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Re: target, missile combat and thrown weapon rules (fwd)

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  • John Edgerton
    Here are the rules for target archery, missile combat and thrrown weapons as they were accepted by the BOD. Jon ************************************
    Message 1 of 1 , Jan 31, 2000
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      Here are the rules for target archery, missile combat and thrrown weapons
      as they were accepted by the BOD.

      Jon
      ************************************



      <color><param>0000,0000,7F00</param> SCA Missile Combat Rules






      <smaller> MARSHALING MISSILE COMBAT


      1. The Marshal-in-Charge (MIC) shall be responsible for establishing a safe area for spectators and non-combatants. The Marshal-in-Charge shall ensure that all spectators are made aware of the danger of missile weapons prior to the start of combat. He shall attempt to minimize the risk to all spe




      2. Where missile combat is to take place, a readily identifiable boundary for the combat shall be established. The Marshal-in-Charge shall establish a safe distance for the spectators from the boundary as is appropriate to the scenario and missiles used.


      3. If any combatant crosses any established boundary (i.e., into a spectators' area), a hold must be called immediately and the combatant(s) involved must be repositioned safely before being allowed to resume combat. Any combatant who crosses such a boundary and then discharges a missile or other


      4. Marshals should pay special attention to enforcement of the capture/slaying rules, and to strictly enforcing the above rules concerning crossing boundaries.




      5. Non-combatants, such as marshals, on the field during combat are required to wear eye protection which is sufficient to protect against the combat arrows or other missiles in use, such as industrial or sports safety glasses or goggles. Note: An SCA legal helm is considered sufficient protectio




      DEFINITIONS




      1. Light Weapons:

      Projectile weapons including, but not limited to, bows and arrows, crossbows and bolts, slings and stones or bullets, javelins, darts, and throwing axes. Other weapons in this class, including knives and siege engines, exist and have been used.




      2. Full-Contact Missile Combatant:

      A combatant wearing armor which meets at least the minimum requirements for rattan (heavy) weapons combat and who will be using missile equipment in combat. EXCEPTION: A full-contact missile combatant's hand protection shall meet the Archer's Gauntlet requirement as defined below in the Missile C


      3. Non-Contact Missile Combatant:

      A combatant wearing armor which meets at least the minimum requirements for light weapons combat and who will be using missile equipment in combat.




      4. Anti-Bounceback Device (ABD):

      A device attached to the nock end of an arrow which prevents or greatly reduces the possibility of injury in the event of a wood or fiberglass shafted arrow bouncing back nock first, or of a fighter falling upon an upright shaft.



      MISSILE COMBAT RULES




      FULL-CONTACT COMBAT ARCHERS (HEAVY ARCHERS)




      6. Full-Contact Combat Archers shall meet the minimal Society standards for a fully armoured, heavy weapons combatant. The only exception to this rule shall be those archers equipped with the "Archer's Gauntlet'' (see Point Three below).


      7. Full-Contact Combat Archers shall be authorized to participate by the marshallate, following established marshallate procedures. During this authorization all Combat Archers must show:

      � That they are familiar with the Rules of the Lists, the SCA Missile Combat Rules, and all the rules and conventions of combat pertaining to missile combat in their Kingdom.

      � That they can recognize and accept a killing blow.

      � That they are safe to themselves and their opponents.

      � That they can keep their bow out of the way during combat.

      � That they have an awareness of spectator safety.




      3. Full-Contact Combat Archers shall wear an "Archer's Gauntlet'' on the hand which is used to pick up and draw arrows. The hand in which the bow is held shall meet the minimum Society standards for hand protection for a fully armoured, heavy weapons combatant. The "Archer's Gauntlet'' shall be




      4. A Full-Contact Combat Archer may be struck/killed in the same manner as any combatant on the field. A cry of "yield" shall be accepted. Once killed, Full-Contact Combat Archers are treated as any other dead combatant, being removed from combat as soon as practical (thus decreasing the chance




      5. When only full-contact missile troops are on the field, archers must be far enough from their target so that their arrow will be airborne before it strikes their target. If mixed troops are on the field, the minimum distance from the target is five yards.


      6. A Full-Contact Combat Archer may become a regular combatant provided that he/she is authorized as a regular combatant and does two things:

      � Discards his/her bow in a safe manner, so as not to cause a hazard, and replaces it with an approved weapon/weapons and/or shield.

      � Either changes his/her "Archer's Gauntlet" for a combat-legal gauntlet, or places that hand in an approved basket hilt. "Approved" in this instance means the basket hilt was inspected and approved by a warranted marshal while the Combat Archer was wearing his/her "Archer's Gauntlet'' inside t





      NON-CONTACT COMBAT ARCHERS (LIGHT ARCHERS)




      8. Non-Contact Combat Archers shall meet the Missile Weapon equipment standards.




      2. Non-Contact Combat Archers shall be authorized to participate by the marshallate, following established marshallate procedures. During this authorization all Combat Archers must show:

      � That they are familiar with the Rules of the List, the SCA Missile Combat rules and all the rules and conventions of combat pertaining to missile combat in their Kingdom.

      � That they are safe to themselves and their opponents.

      � That they can recognize a killing blow from a missile.

      � That they have an awareness of spectator safety.




      3. Each Kingdom shall establish a safe method of determining that Non-Contact Combat Archers are "dead'' (such as approaching within 10 feet of the archer, touch kill, etc.).




      4. Non-Contact Combat Archers must be no closer to their target than five yards when shooting.




      5. Non-Contact Combat Archers are not to be struck by any heavy weapons combatant. They are subject to missile fire.




      NOTE: Since only Lochac in the West and the Southern Reaches of Caid still use 3/4 inch blunts, reference to these has been removed from the rules. The SCA Marshal will continue to allow the above-named regions to use the blunts, as well as plumes instead of the red pheon for the non-contact symb





      MISSILE COMBAT EQUIPMENT




      GENERAL




      � All missile combatants bear final responsibility for the condition and safety of their own equipment.




      ARMOR




      Basic Requirements:




      1. All armor shall be fastened so as to prevent its being dislodged during use. All armor shall protect the wearer regardless of the wearer's posture or position.




      2. Non-combatants will bear conspicuous insignia which identify their non-combat status (usually the arms of their office).


      3. Eye protection suitable for the missiles in use is required for all participants, such as marshals, heralds, etc., on the field during combat. When tennis ball-tipped golf tube arrows are used exclusively, eye protection is strongly recommended, but not required.


      4. When wood/fiberglass shafted arrows are used, industrial or sports safety glasses may be worn, or adequate screening or shatterproof plastic, such as Lexan, may be attached to the helm over the eyes to provide additional eye protection.




      5. The lenses of all eye wear shall be shatterproof safety glass or plastic, such as industrial safety glasses meeting ANSI Z 87.1 standard. Ordinary glass lenses are prohibited.




