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RE: [SACC-L] Fwd: Mercenary Anthropology

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  • Lewine, Mark
    I have supported this structural view about professional ethics in anthropology most of my life, but now try to be more critical in reviewing my perspectives
    Message 1 of 29 , Oct 17, 2007
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      I have supported this structural view about professional ethics in anthropology most of my life, but now try to be more critical in reviewing my perspectives and find that this view is too simplistic and aritificial. The view that we can be 'pure' professional cultural specialists without taking sides or using economic or political considerations for our work is simply too easy and at the very least blind to the realities of everyday anthropology in any form. Where are the lines drawn for being 'mercenary'? If our colleges and states are involved in promoting and investing in war and we get paid for our work by the state and by the college, are we not complicit and taking sides? I am done being a smug academic who pretends that I am above the fray in my community. As recruiters offer my poor and lower middle-class students bribes and forgiveness of college loans if they will be front men and women for my kids who can afford to stay out and pay off their loans because the state pays me to teach the poor, should I call this my participation in the class ridden program to sacrifice my students so that my own kids can survive and get good jobs? Should I return my pay because of this? These are real issues you bring up with mercenary anthropologists, but avoid stopping the analysis with others so that we remain comfortable.

      "Terrorists" have been telling us for years that participation through our taxes and elected officials and support for the corporations and government agencies that are hurting their people (say, Palestinians, or people on reservations) mean that they have to go to extremes to show us that we are involved in their pain.


      From: SACC-L@yahoogroups.com [mailto:SACC-L@yahoogroups.com] On Behalf Of Lynch, Brian M
      Sent: Tuesday, October 16, 2007 6:08 PM
      To: SACC-L@yahoogroups.com
      Subject: RE: [SACC-L] Fwd: Mercenary Anthropology


      It puzzles me why you continue to put this issue in terms of anthropologists and whether they are personally ethical. It isn't a question of whether as individuals they are being ethical (or that conversely, if we question whether anthropologists should be working for the promotion of military operations, we are questioning their personal integrity.) The fact is that they are working for a side in a war. This makes them partisan without question, however "ethically" or "conscientiously" they do their jobs. They are working to help one side of the war be successful. They aren't just generically working to reduce or eliminate violence, but only to smooth the way a little bit so that "we" can "win" with somewhat attenuated violence (anthropologists among them in fact carrying weapons themselves). All of this is based on the assumption, it seems, that this side is the one that SHOULD win the war, however nicely or violently we do it. In essence, it implies a judgement about which side is "right" in this war. It seems from this that we are operating on the principle then, as anthropologists, that as long as we are on the "right" side, we can operate professionally as long as we are also doing so with some sort of "ethical" principles.

      From that point on all bets are off about the trustworthiness off ANY anthropologist, from the perspective of any people facing the power of military, state, and police forces anywhere, at home or abroad.


      From: SACC-L@yahoogroups.com <mailto:SACC-L%40yahoogroups.com> on behalf of Lloyd Miller
      Sent: Tue 10/16/2007 4:49 PM
      To: SACC-L@yahoogroups.com <mailto:SACC-L%40yahoogroups.com>
      Subject: Re: [SACC-L] Fwd: Mercenary Anthropology

      Never having walked the proverbial mile in the moccasins of applied
      anthropologists, I've tried to "play anthropologist" (ha!) and
      imagine what it would be like to work as one in the military or for a
      business corporation. One conclusion: I cannot sit on the academic
      sidelines and presume to judge how they should do their jobs. My
      guess is that most of them at least accept their jobs with beliefs
      and values similar to those of their academic counterparts: that
      they'll make a positive contribution-to their informants/subjects/
      clients/employers/society, etc. Probably they're all too busy
      working to convene committees on ethics. LIke the rest of us, they
      play it on the fly and make their ethical choices individually as
      issues arise (perhaps why Briody and Baba chose not to talk about it
      with Mark).

      A most extreme case-possibly apocryphal so I won't name him-involved
      an anthropologist from a large Midwestern university doing
      ethnography in Guatemala in the 1950s during a period of intense
      government violence against indigenous peoples. Some CIA types
      approached him and asked questions about his village that in the
      wrong hands would have threatened its safety. He in essence told
      them to go to hell, packed his belongings and left that night, having
      burned his hut with all the notes, typewriter, everything, went home
      and returned what was left of his U.S. federal grant.

