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Re: [SACC-L] Interesting article and a question about Luo (Kenya) culture

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  • Deborah Shepherd
    OK, I ll agree. The fact that the journalist made a point of adding Gibbs said Odinga and Obama s father are from the same tribe, though he was not aware they
    Message 1 of 8 , Feb 14, 2008
      OK, I'll agree. The fact that the journalist made a point of adding
      "Gibbs said Odinga and Obama's father are from the same tribe, though he
      was not aware they are related." was confusing. She made it sound like
      it really mattered! And her use of pronouns was sloppy (one of my
      pet-peeves). The "his" in the statement, "Obama's father was his uncle"
      should refer back to the subject of the clause, not of the previous
      clause. Harumph.

      >>> Lloyd Miller <lloyd.miller@...> 2/14/2008 12:10 AM >>>
      Deborah, I think Odinga meant that Obama's father was his (Odinga's)
      uncle, and that Obama called him (Odinga) during the campaign (since
      he—Odinga—is the opposition leader) and that Obama plans also to call

      President Kibaki. In other words, Obama is trying to negotiate a
      peace between the factions and is trying to influence his relative,
      Odinga. Judging from the NYT op ed piece that Ann Popplestone
      posted, I think it'll be an uphill battle.
      Lloyd



      On Feb 13, 2008, at 4:32 PM, Deborah Shepherd wrote:

      > First off, I'm primarily an archaeologist and am the first to admit

      > that
      > I didn't do all the cultural anthro study I could have when I was in
      > school. The following article talks about Obama's Luo kinship ties.
      > There's a comment about midway through:
      >
      > "Odinga, a Luo, told British Broadcasting Corp. radio that Obama's
      > father was his uncle, and that Obama called him "in the midst of his
      > campaigning ... to express his concern and to say that he is also
      > going
      > to call President Kibaki so that Kibaki agrees to find a negotiated,
      > satisfactory solution to this problem."
      > Gibbs said Odinga and Obama's father are from the same tribe,
      > though he
      > was not aware they are related."
      > I've checked an ethnography on the Luo and couldn't find any strong
      > emphasis on the mother's-brother relationship in the Luo family.
      > Basically, the traditional culture practices bridewealth and accepts
      > polygyny. Husbands have strong authority over wives. In rural areas,
      > when a woman refuses to accept a marriage offer, it is possible to
      > "ambush" one's desired wife, even against her will, and once she has
      > been in the possession of the man's family, her own family will not

      > want
      > her back. They will only want the bridewealth payment.
      > Nevertheless, I understand Odinga's comment to mean that after
      Obama's
      > father showed little inclination to raise his son, the uncle stepped
      > forward to be a moral influence in the boy's life. The journalist
      just
      > didn't understand the African metaphorical way of speaking.
      > Does anyone have an opinion?
      > Deborah
      >
      >
      > http://abcnews.go.com/International/WireStory?id=4102638&page=2
      > Obama Family in Kenya Watches US VoteBarack Obama's Family in Kenya
      > Watches New Hampshire Vote, Expresses PrideBy KATY POWNALLThe
      > Associated
      > Press
      > KOGELO, Kenya
      >
      > Sitting in plastic chairs surrounded by chickens and barefoot
      > children,
      > Barack Obama's Kenyan relatives rejoiced in the early results from
      the
      > New Hampshire primary.
      > The candidate's uncle was pleased but cautious when he heard news on
      > the radio of the initial encouraging signs for the family's favorite
      > son.
      > "Ah, that's wonderful," Said Obama declared, breaking into a wide
      > grin.
      > "But I don't want to jump just yet."
      > Even after the results in New Hampshire showed Obama finishing a
      close
      > second to Hillary Clinton, Said Obama remained optimistic.
      > "He still stands a good chance. I don't think it's too much of a
      > setback because there was a time he was trailing Hillary and if he
      was
      > the kind of man who gives up, he would have given up then," the
      uncle
      > said Wednesday.
      > Kogelo, the western Kenyan village of Barack Obama's father, has
      been
      > spared the political and ethnic violence that has erupted in Kenya
      > after
      > last month's disputed presidential election. But it's just 90
      minutes'
      > drive from a town where torched and looted buildings bear testimony
      to
      > the clashes that have left more than 500 people dead, and the
      > turmoil in
      > Kenya, as well as his nephew's political success, were on Said
      Obama's
      > mind.
      > While the dispute is political, violence has pitted other tribes
      such
      > as the Obamas' Luo against the Kikuyu of President Mwai Kibaki, who

      > have
      > long dominated politics and the economy in Kenya.
      > If Barack Obama were in Kenya today, he would "work with the
      > leadership
      > to bring them to a round table and find a solution to the problems
      > that
      > have been ravaging the country," his uncle said.
      > In fact, Obama's spokesman Robert Gibbs confirmed the senator spoke
      to
      > opposition leader Raila Odinga for about five minutes Monday before
      > going into a rally in New Hampshire.
      > Odinga, a Luo, told British Broadcasting Corp. radio that Obama's
      > father was his uncle, and that Obama called him "in the midst of his
      > campaigning ... to express his concern and to say that he is also
      > going
      > to call President Kibaki so that Kibaki agrees to find a negotiated,
      > satisfactory solution to this problem."
      > Gibbs said Odinga and Obama's father are from the same tribe,
      > though he
      > was not aware they are related.
      > Obama, speaking Tuesday in New Hampshire, said he urged that "all
      the
      > leaders there, regardless of their position on the election tell
      their
      > supporters to stand down, to desist with the violence and resolve in
      a
      > peaceful way in accordance with Kenyan law."
      > Obama was coordinating his efforts with the State Department, his
      > advisers said, and has discussed the situation with Secretary of
      State
      > Condoleezza Rice.
      > He has also spoken with South African Archbishop Desmond Tutu,
      calling
      > him during last week's Iowa caucuses in between satellite interviews
      > with local Iowa stations. Tutu has been in Nairobi, the Kenyan
      > capital,
      > trying to secure an end to the violence.
      > On his last visit to Kenya, in August 2006, Obama touched on themes

      > not
      > normally debated openly here, criticizing the high-level corruption