      6. The use of minimum 1/8 inch thick Lexan or other equivalent shatterproof plastic worn on the outside of the helm, as additional eye protection, is allowed. This is in addition to combat-legal bars or visor slots.




      Non-Contact Armor Requirements:


      1. In combat situations where light weapons are used exclusively, the minimum requirement is a fencing mask. The mask or helm must cover the front and sides of the head, and be fastened in such a manner as to prevent it from coming off or being significantly dislodged during normal use. In addit




      A barred or visor slotted helm of 18 gauge metal, which otherwise meets the minimum SCA construction standards, is acceptable. A helm without legal face bars or slots shall have all openings covered with well-secured perforated metal, chain mail, or stout wire mesh with openings of no more than 1




      If chain mail is used, the links must be hard tempered, welded, soldered, or otherwise strengthened to avoid opening under impact.




      2. If non-contact missile users are to be on the field during mixed combat, they must wear a helm which meets the minimum SCA construction standards, except that it may be made of 18 gauge steel. It must be padded adequately to protect against an unintentional blow. However, if the helm resembl




      3. Puncture- and thrust-resistant padding for the back of the head, the throat, and the neck is required. Tournament combat helms and neck armor are acceptable equivalents.




      4. Kidney and groin armor meeting minimum SCA tourney standards is required.




      5. A minimum of leather gloves shall be worn on the hands.




      6. It is required that shoes or boots be worn on the feet.




      7. Protection for the knees of resilient material is required.






      Full-Contact Armor Requirements:




      1. Full-contact missile users shall wear armor meeting the minimum requirements for combat using rattan (heavy) weapons.




      2. They shall wear a minimum of an archer's gauntlet or demi-gauntlet on the hand that is used to pick up or draw the arrow or to throw any missile.




      3. It is required that shoes or boots be worn on the feet.





      BOWS


      General Requirements:




      1. The draw weight of the bow is to be determined at 28 inches draw length, as measured from the center of the bow riser.




      2. If both wood/fiberglass shafted arrows and golf tube arrows are to be used at the same time, then those bows designed exclusively for golf tube arrows (see "Heavy Bows" below) must have the full width of the upper limb clearly marked with a strip of red tape, or the equivalent, for the top si




      3. Bows may not be used to strike an opponent, nor may they be used as a shield against rattan weapons. However, non-contact combat archers may protect themselves from attack if necessary.


      4. No one may shoot a non-approved missile from their bow. For example, shooting a wood shaft arrow from a bow with more than 30 pounds draw is not permitted. Such use may be considered grounds for removing a fighter from the field and/or revoking his/her authorization.


      5. Due to the restrictions which have been placed on missile weapons (i.e., bow draw weight, arrow construction), missiles are not generally required to strike as hard as non-missile weapons in order for the blow to be counted.


      6. Compound bows are not permitted.




      Light Bows:




      1. A Combat Archer may use any recurve or longbow that is in a safe and usable condition, so long as the bow does not exceed 30 (thirty) pounds draw weight at 28 inches of draw. Bows shall be inspected before use by a warranted marshal, knowledgeable about archery equipment and safety.


      2. Bows of 30 (thirty) pounds or less are considered Light Bows and may be used to shoot either wood or fiberglass shafted arrows or golf tube arrows.



      Heavy Bows:




      1. Bows used only for shooting golf-tube arrows are considered Heavy Bows. They may have a draw weight of up to 50 (fifty) pounds at 28 inches of draw. Bows shall be inspected before use by a warranted marshal, knowledgeable about archery equipment and safety.




      2. If the arrows to be used are not golf tube arrows, but their nock ends cannot penetrate the visor slot or bars of a combat-legal helm, then the bow to be used may be permitted to have a draw weight of more than 30 (thirty) pounds. This will be determined, on a case-by-case basis, by both the





      CROSSBOWS


      General Requirements:


      1. Crossbows may not be used to strike an opponent, nor may they be used as a shield against rattan weapons. However, non-contact combat archers may protect themselves from attack if necessary.




      2. No one may shoot a non-approved missile from a crossbow. Such use may be considered grounds for removing a fighter from the field and/or revoking his/her authorization.




      3. Compound crossbows are not permitted.




      Light Crossbows:




      1. A Light Crossbow is one which does not exceed 600 inch pounds. The number of inch pounds is determined by multiplying the length of the power stroke in inches by the pounds of pull at the locked position on the string. (The pull weight is to be measured at the nut--i.e., string position when


      2. Crossbows shall be inspected before use by a warranted marshal, knowledgeable about archery equipment and safety.




      Heavy Crossbows:




      1. Crossbows shooting exclusively golf-tube arrows may have a power of up to 1000 inch pounds, and are considered Heavy Crossbows.


      2. If the arrows to be used are not golf tube arrows, but their nock ends cannot penetrate the visor slot or bars of a combat-legal helm, then the crossbow to be used may be permitted to have a draw weight of more than 600 inch pounds. This will be determined on a case-by-case basis, by both the






      ARROWS AND BOLTS


      General Requirements:




      1. Arrows may only be used as missiles launched from a bow. No arrows shall be used as hand-held thrusting weapons. Such use may be considered grounds for removing a fighter from the field and/or revoking his/her authorization.




      2. New designs or materials for blunts, shafts, etc. must first be tested at a kingdom level for safety and durability. Interested parties should contact the Society Archery Marshal for testing standards. Then the test results must be sent to both the Society Earl Marshal and Society Archery Mar




      Wood or Fiberglass Shafted Arrows and Bolts:




      1. Arrows must have a blunt head, such as a Markland or modified Markland, Thistle Missile, Baldar, UHMW, Morak or other SCA approved combat blunt. The padded face of the blunt may be flat, rounded or parabolic, but not pointed.




      � Fiberglass shafted crossbow bolts may not use Thistle Missile blunts for heads.

      � Handmade blunts are required to have a minimum of half an inch of resilient padding (measured after taping) over the full striking surface of the face. The padding should have progressive give and should hold up under repeated impact. The blunt must have a finished diameter of at least 1 1/4




      2. Padding on the face of a blunt which has compacted under use to less than a half- inch in thickness must be replaced.


      3. Only wood or solid fiberglass shafted arrows are permitted. Shafts should have a minimum diameter of 1/4 inch for fiberglass or 5/16 inch for wood.