      As we've learned from the Vietnam experience in the 1960s, some
      anthropologists and other social scientists did not do this, but
      rather gave information to the CIA types who sought it (after all,
      we're both funded by the U.S. govt; we're on the same team, right)?
      Some of these instances had tragic results for Vietnamese civilians.
      Were these scholars unethical? Did many of them know what the
      consequences of their actions would be? Should we have expected them
      all to act as did the anthropologist in Guatemala? I'd like to
      believe I would have that kind of courage, but I don't know-I
      couldn't guarantee it.

      I'm shocked, as are others, to hear of the Blackwater Security fiasco
      in Iraq. Sometimes, however, I play anthropologist and try to
      imagine what it would be like working there as a mercenary.
      Dangerous to be sure, but six-figure salaries, premium benefits,
      protecting the lives of important people... Would I be too quick to
      fire at the perceived enemy? Certainly I wouldn't intend it, but
      again, I don't think I could guarantee anything.

      Now let me offer an academic ethical conundrum. Throughout my entire
      teaching career I maintained the belief that an essential part of
      teaching students was evaluating them. I remember the great care and
      concern we all used in proctoring exams, writing statements about
      cheating and plagiarism in our syllabi and discussing these matters
      in class. When students asked why all the concern, I would tell them
      that it was my sacred duty to assess their learning in the course and
      that the grade I assigned would be a part of their permanent record.
      Therefore, if they succeeded in cheating, they'd make me an unwitting
      accomplice to their crimes, and I didn't want that.

      In recent years, more and more faculty are teaching courses online.
      I have asked all I've met how they hold their students accountable
      for doing their own work, etc. So far, the responses have been
      unanimous: "I can't." When I ask, "does this bother you?" the most
      common response is something like, "Yeah, to a degree, but not enough
      to raise a stink and risk job security." (In the interest of full
      disclosure, my wife now teaches psychology online and we've had this
      discussion many times.) Her reasons for teaching online are that the
      administration is pushing it (oh, they love it-all that cool
      technology, it's so now, it's so corporate!), enrollments are higher
      than in classroom sections, she hopes to retire in a few years and is
      thus beefing up her load to increase her retirement pension. In
      contrast, my son has resisted teaching English online but
      consequently is suffering lower enrollments and knows that eventually
      he'll have to do it for job security.

      So far, I have not heard that any college committee anywhere is
      convening to discuss whether students are being held appropriately
      accountable for their own learning. Perhaps, as with the
      anthropologists working for the military, the best we can hope for is
      that MOST online students have integrity and will behave honestly.
      Both the academic and the applied scenarios are imperfect. Ethics
      codes alone won't help much. They'd be more effective if they were
      tied to a licensing board, but anthropology is a long way from that.
      "Boycotting" (who-the military? the embedded anthropologists? and
      how would it be done?), as suggested by some anthropologists, may
      make the boycotters feel good but would be ineffective (like AAA
      "boycotting" Chicago because of the Illinois Chief Illiniwick mascott
      by forbidding SACC to hold its meetings there).

      I'd recommend that we educate our students well and then support
      them when they do applied work just as we do when they become
      teachers. If we do our job well, maybe most of them will not shame
      us, at least in no greater proportion than their contemporaries in
      law and medicine.

      (A totally different aside if you've stayed with me this long). On
      the Oct 9 Diane Rehm NPR radio program Tom Stevenson forwarded to us,
      the commander in Baghdad announced that one of his Human Terrain team
      members is David Matsuda. David is a former SACC member some of you
      may remember. He published a paper in SACC Notes some years back.

      Lloyd Miller

      On Oct 16, 2007, at 11:12 AM, Lewine, Mark wrote:

      > It is clear that we have at least a two-sided problem: anthropology
      > continues to ignore and marginalize 'practioner' anthropology, even
      > though currently more than twice as many Ph.D.'s work in NAPA's
      > domain than the traditional fields, and those in the applied and
      > practioner fields have not constructed a specific code of ethics
      > that applies specifically to its domain. For example, when I
      > questioned both Elizabeth Briody and Meta Baba (two exceptional
      > scholars in practice and applied anthropology) about ethical
      > concerns related to the effect on workers of consulting contracts
      > in corporations when the consequence of the work includes lay-offs,
      > they both avoided the issue. Urban fieldwork, urban corporate
      > fieldwork based consulting, government agency work all need self-
      > conscious review of ethical issues and concerns. Does anyone know
      > who might be addressing these issues?
      > ________________________________
      > From: SACC-L@yahoogroups.com <mailto:SACC-L%40yahoogroups.com> [mailto:SACC-L@yahoogroups.com <mailto:SACC-L%40yahoogroups.com> ] On
      > Behalf Of Deborah Shepherd
      > Sent: Monday, October 15, 2007 5:53 PM
      > To: SACC-L@yahoogroups.com <mailto:SACC-L%40yahoogroups.com>
      > Subject: RE: [SACC-L] Fwd: Mercenary Anthropology
      > One doesn't have to assume that persons in the military are
      > unintelligent, unethical, or any other negative quality to question
      > whether it is wise to enter into such a contract without knowing
      > where it could lead. And how can we know where it might lead? We
      > can't. I'd be much happier if the AAA at least had some specific
      > guidelines for spelling out such a working relationship. The same
      > should go for working with corporations (especially the
      > multinationals) or any other "applied anthropology" situation where
      > the anthropologists' research could impact a population directly
      > and in a way that is not within the anthropologists' control. Sure,
      > similar projects have worked out for the best plenty of times in
      > the past, but the world gets more complicated everyday.
      > Deborah Shepherd
      > >>> "Lewine, Mark" <mark.lewine@... <mailto:mark.lewine%40tri-c.edu> <mailto:mark.lewine%40tri-
      > c.edu> > 10/15/2007 3:01 PM >>>
      > I completely agree with these sentiments as I found myself making
      > the same mistake early in my career. Shortly after attaining my
      > graduate degree in anthropology, we (my consultant group for
      > intercultural relations) were offered a contract by the Defense
      > Dept. after one of our workshops was attended by Admiral Zumwalt.
      > To make a long story short, I rejected the offer because I
      > stereotyped the military, started teaching at a community college
      > instead. My partners became very successful in producing what was
      > and is one of the best 'race' relations institute in the country.
      > What I learned after many years was that the military can be run by
      > very intelligent highly ethical leaders who insist on humanistic
      > values while community colleges can be run by highly unethical,
      > incompetent and mercenary power-hungry individuals. I made the
      > right choice for the wrong reasons.
      > ________________________________
      > From: SACC-L@yahoogroups.com <mailto:SACC-L%40yahoogroups.com> <mailto:SACC-L%40yahoogroups.com>
      > [mailto:SACC-L@yahoogroups.com <mailto:SACC-L%40yahoogroups.com> <mailto:SACC-L%40yahoogroups.com> ]
      > On Behalf Of Hare II, William E
      > Sent: Monday, October 15, 2007 10:01 AM
      > To: SACC-L@yahoogroups.com <mailto:SACC-L%40yahoogroups.com> <mailto:SACC-L%40yahoogroups.com>
      > Subject: RE: [SACC-L] Fwd: Mercenary Anthropology
      > Having worked with the CT National Guard for ten years (I taught
      > military history and held the rank of Captain in the state military
      > department) I have mixed feelings about this issue. I think Lloyd
      > is right when he advises that we hold our condemnations until we
      > have had time to think out the issue. I am often amazed how a
      > professional organization such as ours, that prides itself on the
      > use of cultural relativism, can quickly bunch all military
      > personnel and operations into some form of conspiracy. I think the
      > real dilemma is that any anthropologist attempted to build enough
      > rapport with the local populous to do any good will find themselves
      > in an untenable relationship between the natives and the military.
      > I have often told my students from the very beginning of this Iraq
      > disaster that if the Bush administration had bothered to consult
      > (and listen to) any anthropologist worth their salt, then we
      > wouldn't have troops over there to begin with.
      > Will
      > -----Original Message-----
      > From: SACC-L@yahoogroups.com <mailto:SACC-L%40yahoogroups.com> <mailto:SACC-L%40yahoogroups.com>
      > <mailto:SACC-L%40yahoogroups.com> [mailto:SACC-
      > L@yahoogroups.com <mailto:L%40yahoogroups.com> <mailto:SACC-L%40yahoogroups.com> <mailto:SACC-L%
      > 40yahoogroups.com> ] On Behalf Of Lloyd Miller
