Loading ...
Sorry, an error occurred while loading the content.

RE: Your post... was there an attachment? YES: ATTACHMENTS R REMOVED BY YAHOO; HERE IT IS IN TEXT

Expand Messages
  • Lewine, Mark
    ANSS: Anthropology and Sociology Section Association of College and Research Libraries (ACRL) Instruction and Information Literacy Committee Information
    Message 1 of 2 , Oct 4, 2006
    • 0 Attachment
      ANSS: Anthropology and Sociology Section


      Association of College and Research Libraries (ACRL)

      Instruction and Information Literacy Committee









      Information Literacy Standards for Anthropology and Sociology Students


      Draft - July 7, 2006



      Preamble



      What do anthropology and sociology students need to know about doing
      research and constructing knowledge in their disciplines? Faculty and
      librarians consider this question from their particular vantage points
      and sometimes put their ideas into action in the classroom and in
      consultations with students. The following draft standards are an
      attempt by librarians and faculty to frame information-seeking and
      knowledge-acquisition in these two disciplines as an aid to helping
      students become effective researchers and critical thinkers. The
      standards reflect (a) how knowledge is produced in anthropology and
      sociology and (b) what contributes to critical information literacy.



      The standards can be a tool to:

      * provide ideas for infusing coursework, assignments, and websites
      with content that will both increase students' anthropology or sociology
      knowledge and enhance their research skills
      * assist faculty and librarians in communicating with students
      about research and critical approaches to information
      * equip faculty and librarians with a discipline-specific
      understanding of "information literacy" which can be useful in
      discussions with administrators, curriculum committees, and
      accreditation teams
      * facilitate faculty-librarian communication about information
      literacy goals and provide opportunities for wider discussion of these
      issues
      * inform the teaching and consulting that librarians provide
      anthropology and sociology students
      * help students understand what is expected of them in specific
      terms for research and writing in these two disciplines



      Completion and acceptance of the standards is the foundational phase of
      this project. Phase two will be the creation of an online repository of
      assignments, curricula, course syllabi, and active learning methods that
      can be used by faculty and librarians to enrich coursework and enable
      students to meet the standards.



      The draft standards are derived specifically for students in
      anthropology and sociology from the more general Association of College
      & Research Libraries standards (2000). Like the ACRL Standards, the
      draft includes five basic areas (determine information need, access,
      evaluate, and use information, and understand relevant ethical and legal
      issues). Unlike the ACRL document, however, this draft incorporates the
      fifth standard (ethics) into the other four so that it is not separate
      from but integral to all the knowledge and behaviors of critical
      information literacy.



      The standards build from basic to more advanced, as do the key behaviors
      for success identified for each standard. Likewise, students will learn
      the necessary skills incrementally over time as each successive
      information-seeking and research experience provides opportunities for
      learning. Local institutions, academic departments, and curricular
      committees will decide how and when students are introduced to the
      concepts and skills that enable them to meet the standards, and at what
      point in the education for a major or a graduate degree each standard
      should be partially or fully met.



      The standards are written in such a way as to make it possible to assess
      whether students can accomplish the "key behaviors." The standards can
      therefore be used in department assessments and department/program
      reviews. They can also be used in conjunction with the ASA
      recommendations on the undergraduate sociology major (McKinney, Howery,
      Strand, Kain, & Berheide, 2004. pp. 2-29), the ASA's shared learning
      outcomes in anthropology and sociology (Kain, Wagenaar, & Howery, 2006,
      pp. 19-20), and similar statements on learning in or education for
      anthropology and sociology.




      Standard One - Know what kind of information is needed




      What the student needs to do:



      1. Define and articulate the information need.



      Key behaviors for success:



      a. Identifies and describes a manageable research topic or other
      information need appropriate to the scope of research questions in
      anthropology and sociology, using discipline-specific terminology,
      methods, and contexts.



      b. Reads information sources in anthropology and sociology to
      increase familiarity with the topic. Examples: Encyclopedia of
      Sociology; Encyclopedia of Cultural Anthropology.



      c. Identifies key concepts and terms that describe the information
      need. Examples: the discipline-focused encyclopedias, Thesaurus of
      Sociological Indexing Terms, and Outline of Cultural Materials (HRAF).



      d. Reevaluates the nature and extent of the information need to
      clarify, revise, or refine the question after some initial research,
      reading, interviews, and work with data or a population have taken
      place.