      4. Blunts shall be firmly secured to the shaft so that they cannot come off on impact or if the shaft is broken. The cable tie alone is not sufficient for Baldar Blunts. All blunts must be secured by at least one strip of 1/2 inch wide (minimum) good quality electrical or strapping tape. This st


      5. Maximum allowable draw length (bottom of the nock slot to just behind the blunt) is 28 inches.




      6. Metal points must be removed prior to mounting blunt points. The front end of the shaft must be flat, not pointed. A slight rounding of the edges is allowed for ease of construction. The use of metal points or sharp shafts will be considered grounds for removing a fighter from the field and/o




      7. The shaft of the arrow shall be spirally or longitudinally wrapped with plastic tape, such as electrical tape, Mylar, or strapping tape, totally covering the surface from the front of the fletching to the tip of the shaft. The tape should be strong enough so that if the shaft should break, i


      8. Wood or fiberglass shafted arrows shall be used only after inspection supervised by a marshal. Archers shall be responsible for re-checking the safety of all arrows at the time of use.




      9. All arrows shall be clearly marked for identification with the name of the user. For interkingdom wars the name of the kingdom shall be included as well to make it easier to locate the maker/owner of the arrows.




      Gleaning of Arrows:




      1. Golf tube arrows may be gleaned and reinspected upon the field by the archer and then reused.




      2. If mixed arrow types are used (wood/fiberglass shafted and golf tubes) then only golf tube arrows may be gleaned and field inspected. The wood/fiberglass arrows may be removed from the field and inspected under the supervision of a marshal during the battle.




      NOTE: The gleaning and field inspection of fiberglass or SCA approved ABD shafts will not be allowed at this time. When they have been in use for some time with no indication of safety problems, then they will be considered for field inspection.




      Golf Tube Arrows:




      � Golf Tube Combat Arrows shall be constructed by using a plastic golf tube and attaching a tennis ball, foam thrusting tip or other approved head to the reinforcing ring end.




      To construct the tennis-ball style:




      Using a strong cord of 1/8" or less diameter, tie the tennis ball to the golf tube by crossing two pieces of cord through the golf tube underneath the reinforcing ring, and over the tennis ball. Be sure that the knots are located on the side of the tennis ball and not at the tip. Securely tape th



      To construct the foam thrusting-tip style:




      Construction methods should be similar to those of thrusting tips for rattan weapons. The tip should be a minimum of 1.5 inches diameter, and should allow for a minimum of 1 inch of compression. The shaft of the arrow need not be taped as there is no chance of breakage. Fletches are recommended f




      To reduce the likelihood of a golf tube arrow penetrating an SCA legal helm in the event of "bounce-back," a plug made of foam, paper, 35mm film can or similar material should be put in the nock end of the arrow so as to limit the tendency of the tube to compress upon impact. (Alternative solutio




      Maximum allowable arrow draw length (bottom of the nock slot to just behind the blunt) is 28 inches. The use of lightweight foam to stiffen the shaft may be permitted. This must not add substantial additional weight to the arrow.





      FULL-CONTACT COMBAT JAVELIN THROWERS (HEAVY JAVELIN THROWERS)




      1. Full-Contact Combat Javelin Throwers shall meet the minimum Society standards for a fully armoured, heavy weapons combatant. The only exception to this rule shall be the ''Archer's Gauntlet'' (see Point Three below).




      2. Full-Contact Combat Javelin Throwers shall be authorized to participate by the marshallate, following established marshallate procedures. During this authorization all Combat Javelin Throwers must show:

      � That they are familiar with the Rules of the List, the SCA Missile Combat Rules, and all the conventions of missile combat in their kingdom.

      � That they can recognize and accept a killing blow.

      � That they are safe to themselves and their opponents, i.e., they can throw a javelin so that it hits head first.

      � That they have an awareness of spectator safety.




      3. Full-Contact Javelin Throwers shall wear, at minimum, an ''Archer's Gauntlet'' or demi-gauntlet on the hand that is used to throw javelins. The other hand shall meet the minimum Society standards for hand protection for a fully armoured heavy weapons combatant.


      4. A Full-Contact Javelin Thrower may be struck/killed in the same manner as any combatant on the field. A cry of "yield" shall be accepted. Once killed, Full-Contact Javelin Throwers are treated as any other dead combatant, being removed from combat as soon as practical.




      5. A Full-Contact Javelin Thrower may become a regular combatant as long as he/she is authorized as a regular combatant and does two things:

      � Discards, in such a way as to not cause a hazard, any javelins being held in the hands or arms and takes up an approved weapon and/or shield.

      � Either changes his/her ''Archer's Gauntlet'' for a combat-legal gauntlet, or places his/her hand in an approved basket hilt. "Approved" in this instance means that the basket hilt was inspected and approved by a warranted marshal while the javelin thrower was wearing his/her ''Archer's Gauntlet




      6. Javelins shall not be used to block heavy weapon blows.




      7. Javelins may be used while carrying a shield.





      NON-CONTACT JAVELIN THROWERS (LIGHT JAVELIN THROWERS)




      1. Non-Contact Javelin Throwers shall meet the Missile Weapon equipment standards.




      2. Non-Contact Javelin Throwers shall be authorized to participate by the marshallate, following established marshallate procedures. During this authorization all javelin throwers must show:

      � That they are familiar with the Rules of the List, the SCA Missile Combat rules, and all the conventions of missile combat in their Kingdom.

      � That they are safe to themselves and their opponents, i.e., they can throw a javelin so that it hits head first.

      � That they can recognize a killing blow from a missile.

      � That they have an awareness of spectator safety.




      3. Each Kingdom shall establish a safe method of determining that Non-Contact Javelin Throwers are ''dead'' (such as approaching within 10 feet of the javeliner, touch kill, etc.).




      4. Non-Contact Javelin Throwers are not to be struck by any heavy weapons combatant. They are subject to missile fire.






      MISSILE COMBAT EQUIPMENT


      JAVELINS




      1. Javelins may be constructed from lengths of one inch outer diameter (3/4 inch inner diameter), schedule 40 PVC tubing, or equivalent materials approved by the marshallate. Any equivalent should be as strong or stronger, and not significantly heavier, than schedule 40 PVC tubing. The use of Si




      2. Darts are a short version of javelins and follow the same construction standards.




      3. Javelin shafts shall be spirally or longitudinally wrapped with fiber tape or any other material that will safely contain any breakage.




      4. Striking tips shall be constructed according to tourney weapon thrusting tip standards.




      5. The butt end of the shaft must be covered to present a flat and solid surface, i.e., with PVC pipe caps.




      6. The total weight of the javelin should not exceed 2 pounds.


      (NOTE: The two-pound limit will not take effect until one year after the rules go into force. This is to allow those kingdoms using 2.2 pound (1 kilo) javelins time to replace them. However, no new 2.2 pound javelins should be constructed during that time.)




      7. Javelins shall be marked with the name of their user or maker. For interkingdom wars they shall also be marked with the name of the kingdom to make it easier to locate the maker/user of the javelins.


