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Interesting editorial on fluidity of ethnic identity (New York Times)

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  • Popplestone, Ann
    February 12, 2008 Op-Ed Contributor Kenya s War of Words By SIMIYU BARASA Nairobi, Kenya WHEN you find yourself at a wedding discussing how more than 800
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      February 12, 2008

      Op-Ed Contributor


      Kenya's War of Words


      By SIMIYU BARASA

      Nairobi, Kenya

      WHEN you find yourself at a wedding discussing how more than 800 people
      have been killed and more than 250,000 kicked out of their homes for
      having certain ethnic origins, you know there is something terribly
      wrong with your country. Living in Nairobi the past few months has been
      like living in a relatively comfortable glass cave in the middle of
      hell.

      What began in late December as protests against election irregularities
      has spiraled into killings based on which tribe your identity card and
      speech indicate you belong to. English and Swahili, the languages that
      were supposed to unite us, have now been rendered useless. In these
      times, when belonging or not belonging to a particular tribe can be the
      difference between not being dead or being seriously dead, what chance
      does a person like me have? I was born to a Luhya father and a Taita
      mother, but I speak the Kikuyu language of Kiambu, where I was raised.

      The politicians no longer have the ability to stop the violence, despite
      their posturing that they could do so at the snap of their fingers. We
      see Kofi Annan, the former secretary general of the United Nations,
      posing with the rival contenders, President Mwai Kibaki and Raila
      Odinga, in photo sessions where the two antagonists shake hands and
      smile and call for peace. But the political rhetoric seems a joke; we
      know that revenge and counter-revenge are what the various ethnic groups
      really seek - to "do to what they did to our tribe mates."

      Daily life is a constant kaleidoscope of languages for those of us who
      are of mixed ethnic heritage. We must gauge what sort of street or
      village we are in and, like a chameleon, speak the "correct" tongue.

      My sister Rozi, a health worker, was recently taking a patient to a
      hospital in western Kenya when their ambulance was forced to stop by
      youths who demanded to know what tribe she came from. The youths were
      hunting members of Mr. Kibaki's Kikuyu tribe. When they saw that her ID
      card showed a mixed Taita-Luhya name, they asked her to speak in Luhya
      to prove she wasn't a Kikuyu.

      "I really can't speak it because my mother is a Taita!" she pleaded,
      explaining that our father had never taught us his language. In
      desperation, staring at the freshly chopped corpses around her, she
      showed them a photocopy of my mother's national identity card, which she
      had had the foresight to put in her purse. This apparently convinced
      them, and she was let go.

      Never before has it been important in our family to know which tribe we
      should belong to. My sisters and brothers have names from both of our
      parents' communities. I know no tribe. I know only languages.

      Supposedly cosmopolitan Nairobi has now been Balkanized, with whole
      neighborhoods turned into exclusive reserves of certain tribes. Some
      have imported murderous thugs from rural areas to protect their own -
      the Mungiki street gang for the Kikuyus; the Chingororo for the Gusii
      tribe; and groups taking the names Baghdad Boys and Taliban for the Luo
      people.

      Where can those of us of mixed heritage, who do not know their tribes'
      war cries, find refuge? My Luhya name is problematic in itself: The
      Kikuyus, who support Mr. Kibaki, are hunting Luhyas, whom they claim
      voted for Mr. Odinga, a Luo. And the Luos are hunting Luhyas as well,
      claiming they voted for President Kibaki. Such is my fate for having a
      father belonging to a tribe that apparently voted 50-50!

      Virtually all the major police stations and church compounds in Central,
      Rift Valley, Western, Nyanza and Nairobi Provinces have been turned into
      camps for internal refugees. These people's laments are all the same: We
      were born here; we don't even know any relatives in our so-called
      ancestral lands; we are Kenyans, not people of whatever tribe you want
      to pin on us. Yet the government now says that it will relocate them to
      their ancestral homes. For many, this means ethnic cleansing and death.

      Many of my friends have now resorted to taking crash courses in the
      dialects of the tribes indicated on their identity cards, "just in case
      it comes in handy." We sit in groups and laugh morbidly at the e-mail
      messages from our former classmates who are now abroad asking us if we
      are safe. After we graduated from high school, many of our friends faked
      bank-account statements to get student visas and fled to the United
      States, to wash toilets between university courses. Not me: I proudly
      swore to them that I was sticking here because I am an Africanist, a
      believer in the African dream. Now my faith in my countrymen has faded
      faster than the newness of the New Year.

      In this climate, inter-tribal marriages have become so rare that they
      are the subject of TV news reports. This is greatly upsetting to those
      of us who - thinking about our parents marrying all those years ago -
      never felt that living a life outside your clan was a significant
      matter. We love Kenya, without thinking of our neighbors' lineage. It is
      from us that Kenya will rise afresh.

      Simiyu Barasa is filmmaker and writer.





      Ann Popplestone AAB, BA, MA

      CCC Metro TLC



      216-987-3584

      FAX:330-867-6375





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