      2. Identify a variety of formats and sources in which
      anthropological and sociological information may appear.



      Key behaviors for success:



      a. Describes how information used in anthropology and sociology is
      formally and informally produced and disseminated. Examples: the U.S.
      Census, ethnographies, field notes, artifacts, data sets, conference
      papers, gray or fugitive literature, and peer reviewed scholarly
      articles.



      b. Recognizes that anthropological and sociological knowledge is
      organized in certain ways and in various formats which may influence how
      it is accessed and evaluated. Examples: scholarly journals, popular
      press, conference proceedings, museums, article databases, data archives
      such as those available via the ICPSR, Web sites, and multimedia.



      c. Differentiates between primary and secondary sources in
      anthropology and sociology, recognizing the use and value of each type.
      Examples: the use of field notes in writing ethnography, the use of site
      reports in archaeological analysis, and the value of raw data in
      constructing information and writing a sociological analysis.



      d. Recognizes that existing information can be combined with
      original thought, experimentation, and/or analysis to produce new
      information and insights into society, social phenomena, aspects of
      culture, and social theories.



      3. Consider the costs and benefits of acquiring the needed
      information.



      Key behaviors for success:



      a. Determines the availability of needed information and when
      necessary broadens the search beyond local resources. Examples:
      interlibrary loan, using resources at other locations including abroad,
      and obtaining images, videos, text, or sound.



      b. Defines a realistic overall plan and timeline to acquire the
      needed information, do the field work, analyze data, or learn new
      skills.



      Ethical, sociocultural, and legal dimensions and behaviors:



      c. Identifies and discusses issues related to free vs. fee-based
      access to information, including pertinent inequalities of access in the
      U.S. and abroad.






      Standard Two - Access needed information effectively, efficiently, and
      ethically




      What the student needs to do:



      1. Select the most appropriate investigative methods and
      information retrieval systems for accessing the needed information.



      Key behaviors for success:



      a. Identifies anthropological and sociological investigative
      methodologies applicable to the research project, such as fieldwork,
      participant observation, data analysis, survey research, and literature
      review.



      b. Selects information retrieval systems most appropriate to the
      information need. Examples: discipline-specific databases such as
      Anthropology Plus, AnthroSource, eHRAF, Sociological Abstracts, Social
      Sciences Citation Index, Population Index, Family & Society Studies
      Worldwide, Annual Review of Anthropology/Sociology, National Criminal
      Justice Service Abstracts, Ethnic NewsWatch, Bibliography of
      Data-Related Literature; library catalogs; data sets, e.g. the NORC
      General Social Survey and others from the ICPSR; and research guides for
      anthropology and sociology on academic library Web sites.



      c. Distinguishes between databases that provide up to date indexing
      of a variety of journals, book chapters, dissertations, and conference
      proceedings in anthropology and sociology (such as those listed in Two
      1.b), databases that provide the online text of journals from many
      disciplines but which are typically limited in date and/or scope for
      anthropology and sociology (examples: JSTOR, Expanded Academic ASAP,
      Google Scholar), and the companies or systems that license the databases
      or online text of journals (examples: CSA, EBSCO, Sage).



      d. Uses Web search engines such as Google critically and cautiously
      for scholarly research.



      Ethical, sociocultural, and legal dimensions and behaviors:



      e. Complies with laws and university rules on access to information
      resources, and storage and dissemination of text, data, images, field
      notes, and visual and audio works.



      f. Demonstrates an understanding of institutional policies
      related to human subjects research, including access to subjects,
      informed consent, and institutional review board requirements.

      g. Identifies and discusses privacy, confidentiality, security, and
      other ethical issues related to participant observation according to the
      American Anthropological Association Code of Ethics or the American
      Sociological Association Ethical Standards.