      > and
      > the tribal politics that have dominated the country since its 1963
      > independence from Britain. Both have played a role in the post-
      > election
      > violence.
      > "Very many people sat up and listened, but the government didn't
      like
      > it," Said Obama said of his nephew's speech, which was televised
      > nationwide. "It touched a nerve they didn't want touched. The
      > corruption
      > is endemic here and tribalism cannot escape your eyes you just have
      to
      > look at the government ministries."
      > In his speech, Barack Obama said: "Corruption is not a new problem;
      > it's not just a Kenyan or African problem. It's a human problem. ...
      > While corruption is a problem we all share, here in Kenya it is a
      > crisis
      > robbing an honest people of the opportunities they have fought for
      and
      > deserve."
      > "Ethnic-based tribal politics have to stop," he said, to applause
      from
      > university students and staff.
      > Obama's relatives, gathered Tuesday in the family compound at the
      end
      > of a dusty dirt road lined with mimosa and mango trees, listened for
      > news of their American relative's election fortunes.
      > Inside his grandmother's cinderblock home, framed photos of Obama's
      > 2006 visit and an earlier one in 1987 lined the walls, alongside a
      > signed election poster from his Senate race. Sarah Hussein Obama,
      > wearing a brightly patterned dress and sandals decorated with
      > shells and
      > beads, sat in a wooden chair in the immaculate living room, waiting

      > for
      > news of her grandson.
      > Obama's father, also named Barack Obama, won a scholarship to a
      > university in Hawaii, where he met and married the candidate's
      > American
      > mother. The two separated and Obama's father returned to Kenya,
      > where he
      > worked as a government economist until he died in a car crash in
      1982.
      > His white-tiled grave is located in a secluded corner of the family
      > compound.
      > The younger Obama was mostly raised in Hawaii and did not know his
      > father well, but his presidential bid has sparked excitement in
      Kenya.
      > Thousands were drawn to his appearances during his 2006 visit.
      > Said Obama said his nephew "has proved to be a beacon of hope here
      and
      > shown that even in difficult circumstances you can make it to the
      > highest height of achievement with just determination and hard
      work."
      > If Obama is elected, he would improve relations between Africa and
      > America because he had his roots in Africa, his uncle said.
      >
      > Associated Press writer Nedra Pickler contributed to this report
      from
      > New Hampshire.
      >
      > Copyright 2008 The Associated Press. All rights reserved. This
      > material
      > may not be published, broadcast, rewritten, or redistributed.
      > Copyright © 2008 ABC News Internet Ventures
      > Deborah J. Shepherd, Ph.D.
      > Anthropology
      > Anoka-Ramsey Community College
      > Coon Rapids Campus
      > deborah.shepherd@...
      > http://webs.anokaramsey.edu/shepherd/
      > http://webs.anokaramsey.edu/sacc
      > phone number: 763-433-1195
      >
      > [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
      >
      >
      >



      [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]



      Find out more at our web page :http://webs.anokaramsey.edu/sacc/
      Yahoo! Groups Links





      [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
    • Johnson, Ellen C. K.
      Refer back is redundant, to get technical. Re- means back. ________________________________ From: SACC-L@yahoogroups.com [mailto:SACC-L@yahoogroups.com]
      Message 2 of 8 , Feb 14, 2008
        "Refer back" is redundant, to get technical. "Re-" means "back."



        ________________________________

        From: SACC-L@yahoogroups.com [mailto:SACC-L@yahoogroups.com] On Behalf
        Of Deborah Shepherd
        Sent: Thursday, February 14, 2008 12:37 PM
        To: SACC-L@yahoogroups.com
        Subject: Re: [SACC-L] Interesting article and a question about
        Luo(Kenya) culture



        OK, I'll agree. The fact that the journalist made a point of adding
        "Gibbs said Odinga and Obama's father are from the same tribe, though he
        was not aware they are related." was confusing. She made it sound like
        it really mattered! And her use of pronouns was sloppy (one of my
        pet-peeves). The "his" in the statement, "Obama's father was his uncle"
        should refer back to the subject of the clause, not of the previous
        clause. Harumph.

        >>> Lloyd Miller <lloyd.miller@...
        <mailto:lloyd.miller%40mchsi.com> > 2/14/2008 12:10 AM >>>
        Deborah, I think Odinga meant that Obama's father was his (Odinga's)
        uncle, and that Obama called him (Odinga) during the campaign (since
        he-Odinga-is the opposition leader) and that Obama plans also to call

        President Kibaki. In other words, Obama is trying to negotiate a
        peace between the factions and is trying to influence his relative,
        Odinga. Judging from the NYT op ed piece that Ann Popplestone
        posted, I think it'll be an uphill battle.
        Lloyd

        On Feb 13, 2008, at 4:32 PM, Deborah Shepherd wrote:

        > First off, I'm primarily an archaeologist and am the first to admit

        > that
        > I didn't do all the cultural anthro study I could have when I was in
        > school. The following article talks about Obama's Luo kinship ties.
        > There's a comment about midway through:
        >
        > "Odinga, a Luo, told British Broadcasting Corp. radio that Obama's
        > father was his uncle, and that Obama called him "in the midst of his
        > campaigning ... to express his concern and to say that he is also
        > going
        > to call President Kibaki so that Kibaki agrees to find a negotiated,
        > satisfactory solution to this problem."
        > Gibbs said Odinga and Obama's father are from the same tribe,
        > though he
        > was not aware they are related."
        > I've checked an ethnography on the Luo and couldn't find any strong
        > emphasis on the mother's-brother relationship in the Luo family.
        > Basically, the traditional culture practices bridewealth and accepts
        > polygyny. Husbands have strong authority over wives. In rural areas,
        > when a woman refuses to accept a marriage offer, it is possible to
        > "ambush" one's desired wife, even against her will, and once she has
        > been in the possession of the man's family, her own family will not

        > want
        > her back. They will only want the bridewealth payment.
        > Nevertheless, I understand Odinga's comment to mean that after
        Obama's
        > father showed little inclination to raise his son, the uncle stepped
        > forward to be a moral influence in the boy's life. The journalist
        just
        > didn't understand the African metaphorical way of speaking.
        > Does anyone have an opinion?
        > Deborah
        >
        >
        > http://abcnews.go.com/International/WireStory?id=4102638&page=2
        <http://abcnews.go.com/International/WireStory?id=4102638&page=2>
        > Obama Family in Kenya Watches US VoteBarack Obama's Family in Kenya
        > Watches New Hampshire Vote, Expresses PrideBy KATY POWNALLThe
        > Associated
        > Press
        > KOGELO, Kenya
        >
        > Sitting in plastic chairs surrounded by chickens and barefoot
        > children,
        > Barack Obama's Kenyan relatives rejoiced in the early results from
        the
        > New Hampshire primary.
        > The candidate's uncle was pleased but cautious when he heard news on
        > the radio of the initial encouraging signs for the family's favorite
        > son.
        > "Ah, that's wonderful," Said Obama declared, breaking into a wide
        > grin.
        > "But I don't want to jump just yet."
        > Even after the results in New Hampshire showed Obama finishing a
        close
        > second to Hillary Clinton, Said Obama remained optimistic.
        > "He still stands a good chance. I don't think it's too much of a
        > setback because there was a time he was trailing Hillary and if he
        was
        > the kind of man who gives up, he would have given up then," the
        uncle
        > said Wednesday.
        > Kogelo, the western Kenyan village of Barack Obama's father, has
        been
        > spared the political and ethnic violence that has erupted in Kenya
        > after
        > last month's disputed presidential election. But it's just 90
        minutes'
        > drive from a town where torched and looted buildings bear testimony
        to
        > the clashes that have left more than 500 people dead, and the
        > turmoil in
        > Kenya, as well as his nephew's political success, were on Said
        Obama's
        > mind.
        > While the dispute is political, violence has pitted other tribes
        such
        > as the Obamas' Luo against the Kikuyu of President Mwai Kibaki, who