      > Sent: Friday, October 12, 2007 2:05 PM
      > To: SACC-L@yahoogroups.com <mailto:SACC-L%40yahoogroups.com> <mailto:SACC-L%40yahoogroups.com>
      > <mailto:SACC-L%40yahoogroups.com>
      > Subject: Re: [SACC-L] Fwd: Mercenary Anthropology
      > As I read this article I was reminded of the oft-quoted saying, "Be
      > careful what you wish for...(it just might come true"). I have long
      > believed that anthropology ought to contribute more than it has done
      > traditionally toward the solution of real-life problems. Of course,
      > this means that more anthropologists must work in applied areas
      > outside of academe. Well, here we have it-anthropologists helping
      > the Army increase its cultural understanding of the so-called enemy
      > in order to---what? "improve [their] security, health care and
      > education," bring governance "down to them" or to kill them more
      > effectively?
      > My first reaction is to disbelieve any spin the military might put on
      > their descriptions. We've already had too many lies from this
      > administration. I'm also reminded of the Project Camelot and social
      > scientists' involvement with the CIA during the Nam war. These
      > activities drew much criticism and soul-searching from the
      > anthropological community and inspired discussions-still ongoing-
      > about our professional ethics.
      > However, maybe we shouldn't be too quick to condemn the entire
      > endeavor. I mean, anthropologists are capable of both ethical and
      > unethical behavior like any other group of people. Without them, our
      > military (and political) leadership will continue to bumble along in
      > their characteristic ethnocentric fog. I guess I need to believe
      > that at least some anthropologists who work for government (or
      > private corporations, etc.) will make valuable contributions without
      > compromising their integrity. And perhaps in the real world, some
      > has just gotta be better than none.
      > If instead we offer only the kind of sanctimonious outrage so often
      > associated with academics, we may drive our colleagues back into the
      > ivory tower and the "real world" won't hear from us for another
      > decade.
      > Lloyd
      > On Oct 5, 2007, at 10:38 AM, Lori Barkley wrote:
      > >
      > > The New York Times
      > > http://www.nytimes.com/2007/10/05/world/asia/05afghan.html? <http://www.nytimes.com/2007/10/05/world/asia/05afghan.html?>
      > <http://www.nytimes.com/2007/10/05/world/asia/05afghan.html? <http://www.nytimes.com/2007/10/05/world/asia/05afghan.html?> >
      > <http://www.nytimes.com/2007/10/05/world/asia/05afghan.html? <http://www.nytimes.com/2007/10/05/world/asia/05afghan.html?> <http://
      > www.nytimes.com/2007/10/05/world/asia/05afghan.html?> >
      > > pagewanted=2&_r=1&hp
      > >
      > > October 5, 2007
      > > Army Enlists Anthropology in War Zones
      > > By DAVID ROHDE
      > >
      > > SHABAK VALLEY, Afghanistan * In this isolated Taliban stronghold in
      > > eastern Afghanistan, American paratroopers are fielding what they
      > > consider a crucial new weapon in counterinsurgency operations
      > here: a
      > > soft-spoken civilian anthropologist named Tracy.
      > >
      > > Tracy, who asked that her surname not be used for security
      > reasons, is
      > > a member of the first Human Terrain Team, an experimental Pentagon
      > > program that assigns anthropologists and other social scientists to
      > > American combat units in Afghanistan and Iraq. Her team's ability to
      > > understand subtle points of tribal relations * in one case
      > spotting a
      > > land dispute that allowed the Taliban to bully parts of a major
      > > tribe *
      > > has won the praise of officers who say they are seeing concrete
      > > results.
      > >
      > > Col. Martin Schweitzer, commander of the 82nd Airborne Division unit
      > > working with the anthropologists here, said that the unit's combat
      > > operations had been reduced by 60 percent since the scientists
      > arrived
      > > in February, and that the soldiers were now able to focus more on
      > > improving security, health care and education for the population.
      > >
      > > "We're looking at this from a human perspective, from a social
      > > scientist's perspective," he said. "We're not focused on the enemy.
      > > We're focused on bringing governance down to the people."
      > >
      > > In September, Defense Secretary Robert M. Gates authorized a $40
      > > million expansion of the program, which will assign teams of
      > > anthropologists and social scientists to each of the 26 American
      > > combat
      > > brigades in Iraq and Afghanistan. Since early September, five new
      > > teams
      > > have been deployed in the Baghdad area, bringing the total to six.
      > >
      > > Yet criticism is emerging in academia. Citing the past misuse of
      > > social
      > > sciences in counterinsurgency campaigns, including in Vietnam and
      > > Latin
      > > America, some denounce the program as "mercenary anthropology" that
      > > exploits social science for political gain. Opponents fear that,
      > > whatever their intention, the scholars who work with the military