      2. Construct, implement, and refine well-designed search strategies
      that use a variety of methods to find information.



      Key behaviors for success:



      a. Uses appropriate sociological and anthropological terminology
      for searching databases, recognizing the different effects of using
      free-text keywords, synonyms, and vocabulary from the database's own
      particular list of subject indexing terms.



      b. Creates and uses effective search strategies in several
      anthropology and sociology databases (examples in Two.1.b) and various
      search interfaces using advanced search features, such as Boolean
      operators, truncation, and proximity searches; refines searches as
      needed later in the process to obtain additional or missing information.




      c. Searches for and finds books as well as scholarly journals, and
      sources appropriate to the inquiry, such as surveys, interviews, audio
      and visual sources, and data, and seeks out knowledgeable individuals in
      the library, academic department, and community as part of the research
      plan.



      3. Keep track of the information and its sources.

      Key behaviors for success:



      a. Produces accurate reference lists using the standard styles for
      anthropology and sociology.

      b. Uses a citation management system for organizing and managing
      citations, recording all pertinent citation information for future
      reference. Examples: RefWorks or EndNote.

      Ethical, sociocultural, and legal dimensions and behaviors:

      c. Knows when citation is necessary and applies the documentation
      style of the American Anthropological Association, the American
      Sociological Association, or the American Psychological Association
      consistently to cite sources and list references.




      Standard Three - Evaluate information and its sources critically;


      Incorporate selected information into knowledge base and


      value system




      What the student needs to do:

      1. Summarize the main ideas to be extracted from the information
      gathered and synthesize main ideas to construct new concepts.

      Key behaviors for success:

      a. Selects the main ideas from texts (books, scholarly articles,
      interview transcripts, ethnographies, etc.), chooses concepts to restate
      in his/her own words, and identifies verbatim material that can be
      appropriately quoted.

      b. Recognizes interrelationships among concepts, social theories,
      field observations, and other data and combines them into potentially
      useful primary statements with supporting evidence.

      c. Utilizes technologies (such as audio or visual equipment,
      spreadsheets, and statistical packages) for studying the interaction of
      ideas and other phenomena. Examples: to analyze migration patterns,
      census data, and videos and sound recordings of populations studied.

      2. Apply appropriate criteria for evaluating both the information
      and its source.

      Key behaviors for success:

      a. Examines and compares information from various sources in order
      to evaluate reliability, validity, accuracy, authority, timeliness, and
      point of view or bias.

      b. Seeks differing viewpoints in alternative databases, books, Web
      sites, and articles, always evaluating the source of the information or
      argument, and determines whether to incorporate or reject viewpoints
      encountered.

      c. Analyzes the structure and logic of supporting arguments or
      methodology within an anthropology or sociology framework, understands
      what constitutes valid evidence in the discipline, analyzes the
      reasonableness of the conclusions, and recognizes prejudice, deception,
      or manipulation.

      d. Recognizes the cultural, physical, or other context within which
      the information was created and accessed, and understands the impact of
      context on interpreting the information. Examples: questions and
      understands whether the researcher had full access to pertinent
      government sources or to the population studied, whether the researcher
      encountered censorship or culturally imposed limitations in asking
      questions or gathering information, for whose benefit the research was
      produced, and which data or viewpoint might be missing from the
      analysis.

      Ethical, sociocultural, and legal dimensions and behaviors:

      e. Identifies and discusses issues related to censorship and
      freedom of speech in the U.S. and in countries/cultures being studied.

      f. Identifies and discusses issues related to privacy and
      security of information. Examples: cases in which field notes can be
      subpoenaed or government funding organizations can demand primary
      research data.

      3. Compare new knowledge with prior knowledge to determine the
      value added, contradictions, or other unique characteristics of the
      information and take steps to reconcile differences.