        > have
        > long dominated politics and the economy in Kenya.
        > If Barack Obama were in Kenya today, he would "work with the
        > leadership
        > to bring them to a round table and find a solution to the problems
        > that
        > have been ravaging the country," his uncle said.
        > In fact, Obama's spokesman Robert Gibbs confirmed the senator spoke
        to
        > opposition leader Raila Odinga for about five minutes Monday before
        > going into a rally in New Hampshire.
        > Odinga, a Luo, told British Broadcasting Corp. radio that Obama's
        > father was his uncle, and that Obama called him "in the midst of his
        > campaigning ... to express his concern and to say that he is also
        > going
        > to call President Kibaki so that Kibaki agrees to find a negotiated,
        > satisfactory solution to this problem."
        > Gibbs said Odinga and Obama's father are from the same tribe,
        > though he
        > was not aware they are related.
        > Obama, speaking Tuesday in New Hampshire, said he urged that "all
        the
        > leaders there, regardless of their position on the election tell
        their
        > supporters to stand down, to desist with the violence and resolve in
        a
        > peaceful way in accordance with Kenyan law."
        > Obama was coordinating his efforts with the State Department, his
        > advisers said, and has discussed the situation with Secretary of
        State
        > Condoleezza Rice.
        > He has also spoken with South African Archbishop Desmond Tutu,
        calling
        > him during last week's Iowa caucuses in between satellite interviews
        > with local Iowa stations. Tutu has been in Nairobi, the Kenyan
        > capital,
        > trying to secure an end to the violence.
        > On his last visit to Kenya, in August 2006, Obama touched on themes

        > not
        > normally debated openly here, criticizing the high-level corruption

        > and
        > the tribal politics that have dominated the country since its 1963
        > independence from Britain. Both have played a role in the post-
        > election
        > violence.
        > "Very many people sat up and listened, but the government didn't
        like
        > it," Said Obama said of his nephew's speech, which was televised
        > nationwide. "It touched a nerve they didn't want touched. The
        > corruption
        > is endemic here and tribalism cannot escape your eyes you just have
        to
        > look at the government ministries."
        > In his speech, Barack Obama said: "Corruption is not a new problem;
        > it's not just a Kenyan or African problem. It's a human problem. ...
        > While corruption is a problem we all share, here in Kenya it is a
        > crisis
        > robbing an honest people of the opportunities they have fought for
        and
        > deserve."
        > "Ethnic-based tribal politics have to stop," he said, to applause
        from
        > university students and staff.
        > Obama's relatives, gathered Tuesday in the family compound at the
        end
        > of a dusty dirt road lined with mimosa and mango trees, listened for
        > news of their American relative's election fortunes.
        > Inside his grandmother's cinderblock home, framed photos of Obama's
        > 2006 visit and an earlier one in 1987 lined the walls, alongside a
        > signed election poster from his Senate race. Sarah Hussein Obama,
        > wearing a brightly patterned dress and sandals decorated with
        > shells and
        > beads, sat in a wooden chair in the immaculate living room, waiting

        > for
        > news of her grandson.
        > Obama's father, also named Barack Obama, won a scholarship to a
        > university in Hawaii, where he met and married the candidate's
        > American
        > mother. The two separated and Obama's father returned to Kenya,
        > where he
        > worked as a government economist until he died in a car crash in
        1982.
        > His white-tiled grave is located in a secluded corner of the family
        > compound.
        > The younger Obama was mostly raised in Hawaii and did not know his
        > father well, but his presidential bid has sparked excitement in
        Kenya.
        > Thousands were drawn to his appearances during his 2006 visit.
        > Said Obama said his nephew "has proved to be a beacon of hope here
        and
        > shown that even in difficult circumstances you can make it to the
        > highest height of achievement with just determination and hard
        work."
        > If Obama is elected, he would improve relations between Africa and
        > America because he had his roots in Africa, his uncle said.
        >
        > Associated Press writer Nedra Pickler contributed to this report
        from
        > New Hampshire.
        >
        > Copyright 2008 The Associated Press. All rights reserved. This
        > material
        > may not be published, broadcast, rewritten, or redistributed.
        > Copyright (c) 2008 ABC News Internet Ventures
        > Deborah J. Shepherd, Ph.D.
        > Anthropology
        > Anoka-Ramsey Community College
        > Coon Rapids Campus
        > deborah.shepherd@...
        <mailto:deborah.shepherd%40anokaramsey.edu>
        > http://webs.anokaramsey.edu/shepherd/
        <http://webs.anokaramsey.edu/shepherd/>
        > http://webs.anokaramsey.edu/sacc <http://webs.anokaramsey.edu/sacc>
        > phone number: 763-433-1195
        >
        > [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
        >
        >
        >

        [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]

        Find out more at our web page :http://webs.anokaramsey.edu/sacc/
        <http://webs.anokaramsey.edu/sacc/>
        Yahoo! Groups Links

        [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]





        [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
      • Deborah Shepherd
        Well, at least it isn t ambiguous! Deborah J. Shepherd, Ph.D. Anthropology Anoka-Ramsey Community College Coon Rapids Campus deborah.shepherd@anokaramsey.edu
        Message 3 of 8 , Feb 14, 2008
          Well, at least it isn't ambiguous!

          Deborah J. Shepherd, Ph.D.
          Anthropology
          Anoka-Ramsey Community College
          Coon Rapids Campus
          deborah.shepherd@...
          http://webs.anokaramsey.edu/shepherd/
          http://webs.anokaramsey.edu/sacc
          phone number: 763-433-1195


          >>> "Johnson, Ellen C. K." <Johnson@...> 2/14/2008 12:39 PM >>>

          "Refer back" is redundant, to get technical. "Re-" means "back."