      > > could
      > > inadvertently cause all anthropologists to be viewed as intelligence
      > > gatherers for the American military.
      > >
      > > Hugh Gusterson, an anthropology professor at George Mason
      > University,
      > > and 10 other anthropologists are circulating an online pledge
      > calling
      > > for anthropologists to boycott the teams, particularly in Iraq.
      > >
      > > "While often presented by its proponents as work that builds a more
      > > secure world," the pledge says, "at base, it contributes instead
      > to a
      > > brutal war of occupation which has entailed massive casualties."
      > >
      > > In Afghanistan, the anthropologists arrived along with 6,000 troops,
      > > which doubled the American military's strength in the area it
      > patrols,
      > > the country's east.
      > >
      > > A smaller version of the Bush administration's troop increase in
      > Iraq,
      > > the buildup in Afghanistan has allowed American units to carry
      > out the
      > > counterinsurgency strategy here, where American forces generally
      > face
      > > less resistance and are better able to take risks.
      > >
      > > A New Mantra
      > >
      > > Since Gen. David H. Petraeus, now the overall American commander in
      > > Iraq, oversaw the drafting of the Army's new counterinsurgency
      > manual
      > > last year, the strategy has become the new mantra of the military. A
      > > recent American military operation here offered a window into how
      > > efforts to apply the new approach are playing out on the ground in
      > > counterintuitive ways.
      > >
      > > In interviews, American officers lavishly praised the anthropology
      > > program, saying that the scientists' advice has proved to be
      > > "brilliant," helping them see the situation from an Afghan
      > perspective
      > > and allowing them to cut back on combat operations.
      > >
      > > The aim, they say, is to improve the performance of local government
      > > officials, persuade tribesmen to join the police, ease poverty and
      > > protect villagers from the Taliban and criminals.
      > >
      > > Afghans and Western civilian officials, too, praised the
      > > anthropologists and the new American military approach but were
      > > cautious about predicting long-term success. Many of the economic
      > and
      > > political problems fueling instability can be solved only by large
      > > numbers of Afghan and American civilian experts.
      > >
      > > "My feeling is that the military are going through an enormous
      > change
      > > right now where they recognize they won't succeed militarily," said
      > > Tom
      > > Gregg, the chief United Nations official in southeastern
      > Afghanistan.
      > > "But they don't yet have the skill sets to implement" a coherent
      > > nonmilitary strategy, he added.
      > >
      > > Deploying small groups of soldiers into remote areas, Colonel
      > > Schweitzer's paratroopers organized jirgas, or local councils, to
      > > resolve tribal disputes that have simmered for decades. Officers
      > > shrugged off questions about whether the military was comfortable
      > with
      > > what David Kilcullen, an Australian anthropologist and an
      > architect of
      > > the new strategy, calls "armed social work."
      > >
      > > "Who else is going to do it?" asked Lt. Col. David Woods,
      > commander of
      > > the Fourth Squadron, 73rd Cavalry. "You have to evolve. Otherwise
      > > you're useless."
      > >
      > > The anthropology team here also played a major role in what the
      > > military called Operation Khyber. That was a 15-day drive late this
      > > summer in which 500 Afghan and 500 American soldiers tried to
      > clear an
      > > estimated 200 to 250 Taliban insurgents out of much of Paktia
      > > Province,
      > > secure southeastern Afghanistan's most important road and halt a
      > > string
      > > of suicide attacks on American troops and local governors.
      > >
      > > In one of the first districts the team entered, Tracy identified an
      > > unusually high concentration of widows in one village, Colonel Woods
      > > said. Their lack of income created financial pressure on their
      > sons to
      > > provide for their families, she determined, a burden that could
      > drive
      > > the young men to join well-paid insurgents. Citing Tracy's advice,
      > > American officers developed a job training program for the widows.
      > >
      > > In another district, the anthropologist interpreted the beheading
      > of a
      > > local tribal elder as more than a random act of intimidation: the
      > > Taliban's goal, she said, was to divide and weaken the Zadran,
      > one of
      > > southeastern Afghanistan's most powerful tribes. If Afghan and
      > > American
      > > officials could unite the Zadran, she said, the tribe could block
      > the
      > > Taliban from operating in the area.
      > >
      > > "Call it what you want, it works," said Colonel Woods, a native of
      > > Denbo, Pa. "It works in helping you define the problems, not just
      > the
      > > symptoms."
      > >
      > > Embedding Scholars