      Key behaviors for success:

      a. Determines whether the information satisfies the research need,
      and selects information that provides evidence for the topic, integrates
      new information, and draws conclusions based upon information gathered.

      b. Seeks expert opinion through interviews, email, etc. with
      anthropologists, sociologists, and subject-area specialists in the
      library to validate sufficiency and interpretation of the information.

      c. Reformulates initial query if necessary based on findings, and
      reviews and extends search strategies for additional concepts or broader
      synthesis. Examples: searching databases in related fields such as
      linguistics, education, political science, ethnomusicology, biology,
      geography, ethnic or local area studies, and psychology.






      Standard Four - Use information effectively and ethically to accomplish
      a specific purpose




      What the student needs to do:

      1. Apply new and prior information to the planning, creation, and
      revision of a particular product or performance.

      Key behaviors for success:

      a. Organizes and integrates the content, quotations, and
      paraphrasings in a manner that supports the purposes and format of the
      product or presentation. Examples: outlines, oral reports, drafts,
      videos, and presentation software, and manipulation/transfer of digital
      text, images, and data for the presentation or product.
      b. Maintains a journal of activities related to the information
      seeking, evaluating, and communicating process. Example: creates a blog
      to record searches conducted for an evaluation of hate crime law and
      legislation from a criminal justice perspective.
      c. Reflects on past successes, failures, and alternative strategies
      for integrating new and prior information and creating the presentation.
      Example: rewrites the text of an original presentation on Navaho weaving
      to make it more accessible to a general audience, adding sound files and
      images to augment the content.

      Ethical, sociocultural, and legal dimensions and behaviors:

      d. Demonstrates an understanding of what constitutes plagiarism and
      does not represent work attributable to others as his/her own.

      2. Communicate the product or performance effectively to others.

      Key behaviors for success:

      a. Chooses a communication medium, format, and style that best
      supports the purposes of the product or performance and the intended
      audience. Example: integrates maps, photos of artifacts and texts of
      field diaries into a PowerPoint package on a specific archaeological
      site and mounts it on the Internet to educate local residents about a
      salvage project involving a new highway.
      b. Uses a range of information technology applications,
      incorporating principles of design and communication, in creating the
      product or presentation. Example: creates a study of Polynesian music
      integrating sound bites and links to photographic images from the HRAF
      files and contemporary performances.



      Ethical, sociocultural, and legal dimensions and behaviors:



      c. Demonstrates an understanding of intellectual property,
      copyright, and fair use of copyrighted material, and obtains and posts
      necessary permissions from authors and organizations where needed to use
      copyrighted material in writing or presentations.



      d. Shares the product of the research, e.g., the report, data, or
      ethnography, with groups and sponsors in keeping with ethical principles
      of the AAA or ASA.




      Selected Bibliography





      Information Literacy - General




      Association of College and Research Libraries. "Characteristics of
      Programs of Information Literacy that Illustrate Best Practices: A
      Guideline." 2003.
      http://www.ala.org/ala/acrl/acrlstandards/characteristics.htm, Accessed
      June 4, 2006.

      ---. "Information Literacy Competency Standards for Higher Education."
      2000.
      http://www.ala.org/ala/acrl/acrlstandards/informa-tionliteracycompetency
      .htm, Accessed May 24, 2006.

      Association of College and Research Libraries. "Objectives for
      Information Literacy Instruction: A Model Statement for Academic
      Librarians." 2001.
      http://www.ala.org/ala/acrl/acrlstandards/objectivesinformation.htm,
      Accessed May 24, 2006.

      Elmborg, James K. "Information Literacy and Writing across the
      Curriculum." Reference Services Review 31, no. 1 (2003): 68-80.

      ---. "Critical Information Literacy: Implications for Instructional
      Practice." The Journal of Academic Librarianship 32, no. 2 (2006):
      192-199.

      Grafstein, Ann. "A Discipline-Based Approach to Information Literacy."
      Journal of Academic Librarianship 28, no. 4 (2002): 197-204.