      8. The javelin shall be constructed so that, when thrown head first, it will always strike head first. If necessary, fins, fletching, streamers, etc. should be used to prevent the javelin from turning and striking butt first. The fins should be constructed of a non-rigid material, such as closed





      OTHER MISSILE WEAPONS




      General Rules:




      1. A missile shall not contain any material, such as beans, sand, etc., which could enter the eyes if the missile came loose or broke.

      2. All missile weapons shall be marked with the name of their user or maker. For interkingdom wars they shall also be marked with the name of the kingdom to make it easier to locate the maker/user of the weapons.


      Hand Thrown Missiles:




      1. Hand thrown missiles may include, but are not limited to: axes, throwing knives, etc.




      2. Hand thrown missiles shall not exceed two pounds in weight. They should have progressive give similar to a legal javelin head. Lighter weight missiles may have less progressive give.




      Hand-Held Mechanically Launched Missiles:




      1. Hand-held mechanically launched missiles may include, but are not limited to: hand and staff slings, spear/dart throwers, tennis ball shooting crossbows. Hand or shoulder held guns are not allowed.


      2. Tennis ball missiles shall not exceed 3 ounces in weight. The balls may be perforated with a 1/4 inch maximum diameter hole by drilling. To prevent their collapsing when stepped on, they may not be slotted.




      3. Darts or javelins used with spear throwers shall be of golf tube construction. The spear thrower shall not be capable of throwing a golf tube dart/javelin more than eighty yards. The spear thrower must not be able to pass through the bars of a SCA legal helm.


      4. The maximum range for three-ounce tennis ball missiles launched from a hand held weapon is 90 yards and for two-ounce tennis ball missiles, 100 yards.




      Non-Contact Missile Troops:




      � Non-contact missile troops using either hand thrown or hand-held mechanically launched missiles must be no closer to their target than five yards.


      Full Contact Missile Troops:




      � When only full-contact missile troops are on the field, combatants using either hand thrown or hand-held mechanically launched missiles, such as spear throwers, must be far enough from their target so that their missile will be airborne before it strikes their target.


      KINGDOM LEVEL MISSILE COMBAT OFFICERS


      � Each kingdom level missile combat officer shall report quarterly to the Society Archery Marshal. This is in addition to any reporting required by kingdom law.




      SUPPLEMENTARY RECOMMENDATIONS--MISSILE COMBAT RULES




      MISSILE COMBAT EQUIPMENT--GENERAL




      1. The wearing of armor and clothing that gives as period an appearance as possible is strongly encouraged, e.g., no exposed knee or elbow pads, duct tape, bright blue plastic, etc.


      2. The use of hand bows and crossbows that have a period appearance is strongly recommended.


      ARMOR


      Basic Requirements:


      1. It is strongly recommended that Marshals wear groin and kidney protection. Marshals are also urged to wear marshaling tabards, or carry a clearly marked marshaling staff.


      2. It is strongly recommended that minimum society armour be worn by all non-combatants, such as marshals, who may accidentally come in contact with combatants or missiles.




      Non-Contact:




      1. It is strongly recommended that non-contact helms be designed to avoid resemblance to a standard heavy combat helm.




      2. Sleeves covering the entire arm and made of sturdy material (denim, trigger cloth, light leather, etc.) are recommended.


      3. Pants covering the entire leg and made of sturdy material (denim, trigger cloth, light leather, etc.) are recommended.


      4. Sturdy boots that support the ankle and soles that give good traction are strongly recommended.




      5. Protection of resilient material for the elbows is strongly recommended. Additional protection of rigid material for knees and elbows is strongly recommended.


      6. Gloves which are padded on the outside of the hand are recommended. A half gauntlet of rigid material for the string or throwing hand and a full gauntlet for the bow or non-throwing hand will give greater protection and are recommended.


      Contact:


      1. Sturdy boots that support the ankle and soles that give good traction are recommended.


      2. In addition to the required "Archer's Gauntlet," a light leather glove which covers the fingers is strongly recommended, and will eliminate the need for finger tabs, etc.


      WOOD OR FIBERGLASS SHAFTED ARROWS/BOLTS


      1. The use of 11/32 inch shafts for wood arrows is strongly recommended, as the thicker shafts are less apt to break. The use of greater than 5/16 shafts for fiberglass makes an overly heavy arrow, and is not recommended.


      2. Anti-bounceback devices (ABDs) which either prevent or reduce the chance of a bounceback entering the bars or visor slot of a legal helm can greatly reduce the chance of injury, and are recommended.











      <bigger>








      <center><bold><color><param>0100,0100,0100</param><FontFamily><param>Bell MT</param><bigger><bigger><bigger>SCA TARGET ARCHERY RULES </bold><smaller><smaller><smaller></center>



      TARGET ARCHERY MARSHALS


      Requirements for Target Archery Marshals:




      <paraindent><param>out</param>1. All Target Archery Marshals (TAMs) shall have a knowledge of range
      safety and of target archery. They shall be familiar with SCA and
      kingdom archery rules.</paraindent>


      <paraindent><param>out</param>2. All Target Archery Marshals are officers of the SCA and shall maintain
      membership as required by the SCA ByLaws, and shall be warranted
      by their kingdom as required by Corpora.</paraindent>


      Responsibilities of Target Archery Marshals:




      <paraindent><param>out</param> 1. The kingdom archery marshal shall ensure that the kingdom target
      archery rules include, at a minimum, basic range safety standards,
      archery equipment standards, warranting and reporting procedures for
      Target Archery Marshals, and injury reporting procedures.</paraindent>


      <paraindent><param>out</param> 2. The kingdom archery marshal shall report quarterly to the Society
      Archery Marshal. This is in addition to any required kingdom reports.</paraindent>




      <paraindent><param>out</param> 3. No target archery activities are to take place at an event unless a target
      archery marshal is present on the range.</paraindent>




      <paraindent><param>out</param> 4. In the event of any disagreement, the Target Archery Marshal in
      Charge shall have complete say and control in resolving the dispute,
      subject to appeal to the kingdom Earl Marshal or the Crown. Appeals
      may be made via the appropriate procedures as specified in kingdom
      and SCA law and policy.</paraindent>




      <paraindent><param>out</param> 5. The Target Archery Marshal's commands are to be followed explicitly
      while on the target archery range. Failure to follow the Target Archery
      Marshal�s instructions may result in removal from the range.</paraindent>



      <paraindent><param>out</param> 6. The Target Archery Marshal in Charge may request the assistance of
      other Marshals in the performance of his/her duties. However, the
      responsibility for safely setting up and running the range remains with
      the Target Archery Marshal in Charge.</paraindent>

      

      <paraindent><param>out</param> 7. The Target Archery Marshal in Charge or the assisting Marshals have
      the authority to inspect all bows and arrows/bolts for safety and
      compliance with kingdom rules.</paraindent>