          ________________________________

          From: SACC-L@yahoogroups.com [mailto:SACC-L@yahoogroups.com] On Behalf
          Of Deborah Shepherd
          Sent: Thursday, February 14, 2008 12:37 PM
          To: SACC-L@yahoogroups.com
          Subject: Re: [SACC-L] Interesting article and a question about
          Luo(Kenya) culture

          OK, I'll agree. The fact that the journalist made a point of adding
          "Gibbs said Odinga and Obama's father are from the same tribe, though he
          was not aware they are related." was confusing. She made it sound like
          it really mattered! And her use of pronouns was sloppy (one of my
          pet-peeves). The "his" in the statement, "Obama's father was his uncle"
          should refer back to the subject of the clause, not of the previous
          clause. Harumph.

          >>> Lloyd Miller <lloyd.miller@...
          <mailto:lloyd.miller%40mchsi.com> > 2/14/2008 12:10 AM >>>
          Deborah, I think Odinga meant that Obama's father was his (Odinga's)
          uncle, and that Obama called him (Odinga) during the campaign (since
          he-Odinga-is the opposition leader) and that Obama plans also to call

          President Kibaki. In other words, Obama is trying to negotiate a
          peace between the factions and is trying to influence his relative,
          Odinga. Judging from the NYT op ed piece that Ann Popplestone
          posted, I think it'll be an uphill battle.
          Lloyd

          On Feb 13, 2008, at 4:32 PM, Deborah Shepherd wrote:

          > First off, I'm primarily an archaeologist and am the first to admit

          > that
          > I didn't do all the cultural anthro study I could have when I was in
          > school. The following article talks about Obama's Luo kinship ties.
          > There's a comment about midway through:
          >
          > "Odinga, a Luo, told British Broadcasting Corp. radio that Obama's
          > father was his uncle, and that Obama called him "in the midst of his
          > campaigning ... to express his concern and to say that he is also
          > going
          > to call President Kibaki so that Kibaki agrees to find a negotiated,
          > satisfactory solution to this problem."
          > Gibbs said Odinga and Obama's father are from the same tribe,
          > though he
          > was not aware they are related."
          > I've checked an ethnography on the Luo and couldn't find any strong
          > emphasis on the mother's-brother relationship in the Luo family.
          > Basically, the traditional culture practices bridewealth and accepts
          > polygyny. Husbands have strong authority over wives. In rural areas,
          > when a woman refuses to accept a marriage offer, it is possible to
          > "ambush" one's desired wife, even against her will, and once she has
          > been in the possession of the man's family, her own family will not

          > want
          > her back. They will only want the bridewealth payment.
          > Nevertheless, I understand Odinga's comment to mean that after
          Obama's
          > father showed little inclination to raise his son, the uncle stepped
          > forward to be a moral influence in the boy's life. The journalist
          just
          > didn't understand the African metaphorical way of speaking.
          > Does anyone have an opinion?
          > Deborah
          >
          >
          > http://abcnews.go.com/International/WireStory?id=4102638&page=2
          <http://abcnews.go.com/International/WireStory?id=4102638&page=2>
          > Obama Family in Kenya Watches US VoteBarack Obama's Family in Kenya
          > Watches New Hampshire Vote, Expresses PrideBy KATY POWNALLThe
          > Associated
          > Press
          > KOGELO, Kenya
          >
          > Sitting in plastic chairs surrounded by chickens and barefoot
          > children,
          > Barack Obama's Kenyan relatives rejoiced in the early results from
          the
          > New Hampshire primary.
          > The candidate's uncle was pleased but cautious when he heard news on
          > the radio of the initial encouraging signs for the family's favorite
          > son.
          > "Ah, that's wonderful," Said Obama declared, breaking into a wide
          > grin.
          > "But I don't want to jump just yet."
          > Even after the results in New Hampshire showed Obama finishing a
          close
          > second to Hillary Clinton, Said Obama remained optimistic.
          > "He still stands a good chance. I don't think it's too much of a
          > setback because there was a time he was trailing Hillary and if he
          was
          > the kind of man who gives up, he would have given up then," the
          uncle
          > said Wednesday.
          > Kogelo, the western Kenyan village of Barack Obama's father, has
          been
          > spared the political and ethnic violence that has erupted in Kenya
          > after
          > last month's disputed presidential election. But it's just 90
          minutes'
          > drive from a town where torched and looted buildings bear testimony
          to
          > the clashes that have left more than 500 people dead, and the
          > turmoil in
          > Kenya, as well as his nephew's political success, were on Said
          Obama's
          > mind.
          > While the dispute is political, violence has pitted other tribes
          such
          > as the Obamas' Luo against the Kikuyu of President Mwai Kibaki, who

          > have
          > long dominated politics and the economy in Kenya.
          > If Barack Obama were in Kenya today, he would "work with the
          > leadership
          > to bring them to a round table and find a solution to the problems
          > that
          > have been ravaging the country," his uncle said.
          > In fact, Obama's spokesman Robert Gibbs confirmed the senator spoke
          to
          > opposition leader Raila Odinga for about five minutes Monday before
          > going into a rally in New Hampshire.
          > Odinga, a Luo, told British Broadcasting Corp. radio that Obama's
          > father was his uncle, and that Obama called him "in the midst of his
          > campaigning ... to express his concern and to say that he is also
          > going
          > to call President Kibaki so that Kibaki agrees to find a negotiated,
          > satisfactory solution to this problem."
          > Gibbs said Odinga and Obama's father are from the same tribe,
          > though he
          > was not aware they are related.
          > Obama, speaking Tuesday in New Hampshire, said he urged that "all
          the
          > leaders there, regardless of their position on the election tell
          their
          > supporters to stand down, to desist with the violence and resolve in
          a
          > peaceful way in accordance with Kenyan law."
          > Obama was coordinating his efforts with the State Department, his
          > advisers said, and has discussed the situation with Secretary of
          State
          > Condoleezza Rice.
          > He has also spoken with South African Archbishop Desmond Tutu,
          calling
          > him during last week's Iowa caucuses in between satellite interviews
          > with local Iowa stations. Tutu has been in Nairobi, the Kenyan
          > capital,
          > trying to secure an end to the violence.
          > On his last visit to Kenya, in August 2006, Obama touched on themes

          > not
          > normally debated openly here, criticizing the high-level corruption

