt) Slaves were an important part of early medieval society and
      > appear in large numbers in charters and Doomsday Book, but the evidence for
      > them is mostly fragmentary and widely scattered.
      > Viking/Anglo Saxon Clothing- advanced and basic
      > http://www.thinkers.org/mel/Viking_and_Saxon_Garb.html
      > A list of links on the subject.
      > 11th Century Anglo Saxon Men's Garb by Ethelwulf Kildare
      > http://www.vanishedwood.org/keep/garb1.htm
      > (Site Excerpt) Most of what we know on Anglo Saxon clothing is found from
      > manuscripts and various archeological finds. From these we find that in many
      > cases, Anglo Saxon clothing differed only slightly in appearance to the
      > clothing on the continent during the same period. Fabrics: Most often,
      > woolen fabrics would have been used although there are descriptions of furs
      > being used on cloaks. Linen may have been used, especially among the wealthy
      > since it would have had to been imported from Ireland and the continent.
      > Woolen fabrics, as described at the Sutton Hoo burial varied from the heavy
      > and rough textured to soft, lightweight and finer woolens. From the Sutton
      > Hoo burial we find examples of the colors used in clothing. Most of the
      > woolen fabrics at the site were dyed in indigo or woad, red and yellow
      > although there were examples of many natural shades from pale creme to dark
      > blackish brown. The burial also found pattern weaves and in other grave
      > sites gold thread was often woven into the fabric in a variety of designs.
      > As can be seen in the picture of King Knut, there seems to be areas that
      > appear to be trim, around the sleeves, or of a different color, as can be
      > seen around the hem and the collar.
      > Regia Anglorum Food and Drink in Anglo Saxon England
      > http://www.regia.org/food.htm
      > (Site Excerpt) When we visit the shops in England today, we are presented
      > with a wealth of fruit and vegetables from all corners of the planet from
      > which to choose. For people in this country in the tenth and eleventh
      > century this could not happen. They had only such foods as could be
      > cultivated seasonally or found wild. Exotic foods such as potatoes,
      > tomatoes, bananas, pineapples - fruits and vegetables of the New World, were
      > unknown here. Mediterranean fruits, such as lemons and oranges were, as far
      > as we know, not imported, although we have documentary proof for the
      > importation of such things as figs and grapes ( Viking Age England, Julian
      > Richards, p94 ). We know that they grew wheat, rye, oats and barley. Wheat
      > for bread, barley for brewing and oats for animal fodder and porridge. Along
      > with these crops grew various weeds of cultivation - some of them poisonous.
      > The harvesting methods made it difficult to separate the cereal from the
      > weed, and many illnesses must have been caused in this way.
      > Amazon.com Review: A Handbook of Anglo-Saxon Food: Processing and
      > Consumption
      > by Ann Hagen
      > http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0951620983/002-7880129-7408832?vi=glance
      > (Site Excerpt) For the first time information from various sources has been
      > brought together in order to build up a picture of how food was grown,
      > conserved, prepared and eaten during the period from the beginning of the
      > 5th century to the 11th century. No specialist knowledge of the Anglo-Saxon
      > period or language is needed, and many people will find it fascinating for
      > the views it gives of an important aspect of Anglo-Saxon life and culture.
      > In addition to Anglo-Saxon England the Celtic west of Britain is also
      > covered. Subject headings include: drying, milling and bread making;
      > dairying; butchery; preservation and storage; methods of cooking; meals and
      > mealtimes; fasting; feasting; food shortages and deficiency diseases. (Note:
      > Found a web reference to "A Second Handbook of Anglo.." etc. by the same
      > author). See also http://www.asbooks.co.uk/food.htm
      > Castle Furnishing Anglo-Saxon links
      > http://www.medievalbookstore.com/Anglo-Saxon.htm
      > Amazon.com: Anglo-Saxon Appetites: Food and Drink and Their Consumption in
      > Old English and Related Literatureby Hugh Magennis
      > http://isbn.nu/1851823824
      > Hard-to-find reference.
      > The Forme of Cury, A Roll Of Ancient English Cookery, Compiled, about A.D.
      > 1390, by the Master-Cooks of King Richard II, Presented afterwards to Queen
      > Elizabeth, by Edward Lord Stafford, and now in the Possession of Gustavus
      > Brander, Esq. Illustrated with Notes, And a copious Index, or Glossary. A
      > Manuscript of the Editor, of the same Age and Subject, with other congruous
      > Matters, are subjoined.
      > http://www.pbm.com/~lindahl/foc/
      > Webbed by Greg Lindahl (Gregory Blount of Isenfir?). This is a reproduction.
      > See also http://texts01.archive.org/dp/ , where members can proofread webbed
      > copies of a translation of the Forme of Curye for Project Gutenburg---if you
      > have the skill to do so, you are encouraged to participate.
      > (NOTE: Though Forme of Curye post-dates the Saxon era according to the
      > statements above, many of the recipes are believed to hail from the 11th
      > century or so).
      > Were the West Saxons guilty of Ethnic Cleansing? A news debate
      > http://www.channel4.com/history/timeteam/archive/timeteamlive2001/feature_ethnic.html
      > (Site Excerpt) Bede also refers to the Hampshire mainland as 'the nation of
      > the Jutes'...Archaeology now supports these conclusions, as one of the only
      > other Byzantine buckets was found in the sixth-century cemetery of Chessell
      > Down on the Isle of Wight - also held by the Jutes...As the cemetery
      > excavated by Time Team is firmly dated to the sixth century, it can only be
      > Jutish as there were no Saxons in the region until over a century later,
      > when Caedwalla did his best to exterminate all the Jutes living in those
      > areas and replace them with his own tribesmen (Bede) - a peculiarly nasty
      > example of genocide and ethnic cleansing.
      > Anglo-Saxon 'planned town' revealed this month in Whitby
      > House platforms, artifacts and a cemetery near the abbey
      > http://www.britarch.ac.uk/ba/ba64/news.shtml
      > (Site Excerpt) The excavations revealed that Anglo-Saxon settlements
      > surrounding the royal abbey founded in 657 were far more extensive and
      > well-planned than had previously been thought. An area of sloping ground
      > north of the abbey, thought to have originally measured about 20 acres
      > before centuries of cliff erosion, had been organised like a 'new town' and
      > was covered in man-made terracing to provide level ground surfaces for
      > houses.
      > An Anglian Time Line
      > http://members.tripod.com/~midgley/anglosaxons.html
      > (Site Excerpt) The term "Anglo-Saxon" is a misnomer, used by the Normans for
      > legal purposes. The migrant groups were distinct enough for Bede to refer to
      > them as discrete groups, the Angles, the Saxons, the Jutes and Frisians
      > (Site includes the following:)PAGE INDEX:
      > Anglians The Battle of Winwaed
      > Early Anglo-Saxon Settlement Mercia under Penda
      > The Christian Unconformity Early English Topographic Names
      > Anglian Grave Goods The origin of the Saxons, Angles and Jutes according to
      > Bede
      > Anglian Boundaries Anglian Deities
      > The Saints bring Christianity to The North Anglian Year according to Bede
      > Northumbrian Kings Anglian Social Hierarchy
      > Middle Anglo-Saxon Settlements Anglian place-names
      > Notes on Anglo-Saxon History
      > http://www.geocities.com/fairauthor/pg25.html
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