      <paraindent><param>out</param>Equipment that does not meet the standards laid out in the rules shall
      not be used.<color><param>FF00,0000,0000</param> </color>(The marshal in charge may make exceptions - see section 4)<color><param>0100,0100,0100</param></paraindent>

      <paraindent><param>out</param>Equipment deemed unsafe by the Target Archery Marshal in Charge
      shall not be used.</paraindent>




      <paraindent><param>out</param> 8. While on duty, Target Archery Marshals are responsible for
      taking all reasonable steps to enforce the rules and safety standards for
      archery activities or events.</paraindent>




      <paraindent><param>out</param> 9. The Target Archery Marshal in Charge at an event shall
      report, to the kingdom archery officer and any others required by
      kingdom law and policy, all injuries requiring professional medical
      treatment as a result of activity on or about the range.</paraindent>


      <paraindent><param>out</param>10. The kingdom archery officer shall report to the Society
      Archery Marshal any archery-related injuries that required professional
      medical treatment as well as any potentially dangerous circumstances or
      incidents involving archery in the kingdom and their outcome. </paraindent>


      <paraindent><param>out</param>11. As part of their duties, Target Archery Marshals are
      responsible for ensuring that all archers are familiar with and comply
      with the SCA and Kingdom Target Archery Rules. This may be done
      either by verbal briefings or by requiring the archers to read the posted
      rules. </paraindent>






      EQUIPMENT STANDARDS


      General Standards:


      <paraindent><param>out</param>1. All equipment should be consistent with pre-17th century
      archery in looks and function. The construction, use, and knowledge of
      period-style equipment and its safe use are among the primary goals of
      SCA archery. However, the use of modern equipment is permitted
      provided it meets the equipment standards spelled out below. </paraindent>


      <paraindent><param>out</param>2. Nothing in these rules shall be interpreted as preventing a
      kingdom or branch from making rules requiring the use of period style
      equipment in a period division or a specific competition. The rules allow
      the use of modern-style bows, but do not require that all competitions
      allow their use. </paraindent>

      

      <paraindent><param>out</param>3. Each archer has the ultimate responsibility for the proper care,
      inspection and safe use of his/her own weapons, and for knowing and
      following the SCA and kingdom target archery rules. </paraindent>


      <paraindent><param>out</param>An archer shall not knowingly use unsafe equipment.</paraindent>

      <paraindent><param>out</param>

      <paraindent><param>out</param>If an archer is unsure of the safety of his/her equipment, he/she shall
      request the assistance of a Target Archery Marshal in inspecting the
      equipment.</paraindent>

      <paraindent><param>out</param>

      <paraindent><param>out</param>The Target Archery Marshal assisting in the inspection shall make a
      reasonable attempt to locate any unsafe conditions or violations of
      kingdom rules and inform the archer of what is found and how to correct
      it. </paraindent>


      <paraindent><param>out</param>The inspection by the Target Archery Marshal may not find all
      equipment faults and is conducted as a service to all the archers on the
      line. It does not remove the archers� primary responsibility for the safe
      condition of their own equipment. </paraindent>


      <paraindent><param>out</param>Any equipment observed by a Target Archery Marshal to be unsafe
      shall not be used until it is made safe and is reinspected by a Target
      Archery Marshal. </paraindent>


      <paraindent><param>out</param>4. Exceptions to the use of prohibited equipment may be allowed
      as follows:</paraindent>




      <paraindent><param>out</param>The kingdom archery officer, or his/her designee, may approve the use
      of prohibited equipment by class, such as the use of plastic vanes or non-
      wooden arrows for children's archery. Any such exceptions shall be
      reported in the kingdom archery marshal's quarterly report to the SCA
      Archery Marshal.</paraindent>



      <paraindent><param>out</param>The Target Archery Marshal in Charge of an event may allow the
      temporary use of prohibited equipment for an archer on an event-by-
      event basis, such as permitting a new archer to use aluminum arrows
      with plastic vanes.</paraindent>



      <paraindent><param>out</param>The Target Archery Marshal in Charge shall make necessary
      allowances for handicapped archers, provided that range safety is not
      compromised by these allowances.</paraindent>

      Bows:




      <paraindent><param>out</param>1. Bows may be made of any material, provided they are judged
      safe to shoot by the Target Archery Marshal.</paraindent>

      <paraindent><param>out</param>Bows of unusual materials or construction will be required to pass the
      inspection of the Kingdom Archery Marshal or designated deputy.</paraindent>

      <paraindent><param>out</param>No compound bows are allowed in competition. There will be no
      exceptions to this prohibition.</paraindent>



      <paraindent><param>out</param>2. Adjustable or fixed sights are not allowed.</paraindent>

      <paraindent><param>out</param>If adjustable or fixed sights are attached, they shall either be removed
      or made inoperative.</paraindent>

      <paraindent><param>out</param>Sighting and/or ranging marks on the limbs or riser are allowed, except
      in divisions or competitions which exclude their use.</paraindent>



      <paraindent><param>out</param>3. There are no draw weight limits for target archery bows.
      However, should a Target Archery Marshal observe that an archer is
      using a bow too heavy or overdrawn for them to safely shoot, the Target
      Archery Marshal will require the archer to stop using the bow.</paraindent>




      <paraindent><param>out</param>4. No modern spring/flipper rests or plunger buttons are
      allowed. The use of simple rests is allowed, such as:</paraindent>

      <paraindent><param>out</param>simple one-piece plastic or non-adjustable wire rests; </paraindent>

      <paraindent><param>out</param>feather, bristle, leather, etc. rests;</paraindent>

      <paraindent><param>out</param>built out shelves or rests.</paraindent>

      <paraindent><param>out</param>The use of the shelf in a cutout window is also allowed.



      <paraindent><param>out</param>5. No stabilizers, clickers, or modern string release devices are
      allowed.</paraindent>




      <paraindent><param>out</param>6. Bows with cutout risers (i.e., those that can be seen through
      from the side, often found in take-down bows with metal risers) must
      have the openings covered so as to present a solid surface and an
      appearance more in keeping with medieval archery equipment.</paraindent>


      Crossbows:




      <paraindent><param>out</param>1. No non-period center-shot trackless crossbow styles are allowed.</paraindent>




      <paraindent><param>out</param>2. No compound prods or breakcocking crossbow styles are
      allowed in competition. There will be no exceptions to this prohibition.</paraindent>




      <paraindent><param>out</param>3. No archer shall continue to use a crossbow that is observed by a
      Target Archery Marshal to have too heavy a draw for the archer to use
      safely.</paraindent>




      <paraindent><param>out</param>4. Prods of most materials are allowed, provided they are judged
      safe to shoot by the Target Archery Marshal. Prods of unusual material
      or construction will be required to pass the inspection of the Kingdom
      Archery Marshal or a designated deputy.</paraindent>



      <paraindent><param>out</param>5. Simple rear sights are allowed. Front sights are not allowed.</paraindent>