          > and
          > the tribal politics that have dominated the country since its 1963
          > independence from Britain. Both have played a role in the post-
          > election
          > violence.
          > "Very many people sat up and listened, but the government didn't
          like
          > it," Said Obama said of his nephew's speech, which was televised
          > nationwide. "It touched a nerve they didn't want touched. The
          > corruption
          > is endemic here and tribalism cannot escape your eyes you just have
          to
          > look at the government ministries."
          > In his speech, Barack Obama said: "Corruption is not a new problem;
          > it's not just a Kenyan or African problem. It's a human problem. ...
          > While corruption is a problem we all share, here in Kenya it is a
          > crisis
          > robbing an honest people of the opportunities they have fought for
          and
          > deserve."
          > "Ethnic-based tribal politics have to stop," he said, to applause
          from
          > university students and staff.
          > Obama's relatives, gathered Tuesday in the family compound at the
          end
          > of a dusty dirt road lined with mimosa and mango trees, listened for
          > news of their American relative's election fortunes.
          > Inside his grandmother's cinderblock home, framed photos of Obama's
          > 2006 visit and an earlier one in 1987 lined the walls, alongside a
          > signed election poster from his Senate race. Sarah Hussein Obama,
          > wearing a brightly patterned dress and sandals decorated with
          > shells and
          > beads, sat in a wooden chair in the immaculate living room, waiting

          > for
          > news of her grandson.
          > Obama's father, also named Barack Obama, won a scholarship to a
          > university in Hawaii, where he met and married the candidate's
          > American
          > mother. The two separated and Obama's father returned to Kenya,
          > where he
          > worked as a government economist until he died in a car crash in
          1982.
          > His white-tiled grave is located in a secluded corner of the family
          > compound.
          > The younger Obama was mostly raised in Hawaii and did not know his
          > father well, but his presidential bid has sparked excitement in
          Kenya.
          > Thousands were drawn to his appearances during his 2006 visit.
          > Said Obama said his nephew "has proved to be a beacon of hope here
          and
          > shown that even in difficult circumstances you can make it to the
          > highest height of achievement with just determination and hard
          work."
          > If Obama is elected, he would improve relations between Africa and
          > America because he had his roots in Africa, his uncle said.
          >
          > Associated Press writer Nedra Pickler contributed to this report
          from
          > New Hampshire.
          >
          > Copyright 2008 The Associated Press. All rights reserved. This
          > material
          > may not be published, broadcast, rewritten, or redistributed.
          > Copyright (c) 2008 ABC News Internet Ventures
          > Deborah J. Shepherd, Ph.D.
          > Anthropology
          > Anoka-Ramsey Community College
          > Coon Rapids Campus
          > deborah.shepherd@...
          <mailto:deborah.shepherd%40anokaramsey.edu>
          > http://webs.anokaramsey.edu/shepherd/
          <http://webs.anokaramsey.edu/shepherd/>
          > http://webs.anokaramsey.edu/sacc <http://webs.anokaramsey.edu/sacc>
          > phone number: 763-433-1195
          >
          > [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
          >
          >
          >

          [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]

          Find out more at our web page :http://webs.anokaramsey.edu/sacc/
          <http://webs.anokaramsey.edu/sacc/>
          Yahoo! Groups Links

          [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]

          [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]




          [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
        • Lloyd Miller
          Technically you are right, Ellen, but you d have to retrace the etymological line to Latin to get to that meaning. Many if not most people would likely
          Message 4 of 8 , Feb 14, 2008
            Technically you are right, Ellen, but you'd have to "retrace" the
            etymological line to Latin to get to that meaning. Many if not most
            people would likely follow Deborah's usage because we use "refer" in
            the more general sense of "to allude to," etc. You'd be about as
            successful opposing this tide as you would trying to prevent people
            (including college professors and journalists) from splitting
            infinitives. I think we're simply the victims of Sapir's "language
            drift."

            Hang in there, though. After you retire, these kinds of
            technicalities will gently roll off your back without causing
            stress. After nearly 8 years, I'm even learning to boldly go and
            accept split infinitives!

            Lloyd



            On Feb 14, 2008, at 12:39 PM, Johnson, Ellen C. K. wrote:

            > "Refer back" is redundant, to get technical. "Re-" means "back."
            >
            > ________________________________
            >
            > From: SACC-L@yahoogroups.com [mailto:SACC-L@yahoogroups.com] On Behalf
            > Of Deborah Shepherd
            > Sent: Thursday, February 14, 2008 12:37 PM
            > To: SACC-L@yahoogroups.com
            > Subject: Re: [SACC-L] Interesting article and a question about
            > Luo(Kenya) culture
            >
            > OK, I'll agree. The fact that the journalist made a point of adding
            > "Gibbs said Odinga and Obama's father are from the same tribe,
            > though he
            > was not aware they are related." was confusing. She made it sound like
            > it really mattered! And her use of pronouns was sloppy (one of my
            > pet-peeves). The "his" in the statement, "Obama's father was his
            > uncle"
            > should refer back to the subject of the clause, not of the previous
            > clause. Harumph.
            >
            > >>> Lloyd Miller <lloyd.miller@...
            > <mailto:lloyd.miller%40mchsi.com> > 2/14/2008 12:10 AM >>>
            > Deborah, I think Odinga meant that Obama's father was his (Odinga's)
            > uncle, and that Obama called him (Odinga) during the campaign (since
            > he-Odinga-is the opposition leader) and that Obama plans also to call
            >
            > President Kibaki. In other words, Obama is trying to negotiate a
            > peace between the factions and is trying to influence his relative,
            > Odinga. Judging from the NYT op ed piece that Ann Popplestone
            > posted, I think it'll be an uphill battle.
            > Lloyd
            >
            > On Feb 13, 2008, at 4:32 PM, Deborah Shepherd wrote:
            >
            > > First off, I'm primarily an archaeologist and am the first to admit
            >
            > > that
            > > I didn't do all the cultural anthro study I could have when I was in
            > > school. The following article talks about Obama's Luo kinship ties.
            > > There's a comment about midway through:
            > >
            > > "Odinga, a Luo, told British Broadcasting Corp. radio that Obama's
            > > father was his uncle, and that Obama called him "in the midst of his
            > > campaigning ... to express his concern and to say that he is also
            > > going
            > > to call President Kibaki so that Kibaki agrees to find a negotiated,
            > > satisfactory solution to this problem."
            > > Gibbs said Odinga and Obama's father are from the same tribe,
            > > though he
            > > was not aware they are related."
            > > I've checked an ethnography on the Luo and couldn't find any strong
            > > emphasis on the mother's-brother relationship in the Luo family.
            > > Basically, the traditional culture practices bridewealth and accepts
            > > polygyny. Husbands have strong authority over wives. In rural areas,
            > > when a woman refuses to accept a marriage offer, it is possible to
            > > "ambush" one's desired wife, even against her will, and once she has
            > > been in the possession of the man's family, her own family will not
            >
            > > want
            > > her back. They will only want the bridewealth payment.
            > > Nevertheless, I understand Odinga's comment to mean that after
            > Obama's
            > > father showed little inclination to raise his son, the uncle stepped
            > > forward to be a moral influence in the boy's life. The journalist
            > just
            > > didn't understand the African metaphorical way of speaking.
            > > Does anyone have an opinion?
            > > Deborah
            > >
            > >
            > > http://abcnews.go.com/International/WireStory?id=4102638&page=2
            > <http://abcnews.go.com/International/WireStory?id=4102638&page=2>
            > > Obama Family in Kenya Watches US VoteBarack Obama's Family in Kenya
            > > Watches New Hampshire Vote, Expresses PrideBy KATY POWNALLThe
            > > Associated
            > > Press
            > > KOGELO, Kenya
            > >
            > > Sitting in plastic chairs surrounded by chickens and barefoot
            > > children,
            > > Barack Obama's Kenyan relatives rejoiced in the early results from
            > the
            > > New Hampshire primary.
            > > The candidate's uncle was pleased but cautious when he heard news on
            > > the radio of the initial encouraging signs for the family's favorite
            > > son.
            > > "Ah, that's wonderful," Said Obama declared, breaking into a wide
            > > grin.
            > > "But I don't want to jump just yet."
            > > Even after the results in New Hampshire showed Obama finishing a
            > close
            > > second to Hillary Clinton, Said Obama remained optimistic.
            > > "He still stands a good chance. I don't think it's too much of a
            > > setback because there was a time he was trailing Hillary and if he
            > was
            > > the kind of man who gives up, he would have given up then," the
            > uncle
            > > said Wednesday.
            > > Kogelo, the western Kenyan village of Barack Obama's father, has
            > been
            > > spared the political and ethnic violence that has erupted in Kenya
            > > after
            > > last month's disputed presidential election. But it's just 90
            > minutes'
            > > drive from a town where torched and looted buildings bear testimony
            > to
            > > the clashes that have left more than 500 people dead, and the
            > > turmoil in
            > > Kenya, as well as his nephew's political success, were on Said
            > Obama's
            > > mind.
            > > While the dispute is political, violence has pitted other tribes
            > such
            > > as the Obamas' Luo against the Kikuyu of President Mwai Kibaki, who
            >
            > > have
            > > long dominated politics and the economy in Kenya.
            > > If Barack Obama were in Kenya today, he would "work with the
            > > leadership
            > > to bring them to a round table and find a solution to the problems
            > > that
            > > have been ravaging the country," his uncle said.
            > > In fact, Obama's spokesman Robert Gibbs confirmed the senator spoke
            > to
            > > opposition leader Raila Odinga for about five minutes Monday before
            > > going into a rally in New Hampshire.
            > > Odinga, a Luo, told British Broadcasting Corp. radio that Obama's
            > > father was his uncle, and that Obama called him "in the midst of his
            > > campaigning ... to express his concern and to say that he is also
            > > going
            > > to call President Kibaki so that Kibaki agrees to find a negotiated,
            > > satisfactory solution to this problem."
            > > Gibbs said Odinga and Obama's father are from the same tribe,
            > > though he
            > > was not aware they are related.
            > > Obama, speaking Tuesday in New Hampshire, said he urged that "all
            > the
            > > leaders there, regardless of their position on the election tell
            > their
            > > supporters to stand down, to desist with the violence and resolve in
            > a
            > > peaceful way in accordance with Kenyan law."
            > > Obama was coordinating his efforts with the State Department, his
            > > advisers said, and has discussed the situation with Secretary of
            > State
            > > Condoleezza Rice.
            > > He has also spoken with South African Archbishop Desmond Tutu,
            > calling
            > > him during last week's Iowa caucuses in between satellite interviews
            > > with local Iowa stations. Tutu has been in Nairobi, the Kenyan
            > > capital,
            > > trying to secure an end to the violence.
            > > On his last visit to Kenya, in August 2006, Obama touched on themes
            >
            > > not
            > > normally debated openly here, criticizing the high-level corruption
            >
            > > and
            > > the tribal politics that have dominated the country since its 1963
            > > independence from Britain. Both have played a role in the post-
            > > election
            > > violence.
            > > "Very many people sat up and listened, but the government didn't
            > like
            > > it," Said Obama said of his nephew's speech, which was televised
            > > nationwide. "It touched a nerve they didn't want touched. The
            > > corruption
            > > is endemic here and tribalism cannot escape your eyes you just have
            > to
            > > look at the government ministries."
            > > In his speech, Barack Obama said: "Corruption is not a new problem;
            > > it's not just a Kenyan or African problem. It's a human problem. ...
            > > While corruption is a problem we all share, here in Kenya it is a
            > > crisis
            > > robbing an honest people of the opportunities they have fought for
            > and
            > > deserve."
            > > "Ethnic-based tribal politics have to stop," he said, to applause
            > from
            > > university students and staff.
            > > Obama's relatives, gathered Tuesday in the family compound at the
            > end
            > > of a dusty dirt road lined with mimosa and mango trees, listened for
            > > news of their American relative's election fortunes.
            > > Inside his grandmother's cinderblock home, framed photos of Obama's
            > > 2006 visit and an earlier one in 1987 lined the walls, alongside a
            > > signed election poster from his Senate race. Sarah Hussein Obama,
            > > wearing a brightly patterned dress and sandals decorated with
            > > shells and
            > > beads, sat in a wooden chair in the immaculate living room, waiting
            >
            > > for
            > > news of her grandson.
            > > Obama's father, also named Barack Obama, won a scholarship to a
            > > university in Hawaii, where he met and married the candidate's
            > > American
            > > mother. The two separated and Obama's father returned to Kenya,
            > > where he
            > > worked as a government economist until he died in a car crash in
            > 1982.
            > > His white-tiled grave is located in a secluded corner of the family
            > > compound.
            > > The younger Obama was mostly raised in Hawaii and did not know his
            > > father well, but his presidential bid has sparked excitement in
            > Kenya.
            > > Thousands were drawn to his appearances during his 2006 visit.
            > > Said Obama said his nephew "has proved to be a beacon of hope here
            > and
            > > shown that even in difficult circumstances you can make it to the
            > > highest height of achievement with just determination and hard
            > work."
            > > If Obama is elected, he would improve relations between Africa and
            > > America because he had his roots in Africa, his uncle said.
            > >
            > > Associated Press writer Nedra Pickler contributed to this report
            > from
            > > New Hampshire.
            > >
            > > Copyright 2008 The Associated Press. All rights reserved. This
            > > material
            > > may not be published, broadcast, rewritten, or redistributed.
            > > Copyright (c) 2008 ABC News Internet Ventures
            > > Deborah J. Shepherd, Ph.D.
            > > Anthropology
            > > Anoka-Ramsey Community College
            > > Coon Rapids Campus
            > > deborah.shepherd@...
            > <mailto:deborah.shepherd%40anokaramsey.edu>
            > > http://webs.anokaramsey.edu/shepherd/
            > <http://webs.anokaramsey.edu/shepherd/>
            > > http://webs.anokaramsey.edu/sacc <http://webs.anokaramsey.edu/sacc>
            > > phone number: 763-433-1195
            > >
            > > [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
            > >
            > >
            > >
            >
            > [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
            >
            > Find out more at our web page :http://webs.anokaramsey.edu/sacc/
            > <http://webs.anokaramsey.edu/sacc/>
            > Yahoo! Groups Links
            >
            > [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
            >
            > [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
            >
            >
            >