      > >
      > > The process that led to the creation of the teams began in late
      > 2003,
      > > when American officers in Iraq complained that they had little to no
      > > information about the local population. Pentagon officials contacted
      > > Montgomery McFate, a Yale-educated cultural anthropologist
      > working for
      > > the Navy who advocated using social science to improve military
      > > operations and strategy.
      > >
      > > Ms. McFate helped develop a database in 2005 that provided officers
      > > with detailed information on the local population. The next year,
      > > Steve
      > > Fondacaro, a retired Special Operations colonel, joined the program
      > > and
      > > advocated embedding social scientists with American combat units.
      > >
      > > Ms. McFate, the program's senior social science adviser and an
      > author
      > > of the new counterinsurgency manual, dismissed criticism of scholars
      > > working with the military. "I'm frequently accused of militarizing
      > > anthropology," she said. "But we're really anthropologizing the
      > > military."
      > >
      > > Roberto J. González, an anthropology professor at San Jose State
      > > University, called participants in the program naïve and
      > unethical. He
      > > said that the military and the Central Intelligence Agency had
      > > consistently misused anthropology in counterinsurgency and
      > propaganda
      > > campaigns and that military contractors were now hiring
      > > anthropologists
      > > for their local expertise as well.
      > >
      > > "Those serving the short-term interests of military and intelligence
      > > agencies and contractors," he wrote in the June issue of
      > Anthropology
      > > Today, an academic journal, "will end up harming the entire
      > discipline
      > > in the long run."
      > >
      > > Arguing that her critics misunderstand the program and the military,
      > > Ms. McFate said other anthropologists were joining the teams. She
      > said
      > > their goal was to help the military decrease conflict instead of
      > > provoking it, and she vehemently denied that the anthropologists
      > > collected intelligence for the military.
      > >
      > > In eastern Afghanistan, Tracy said wanted to reduce the use of
      > > heavy-handed military operations focused solely on killing
      > insurgents,
      > > which she said alienated the population and created more
      > > insurgents. "I
      > > can go back and enhance the military's understanding," she said, "so
      > > that we don't make the same mistakes we did in Iraq."
      > >
      > > Along with offering advice to commanders, she said, the five-member
      > > team creates a database of local leaders and tribes, as well as
      > social
      > > problems, economic issues and political disputes.
      > >
      > > Clinics and Mediation
      > >
      > > During the recent operation, as soldiers watched for suicide
      > bombers,
      > > Tracy and Army medics held a free medical clinic. They said they
      > hoped
      > > that providing medical care would show villagers that the Afghan
      > > government was improving their lives.
      > >
      > > Civil affairs soldiers then tried to mediate between factions of the
      > > Zadran tribe about where to build a school. The Americans said they
      > > hoped that the school, which would serve children from both groups,
      > > might end a 70-year dispute between the groups over control of a
      > > mountain covered with lucrative timber.
      > >
      > > Though they praised the new program, Afghan and Western officials
      > said
      > > it remained to be seen whether the weak Afghan government could
      > > maintain the gains. "That's going to be the challenge, to fill the
      > > vacuum," said Mr. Gregg, the United Nations official. "There's a
      > > question mark over whether the government has the ability to take
      > > advantage of the gains."
      > >
      > > Others also question whether the overstretched American military and
      > > its NATO allies can keep up the pace of operations.
      > >
      > > American officers expressed optimism. Many of those who had
      > served in
      > > both Afghanistan and Iraq said they had more hope for
      > Afghanistan. One
      > > officer said that the Iraqis had the tools to stabilize their
      > country,
      > > like a potentially strong economy, but that they lacked the will. He
      > > said Afghans had the will, but lacked the tools.
      > >
      > > After six years of American promises, Afghans, too, appear to be
      > > waiting to see whether the Americans or the Taliban will win a
      > > protracted test of wills here. They said this summer was just one
      > > chapter in a potentially lengthy struggle.
      > >
      > > At a "super jirga" set up by Afghan and American commanders here, a
      > > member of the Afghan Parliament, Nader Khan Katawazai, laid out the
      > > challenge ahead to dozens of tribal elders.
      > >
      > > "Operation Khyber was just for a few days," he said. "The Taliban
      > will
      > > emerge again."
      > >
      > >
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