      <paraindent><param>out</param>6. Stocks may be of any material.</paraindent>




      <paraindent><param>out</param>7. If a modern stock with openings that can be seen through from
      the side is used, all such openings must be filled or covered to appear
      more period. Openings that are intended for gripping the stock need not
      be covered. Openings may be covered with tape, leather, cloth, etc. </paraindent>


      Strings:




      <paraindent><param>out</param>1. All strings shall be appropriate in length and strength for the
      bow type and weight. Linen, silk, artificial sinew, and any modern
      bowstring materials are acceptable, as long as strings are properly
      constructed.</paraindent>

      <paraindent><param>out</param>Strings that have become knotted, or those that have been repaired by
      knotting strands together, shall not be used. This rule does not forbid
      those string designs which incorporate knots, such as a bowyer�s knot, in
      their original design.</paraindent>




      <paraindent><param>out</param>2. A nocking point may be attached to the string. It may be made
      of metal or tied on. A single nocking point is allowed. </paraindent>

      <paraindent><param>out</param>The nocking point may consist of one or two locators, which may be of
      any type. </paraindent>

      <paraindent><param>out</param>The locators may not extend above or below the arrow nock in such a
      way as to allow them to be used as sighting mechanisms. </paraindent>


      <paraindent><param>out</param>3. Peep sights or kisser buttons mounted on the string are not allowed.</paraindent>




      Arrows and Bolts:




      <paraindent><param>out</param>1. All shafts shall be of wood or of bamboo-like materials. </paraindent>


      <paraindent><param>out</param>2. Both self and footed shafts are permitted.</paraindent>




      <paraindent><param>out</param>3. No broadheads or tips that cause excessive damage to the targets shall
      be used, except for special competitions using these heads with the
      permission of the Target Archery Marshal in Charge and the Kingdom
      Archery Marshal.</paraindent>




      <paraindent><param>out</param>4. Fletched arrows and bolts shall use feathers or other pre-17th century
      material. Plastic vanes are not allowed.</paraindent>




      <paraindent><param>out</param>5. Nocks for arrows, and caps, rings, or nocks for bolts may be of any
      material, provided they are securely attached. </paraindent>









      RANGE SAFETY, RANGE PROCEDURES, AND RULES OF THE LINE


      Range Set-Up:




      <paraindent><param>out</param>1. The range and safety zone must be clearly marked off. This may be
      done by the use of ropes, poles, signs, tapes, etc.</paraindent>



      <paraindent><param>out</param>2. At events where large numbers of archers are shooting, the Target
      Archery Marshal in Charge shall be easily identifiable.</paraindent>



      <paraindent><param>out</param>3. There shall be a safety zone behind and to the sides of the shooting line
      and targets. It shall be of reasonable size to prevent injury to
      bystanders. It must be free of traffic, camp sites, list fields, parking
      areas or other hazards.</paraindent>

      <paraindent><param>out</param> � The distance of the safety zone behind the targets may
      be reduced if there is a hill, permanent backstop, archery
      netting, etc., that will stop stray arrows.</paraindent>



      <paraindent><param>out</param>4. If there are roads or paths within the safety zone or range, they shall be
      blocked off to traffic at both ends during shooting. </paraindent>




      <paraindent><param>out</param>5. The shooting line shall be clearly marked. It must not present a tripping
      hazard.</paraindent>




      <paraindent><param>out</param>6. So that no archer unduly endangers another by shooting from behind,
      all archers will line up the same way, either all toeing the shooting line
      or all straddling it. Archers shooting from prone, kneeling, seated, etc.
      positions shall have the head of their arrow or bolt, at full draw, in the
      same line as the other archers on the line and should be placed together
      at one end of the line.</paraindent>




      <paraindent><param>out</param>7. Each archer shall have, at a minimum, three feet of space on the line,
      with recommended spacing being at least four feet. Other shots with
      special circumstances may require other spacing and heightened Target
      Archery Marshal supervision. </paraindent>


      <paraindent><param>out</param>8. During shooting, all spectators shall remain outside the marked safety
      zones and/or at least ten feet to the rear of the shooting line. </paraindent>

      Range Procedures:




      <paraindent><param>out</param>1. A Target Archery Marshal shall not allow more archers on a line than
      can be reasonably and safely supervised.</paraindent>




      <paraindent><param>out</param>2. Experienced archers, known to and approved by the Target Archery
      Marshal in Charge, may assist the Target Archery Marshals. When this
      is done, the ratio of Target Archery Marshals to archers on line may be
      reduced.</paraindent>


      <paraindent><param>out</param>3. At shoots where many of the archers are inexperienced, it may be
      necessary to increase the ratio of marshals to archers. This increase need
      not be as great if experienced archers, as well as Target Archery
      Marshals, are used to supervise the inexperienced archers. </paraindent>



      <paraindent><param>out</param>4. Conditions around the range and safety zone may require the use of
      additional Target Archery Marshals or assistants to observe and
      prevent traffic through the area.</paraindent>




      <paraindent><param>out</param>5. At specialty shoots where the archers are shooting under unusual
      conditions, such as off-handed, with restricted vision, etc., a one-to-one
      ratio of Target Archery Marshals and/or assistants to archers may be
      necessary.</paraindent>



      <paraindent><param>out</param>6. Any conditions or artificial handicaps which create an undue safety
      hazard, even with an increased Target Archery Marshal/assistant to
      archer ratio of one to one, are forbidden.</paraindent>



      <paraindent><param>out</param>7. The Target Archery Marshal in Charge may remove archers exhibiting
      unsafe behavior from the range. </paraindent>


      Range Commands:




      <paraindent><param>out</param>1. The Marshal will call the archers to the line.</paraindent>




      <paraindent><param>out</param>2. The Marshal will look to see that the range and line are clear and safe.</paraindent>




      <paraindent><param>out</param>3. The Marshal will call out "Range clear!" or the equivalent, and wait
      momentarily for any responses.</paraindent>




      <paraindent><param>out</param>4. If all is clear, then the order "Loose!", "Loose at will!" or the equivalent
      will be given.</paraindent>




      <paraindent><param>out</param>5. When finished shooting, the archers are to lower their bows, step back
      from the line, and wait until the order to retrieve is given.</paraindent>




      <paraindent><param>out</param>6. When all archers are done, the Marshal will call "Bows down!�, "Cease!"
      or the equivalent and wait for compliance.</paraindent>




      <paraindent><param>out</param>7. When all weapons are down, the Marshal will give the command,
      "Retrieve arrows!" or the equivalent.</paraindent>




      <paraindent><param>out</param>8. In the case of a serious safety problem on the range such as someone
      entering, or about to enter, the target or safety zone, the call "Hold!"
      shall be given by anyone noticing the problem. All archers are to
      remove the arrows or bolts from their weapons. </paraindent>