            [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
          • George Thomas
            Journalism has indeed gone the way of the split infinitive, having drifted that direction long ago. The Associated Press guide to usage provides the Star Trek
            Message 5 of 8 , Feb 15, 2008
              Journalism has indeed gone the way of the split infinitive, having drifted that direction long ago. The Associated Press guide to usage provides the Star Trek example ("To boldly go..." it must be the universal example du every jour), and explains that in many cases splitting the infinitive (1) flows better and (2) is actually more understandable.
              Some, chiefly academics who write often and who correct papers regularly, become exercised over this, and choose boldly to go forth to champion excruciatingly correct grammar.
              I fall between the camps, choosing the diplomatic route.
              The original example appeared to illustrate a case of obscured/disrupted meaning, by which what was meant was not clearly conveyed. That's usually a more serious problem. It depends on what the meaning of "his" is.
              G


              Re: Interesting article and a question about Luo(Kenya) culture
              Posted by: "Lloyd Miller" lloyd.miller@...
              Date: Thu Feb 14, 2008 11:08 am ((PST))

              Technically you are right, Ellen, but you'd have to "retrace" the
              etymological line to Latin to get to that meaning. Many if not most
              people would likely follow Deborah's usage because we use "refer" in
              the more general sense of "to allude to," etc. You'd be about as
              successful opposing this tide as you would trying to prevent people
              (including college professors and journalists) from splitting
              infinitives. I think we're simply the victims of Sapir's "language
              drift."

              Hang in there, though. After you retire, these kinds of
              technicalities will gently roll off your back without causing
              stress. After nearly 8 years, I'm even learning to boldly go and
              accept split infinitives!

              Lloyd



              On Feb 14, 2008, at 12:39 PM, Johnson, Ellen C. K. wrote:

              > "Refer back" is redundant, to get technical. "Re-" means "back."
              >
              > ________________________________
              >
              > From: SACC-L@yahoogroups.com [mailto:SACC-L@yahoogroups.com] On
              Behalf
              > Of Deborah Shepherd
              > Sent: Thursday, February 14, 2008 12:37 PM
              > To: SACC-L@yahoogroups.com
              > Subject: Re: [SACC-L] Interesting article and a question about
              > Luo(Kenya) culture
              >
              > OK, I'll agree. The fact that the journalist made a point of
              adding
              > "Gibbs said Odinga and Obama's father are from the same tribe,
              > though he
              > was not aware they are related." was confusing. She made it sound
              like
              > it really mattered! And her use of pronouns was sloppy (one of my
              > pet-peeves). The "his" in the statement, "Obama's father was his
              > uncle"
              > should refer back to the subject of the clause, not of the
              previous
              > clause. Harumph.
              >
              > >>> Lloyd Miller <lloyd.miller@...
              > <mailto:lloyd.miller%40mchsi.com> > 2/14/2008 12:10 AM
              >>>
              > Deborah, I think Odinga meant that Obama's father was his
              (Odinga's)
              > uncle, and that Obama called him (Odinga) during the campaign
              (since
              > he-Odinga-is the opposition leader) and that Obama plans also to
              call
              >
              > President Kibaki. In other words, Obama is trying to negotiate a
              > peace between the factions and is trying to influence his
              relative,
              > Odinga. Judging from the NYT op ed piece that Ann Popplestone
              > posted, I think it'll be an uphill battle.
              > Lloyd
              >
              > On Feb 13, 2008, at 4:32 PM, Deborah Shepherd wrote:
              >
              > > First off, I'm primarily an archaeologist and am the first to
              admit
              >
              > > that
              > > I didn't do all the cultural anthro study I could have when I
              was
              in
              > > school. The following article talks about Obama's Luo kinship
              ties.
              > > There's a comment about midway through:
              > >
              > > "Odinga, a Luo, told British Broadcasting Corp. radio that
              Obama's
              > > father was his uncle, and that Obama called him "in the midst
              of
              his
              > > campaigning ... to express his concern and to say that he is
              also
              > > going
              > > to call President Kibaki so that Kibaki agrees to find a
              negotiated,
              > > satisfactory solution to this problem."
              > > Gibbs said Odinga and Obama's father are from the same tribe,
              > > though he
              > > was not aware they are related."
              > > I've checked an ethnography on the Luo and couldn't find any
              strong
              > > emphasis on the mother's-brother relationship in the Luo
              family.
              > > Basically, the traditional culture practices bridewealth and
              accepts
              > > polygyny. Husbands have strong authority over wives. In rural
              areas,
              > > when a woman refuses to accept a marriage offer, it is
              possible to
              > > "ambush" one's desired wife, even against her will, and once
              she
              has
              > > been in the possession of the man's family, her own family
              will not
              >
              > > want
              > > her back. They will only want the bridewealth payment.
              > > Nevertheless, I understand Odinga's comment to mean that
              after
              > Obama's
              > > father showed little inclination to raise his son, the uncle
              stepped
              > > forward to be a moral influence in the boy's life. The
              journalist
              > just
              > > didn't understand the African metaphorical way of speaking.
              > > Does anyone have an opinion?
              > > Deborah
              > >
              > >
              > >
              http://abcnews.go.com/International/WireStory?id=4102638&page=2
              >
              <" target=_blank>http://abcnews.go.com/International/WireStory?id=4102638&page=2>
              > > Obama Family in Kenya Watches US VoteBarack Obama's Family in
              Kenya
              > > Watches New Hampshire Vote, Expresses PrideBy KATY POWNALLThe
              > > Associated
              > > Press
              > > KOGELO, Kenya
              > >
              > > Sitting in plastic chairs surrounded by chickens and barefoot
              > > children,
              > > Barack Obama's Kenyan relatives rejoiced in the early results
              from
              > the
              > > New Hampshire primary.
              > > The candidate's uncle was pleased but cautious when he heard
              news
              on
              > > the radio of the initial encouraging signs for the family's
              favorite
              > > son.
              > > "Ah, that's wonderful," Said Obama declared, breaking into a
              wide
              > > grin.
              > > "But I don't want to jump just yet."
              > > Even after the results in New Hampshire showed Obama
              finishing a
              > close
              > > second to Hillary Clinton, Said Obama remained optimistic.
              > > "He still stands a good chance. I don't think it's too much
              of a
              > > setback because there was a time he was trailing Hillary and
              if he
              > was
              > > the kind of man who gives up, he would have given up then,"
              the
              > uncle
              > > said Wednesday.
              > > Kogelo, the western Kenyan village of Barack Obama's father,
              has
              > been
              > > spared the political and ethnic violence that has erupted in
              Kenya
              > > after
              > > last month's disputed presidential election. But it's just 90
              > minutes'
              > > drive from a town where torched and looted buildings bear
              testimony
              > to
              > > the clashes that have left more than 500 people dead, and the
              > > turmoil in
              > > Kenya, as well as his nephew's political success, were on
              Said
              > Obama's
              > > mind.
              > > While the dispute is political, violence has pitted other
              tribes
              > such
              > > as the Obamas' Luo against the Kikuyu of President Mwai
              Kibaki, who
              >
              > > have
              > > long dominated politics and the economy in Kenya.
              > > If Barack Obama were in Kenya today, he would "work with the
              > > leadership
              > > to bring them to a round table and find a solution to the
              problems
              > > that
              > > have been ravaging the country," his uncle said.
              > > In fact, Obama's spokesman Robert Gibbs confirmed the senator
              spoke
              > to
              > > opposition leader Raila Odinga for about five minutes Monday
              before
              > > going into a rally in New Hampshire.
              > > Odinga, a Luo, told British Broadcasting Corp. radio that
              Obama's
              > > father was his uncle, and that Obama called him "in the midst
              of
              his
              > > campaigning ... to express his concern and to say that he is
              also
              > > going
              > > to call President Kibaki so that Kibaki agrees to find a
              negotiated,
              > > satisfactory solution to this problem."
              > > Gibbs said Odinga and Obama's father are from the same tribe,
              > > though he
              > > was not aware they are related.
              > > Obama, speaking Tuesday in New Hampshire, said he urged that
              "all
              > the
              > > leaders there, regardless of their position on the election
              tell
              > their
              > > supporters to stand down, to desist with the violence and
              resolve
              in
              > a
              > > peaceful way in accordance with Kenyan law."
              > > Obama was coordinating his efforts with the State Department,
              his
              > > advisers said, and has discussed the situation with Secretary
              of
              > State
              > > Condoleezza Rice.
              > > He has also spoken with South African Archbishop Desmond
              Tutu,
              > calling
              > > him during last week's Iowa caucuses in between satellite
              interviews
              > > with local Iowa stations. Tutu has been in Nairobi, the
              Kenyan
              > > capital,
              > > trying to secure an end to the violence.
              > > On his last visit to Kenya, in August 2006, Obama touched on
              themes
              >
              > > not
              > > normally debated openly here, criticizing the high-level
              corruption
              >
              > > and
              > > the tribal politics that have dominated the country since its
              1963
              > > independence from Britain. Both have played a role in the
              post-
              > > election
              > > violence.
              > > "Very many people sat up and listened, but the government
              didn't
              > like
              > > it," Said Obama said of his nephew's speech, which was
              televised
              > > nationwide. "It touched a nerve they didn't want touched. The
              > > corruption
              > > is endemic here and tribalism cannot escape your eyes you
              just have
              > to
              > > look at the government ministries."
              > > In his speech, Barack Obama said: "Corruption is not a new
              problem;
              > > it's not just a Kenyan or African problem. It's a human
              problem.
              ...
              > > While corruption is a problem we all share, here in Kenya it
              is a
              > > crisis
              > > robbing an honest people of the opportunities they have
              fought for
              > and
              > > deserve."
              > > "Ethnic-based tribal politics have to stop," he said, to
              applause
              > from
              > > university students and staff.
              > > Obama's relatives, gathered Tuesday in the family compound at
              the
              > end
              > > of a dusty dirt road lined with mimosa and mango trees,
              listened
              for
              > > news of their American relative's election fortunes.
              > > Inside his grandmother's cinderblock home, framed photos of
              Obama's
              > > 2006 visit and an earlier one in 1987 lined the walls,
              alongside a
              > > signed election poster from his Senate race. Sarah Hussein
              Obama,
              > > wearing a brightly patterned dress and sandals decorated with
              > > shells and
              > > beads, sat in a wooden chair in the immaculate living room,
              waiting
              >
              > > for
              > > news of her grandson.
              > > Obama's father, also named Barack Obama, won a scholarship to
              a
              > > university in Hawaii, where he met and married the
              candidate's
              > > American
              > > mother. The two separated and Obama's father returned to
              Kenya,
              > > where he
              > > worked as a government economist until he died in a car crash
              in
              > 1982.
              > > His white-tiled grave is located in a secluded corner of the
              family
              > > compound.
              > > The younger Obama was mostly raised in Hawaii and did not
              know his
              > > father well, but his presidential bid has sparked excitement
              in
              > Kenya.
              > > Thousands were drawn to his appearances during his 2006
              visit.
              > > Said Obama said his nephew "has proved to be a beacon of hope
              here
              > and
              > > shown that even in difficult circumstances you can make it to
              the
              > > highest height of achievement with just determination and
              hard
              > work."
              > > If Obama is elected, he would improve relations between
              Africa and
              > > America because he had his roots in Africa, his uncle said.
              > >
              > > Associated Press writer Nedra Pickler contributed to this
              report
              > from
              > > New Hampshire.
              > >
              > > Copyright 2008 The Associated Press. All rights reserved.
              This
              > > material
              > > may not be published, broadcast, rewritten, or redistributed.
              > > Copyright (c) 2008 ABC News Internet Ventures
              > > Deborah J. Shepherd, Ph.D.
              > > Anthropology
              > > Anoka-Ramsey Community College
              > > Coon Rapids Campus
              > > deborah.shepherd@...
              > <mailto:deborah.shepherd%40anokaramsey.edu>
              > > http://webs.anokaramsey.edu/shepherd/
              > <http://webs.anokaramsey.edu/shepherd/>
              > > http://webs.anokaramsey.edu/sacc
              <http://webs.anokaramsey.edu/sacc>
              > > phone number: 763-433-1195
              > >



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