      Rules of the Line:




      <paraindent><param>out</param>1. Ask the Target Archery Marshal for permission before filling in on the
      line. </paraindent>


      <paraindent><param>out</param>2. If "Hold!" is called, lower your bow, remove your arrow/bolt and pay
      heed to the marshal's instructions.</paraindent>




      <paraindent><param>out</param>3. If an archer sees an immediate problem, he/she should call �Hold!� and
      inform the Marshal in Charge.</paraindent>




      <paraindent><param>out</param>4. If an archer sees a potential problem, he/she should report it to a Target
      Archery Marshal.</paraindent>




      <paraindent><param>out</param>5. All archers shall follow the instructions of the Target Archery Marshal
      in Charge and of Target Archery Marshals assisting on the line.<italic><color><param>0000,0000,FF00</param></paraindent>


      <paraindent><param>out</param></italic></color>6. Step back once you have completed shooting.</paraindent>




      Safety Rules:




      <paraindent><param>out</param>1. Archers should always remember the potential danger of their weapons.</paraindent>




      <paraindent><param>out</param>2. No arrows/bolts should be nocked when anyone is in front of the
      shooting line.</paraindent>




      <paraindent><param>out</param>3. No archer should discharge a bow when anyone is downrange. </paraindent>


      <paraindent><param>out</param>4. No archer should shoot while under the influence of alcohol or drugs. </paraindent>




      

      <center><bold><color><param>0100,0100,0100</param><bigger><bigger>SUPPLEMENTARY
      RECOMMENDATIONS�TARGET ARCHERY</bold></center>

      <center> </center>

      <smaller><smaller>MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT




      <paraindent><param>out</param>1. Any type of quiver may be used, with the exception of one that attaches
      to the bow.</paraindent>




      <paraindent><param>out</param>2. It is recommended that arm and/or finger protection be used, according
      to the preference of the archer.</paraindent>




      <paraindent><param>out</param>3. It is strongly recommended that the ends of the string be served, and
      that a serving cover the nocking area of the string. It should be noted
      that Japanese and Flemish style strings, which are rarely served at the
      ends, are acceptable.</paraindent>


      RANGE SET-UP


      <paraindent><param>out</param>It is recommended that the range and safety zone be posted with signs
      in addition to the required perimeter markers of ropes, poles, etc.</paraindent>




      SUGGESTED RANGE DIMENSIONS




      <paraindent><param>left</param>The following are suggested dimensions for the range and safety zones
      for target and specialty competitions. These are general guidelines. The
      actual sizes may vary, depending on terrain, the archers, and other
      conditions. It is better to err on the side of safety with too much space
      than not enough.</paraindent>




      For Target Shoots:




      <paraindent><param>out</param>1. The safety zone behind the farthest target should extend at least 40
      yards back, or for 1/2 the distance from the line to the farthest target,
      whichever is greater. </paraindent>




      <paraindent><param>out</param>2. For shoots of 50 yards or less, the safety zone to the sides of the shooting
      line and targets should extend outward at a 30- to 45-degree angle from
      both ends of the shooting line to a line even with the furthest target, and
      continue straight back from there to the required distance. </paraindent>


      <paraindent><param>out</param>3. For shoots of over 50 yards, the safety zone to the sides of the shooting
      line and targets should extend outward at a 30- to 45-degree angle from
      both ends of the shooting line to a line 50 yards away or 1/4 the
      distance to the far end of the safety zone, whichever is greater, and
      continue straight back from there to the required distance. </paraindent>

      For Specialty Shoots:




      <paraindent><param>out</param>1. For clout shoots, the safety zone should extend beyond the target for at
      least 1/2 the target distance, and to each side for at least 1/5 the target
      distance. (It is recommended that the Target Archery Marshal arrange
      for any archers who are not familiar with clout shooting to practice in
      advance. They should start with their bows aimed at a low angle and
      work their way up. This will help prevent overshooting the safety zone.)</paraindent>




      <paraindent><param>out</param>2. For flight shoots, the safety zone distance should be at least 300 yards,
      or the maximum range of the heaviest bow allowed. It is not
      recommended that a flight shoot be held if space is limited.</paraindent>


      <paraindent><param>out</param>3. For roving courses, the safety zone distance shall be a minimum of one
      and one-half times the distance to the target. Include special
      consideration for the angles and distances required for the other targets
      in the course. No target should be placed within the shooter�s line of
      sight with another target.</paraindent>



      RANGE COURTESY:


      <paraindent><param>out</param>1. When going to retrieve arrows, first pick up any of your arrows lying
      short of the target.</paraindent>


      <paraindent><param>out</param>2. Remove arrows by "worrying" them out. Do not yank them out. </paraindent>




      <paraindent><param>out</param>3. Do not handle anyone's equipment unless you have asked for and
      received the owner's permission.</paraindent>




      <paraindent><param>out</param>4. Do not remove other archers' arrows unless you have asked for and
      received the owner�s permission.</paraindent>




      <paraindent><param>out</param>5. Keep distraction of the archers on the shooting line to a minimum. </paraindent>





      SCA THROWN-WEAPONS RULES


      THROWN-WEAPONS MARSHALS


      Requirements for Thrown-Weapons Marshals:


      1. All Thrown-Weapons Marshals (TWMs) shall be knowledgeable about throwing weapons, range safety, and SCA and kingdom throwing weapon rules.


      2. All Thrown-Weapons Marshals are officers of the SCA and shall maintain membership as required by the SCA By-Laws, and shall be warranted by their kingdom as required by Corpora.


      Responsibilities of Thrown-Weapons Marshals:


      1. The kingdom Thrown-Weapons Marshal shall ensure that the kingdom thrown-weapons rules include, at a minimum, basic range safety standards, equipment standards, warranting and reporting procedures for Thrown-Weapons Marshals and injury reporting procedures.


      2. No thrown-weapons activities are to take place at an event unless a warranted thrown-weapons marshal is present.


      3. In the event of any disagreement, the Marshal in Charge (MIC) shall have complete say and control in resolving the dispute, subject to appeal to the kingdom Earl Marshal or the Crown. Appeals may be made via the appropriate procedures as specified in kingdom and SCA law and policy.


      4. The commands of the Marshal in Charge are to be followed explicitly by all throwers while on the thrown-weapons range. Failure to follow the Marshal in Charge's instructions may result in removal from the range.


      5. The Marshal in Charge may request the assistance of other Marshals in running the line and inspecting equipment. However, the responsibility for safely setting up and running the range remains with the Marshal in Charge.


      6. The Marshal in Charge or the assisting Marshals have the authority to see that all thrown weapons are inspected for damage and compliance with the rules of the line.


      � Equipment that does not meet the standards laid out in these rules shall not be used.

      � Equipment deemed dangerous by the Marshal in Charge shall not be used.

      7. While on duty, all Thrown-Weapons Marshals are responsible for the enforcement of the rules and safety standards for thrown-weapons activities or events.


      8. As part of their duties, Thrown-Weapons Marshals are responsible for taking all reasonable steps for ensuring that all throwers are familiar with and comply with the SCA and Kingdom Thrown-Weapons Rules.


      9. All kingdom level Thrown-Weapons Marshals are required to report quarterly to the SCA Archery Marshal. This is in addition to any reports to their superior required by kingdom law.


      10. The Marshal in Charge at an event shall report, to the kingdom Thrown-Weapons Marshal and any others required by kingdom law and policy, all injuries requiring professional medical treatment as a result of activity on or about the range.


      11. The Kingdom Thrown-Weapons Marshal shall report to the Society Archery Marshal any injuries related to thrown-weapons activities which required professional medical treatment as well as any potentially dangerous circumstances or incidents involving thrown-weapons activities in the kingdom an



      EQUIPMENT STANDARDS


      General Standards:


      1. Each thrower has the final responsibility for the proper care and safe use of their weapons, and for knowing and following their kingdom's thrown-weapon rules.


      � A thrower shall not knowingly use unsafe equipment.


      � If a thrower is unsure of the safety of their equipment they shall request the assistance of a Thrown-Weapons Marshal in inspecting their equipment.


      � The Thrown-Weapons Marshal assisting in the inspection shall make a reasonable attempt to locate any unsafe conditions or violations of kingdom rules and inform the thrower of what is found and how to correct it.




      � The inspection by the Thrown-Weapons Marshal may not find all equipment faults and is conducted as a service to all the throwers on the line. It does not remove the throwers' primary responsibility for the safe condition of their own equipment.




      � Any equipment observed by a Thrown-Weapons Marshal to be unsafe shall not be used until it is made safe and reinspected by a Thrown-Weapons Marshal.




      2. Equipment and safety standards vary greatly depending upon the type of thrown weapon and the techniques that are used to throw the weapon. All inspections and decisions should be made with the following considerations:

      � How will the user be throwing the weapon? E.g., for knives, will it be thrown by the handle or the blade?

      � Is the weapon designed to be thrown?

      � Is the weapon sturdy enough to be thrown?

      � How sharp is the blade?

      � How balanced is the weapon? If the weapon is so unbalanced that it would be awkward to swing, the thrower should demonstrate that it can be thrown safely.

      � Is the weapon either excessively light or heavy in weight?

      � Is the weapon either excessively short or long?

      � Is the handle taped? If a weapons handle has been taped or reinforced, it must have been done for a reason. Ask the owner about it. Give it extra attention; make sure that it is structurally sound and safe. Duct tape is not an acceptable fix for a handle with a major crack. If it cannot be insp


      Knives:


      1. Throwing knives should be of a size and weight which allows them to be thrown safely and easily.


      2. The handle of the knife should be firmly attached.


      3. The throwing surface should be free of burrs or protrusions that can cut or injure an unprotected hand upon release.


      Axes:


      1. Axes should be of a size and weight which allows them to be thrown safely and easily.

      2. The handles of all axes should be firmly attached.




      3. Some axes are designed to allow the head to slide up a tapered handle and pressure-fit on. The heads will come off if they are pushed toward the butt of the handle. When the axe is used, the head is forced into place and seats tightly. The inspecting marshal should ensure that the head does i


      4. The haft cannot have any major cracks.


      5. The haft cannot have any burrs or rough surfaces that can cut or give splinters to an unprotected hand upon release.


      Spears:


      1. Spears may not be excessively long or heavy.


      2. Spear heads must be firmly attached to the shaft of the spear.


      3. The shaft cannot have any burrs or rough surfaces that can cut or give splinters to an unprotected hand upon release.


      4. The shaft must be sound and without major cracks.


      Specialized Throwing Weapons:


      � Specialized throwing weapons are any weapons that have been designed with more than one impact surface to increase the chances of the weapon sticking in the target. Because they come in a variety of shapes and sizes, they must be judged on an individual basis.



      RANGE SAFETY, RANGE PROCEDURES, AND RULES OF THE LINE


      � Safety is of primary importance.


      Range Set-Up:


      1. The range will be identifiable at all times. Rope, tape, poles, etc., may be used to mark off the range and the safety area


      2. The Marshal in Charge should be easily identified.


      3. The throwing line is the closest position from which a throw can be made.


      4. Hard targets for knives and axes should be at least 10 feet away from the throwing line (down-range). A hard target is any target made of materials that provide a solid resistance. This includes, but is not limited to, logs, plywood, etc.




      5. Hard targets for spears should be at least 20 feet away from the throwing line.


      6. Soft targets for spears should be at least 10 feet away from the throwing line. A soft target is any target made of materials that do not provide solid resistance. This includes, but is not limited to, hay bales, styrofoam, etc.


      7. A safe zone shall be established that takes into consideration the weapons being used and the range conditions. The safe zone includes the area behind and to the sides of the targets as well as behind the throwing line.


      Range Procedures and Commands:




      1. The Marshal will call the throwers to the line.




      2. The Marshal will look to see that all is clear down-range.




      3. The Marshal will look to see that nobody is directly behind the throwers, in the path of the swing, or in the arch traversed by the swing.




      4. The Marshal will call out "Range clear!" or the equivalent, and wait momentarily for any responses.




      5. If all is clear, then the order "Throw when ready!" or the equivalent will be given.




      6. When finished, the throwers are to put down any weapons in hand, step back from the line and wait until the order to retrieve is given.


      7. When all throwers are finished, the Marshal will call "Weapons down!" or the equivalent and wait for compliance.




      8. When all weapons are down, then the Marshal will give the command, "Retrieve weapons!" or the equivalent.




      Rules of the Line:


      1. Side-arm throwing of weapons requires an adequate safe zone and the Marshal in Charge's permission.

      2. Throwers must ask the Thrown-Weapons Marshal for permission before filling in on the line.


      3. All throwers on the line must throw from approximately the same distance.


      4. Throw only at designated targets.


      5. Do not throw until commanded to do so.


      6. Do not retrieve until commanded to do so.


      7. If "HOLD!" is called, put down your weapon(s) and step back from the line.


      8. Step aside or back once you have completed throwing.


      9. Do not throw weapons that have not been inspected.

      � Any weapon hit by another weapon must be re-inspected by the thrower.


      10. Do not stand or walk behind throwers on the line.


      11. Just before EACH throw, look behind to ensure that it is clear.


      12. Do not swing weapons aimlessly or in a careless manner. Always be aware of what may be in the path of your weapon when it is swung.


      13. Be aware of sharp points and edges of weapons.


      14. Stay alert. Weapons can and will bounce back from the target if mis-thrown.
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