      Owusu-Ansah, Edward K. "Information Literacy and Higher Education:
      Placing the Academic Library in the Center of a Comprehensive Solution."
      Journal of Academic Librarianship 30, no. 1 (2004): 3-16.

      ---. "Information Literacy and the Academic Library: A Critical Look at
      a Concept and the Controversies Surrounding It." Journal of Academic
      Librarianship 29, no. 4 (2003): 219-41.

      Simmons, Michele Holschuh. "Librarians as Disciplinary Discourse
      Mediators: Using Genre Theory to Move toward Critical Information
      Literacy." portal: Libraries and the Academy 5, no. 3 (2005): 297-311.

      U.S. National Commission on Libraries and Information Science. "The
      Information Literacy Life Cycle: Stages, Resources, Tools, Contexts &
      Outcomes." Working Draft, 2002.
      http://www.nclis.gov/libinter/infolitconf&meet/InformationLiteracyStages
      Responsibilities&OutcomesMatrix.pdf, Accessed May 24, 2006.





      Anthropology and Sociology



      American Anthropological Association. "Code of Ethics of the American
      Anthropological Association." Washington, D.C.: American
      Anthropological Association, 1996-2004.
      http://www.aaanet.org/committees/ethics/ethicscode.pdf, Accessed June
      29, 2006.

      American Sociological Association. "Code of Ethics and Policies and
      Procedures of the ASA Committee on Professional Ethics." Washington,
      D.C.: The American Sociological Association, 1999.
      http://www.asanet.org/galleries/default-file/Code%20of%20Ethics.pdf,
      Accessed June 29, 2006.

      Burawoy, Michael. "Combat in the Dissertation Zone." American
      Sociologist 36, no. 2 (2005): 43-56.

      Dodgen, Lynda, Sarah Naper, Olia Palmer, and Adrian Rapp. "Not So Sili:
      Sociology Information Literacy Infusion as the Focus of Faculty and
      Librarian Collaboration." Community & Junior College Libraries 11, no. 4
      (2003): 27-33.

      Grauerholz, Liz, and Sharon Bouma-Holtrop. "Exploring Critical
      Sociological Thinking." Teaching Sociology 31, no. 4 (2003): 485-96.

      Grey, Mark A. , Robert A. Hackenberg, and Donald D. Stull. "The Case
      against Accreditation and Certification of Applied Anthropology."
      Practicing Anthropology 13, no. 3 (1991): 21-22.

      Hilbert, Richard A. " Some Critical Remarks on Competency Based
      Education and the ASA Declaration on Teaching." Humanity & Society 5,
      no. 2 (1981): 184-90

      Hill, Robert, Mary Granica, Lenora Bohren, and Peter Van Arsdale. "On
      Certification, Accreditation, Standards and the Academy." Practicing
      Anthropology 14, no. 1 (1992): 2, 27-29.

      Hohm, Charles F., and William S. Johnson. Assessing Student Learning in
      Sociology. 2nd. ed, ASA Resource Materials for Teaching. Washington,
      D.C.: The American Sociological Association, 2001.

      Kain, Edward L. "Building the Sociological Imagination through a
      Cumulative Curriculum: Professional Socialization in Sociology."
      Teaching Sociology 27, no. 1 (1999): 1-16.

      Kain, Edward L., Theodore C. Wagenaar, and Carla B. Howery. "Models and
      Best Practices for Joint Sociology-Anthropology Departments." 1-24:
      American Sociological Association, Academic and Professional Affairs
      Program, 2006.
      http://www.asanet.org/galleries/Governance/Sociology%20and%20Anthropolog
      y%20Joint%20Departments.pdf, Accessed June 27, 2006.

      Keith, Bruce. "Taking Stock of the Discipline: Some Reflections on the
      State of American Sociology." American Sociologist 31, no. 1 (2000):
      5-14.

      Killian, Lewis M. "Can Sociology Afford Certification? No!" Humanity &
      Society 11, no. 3 (1987): 390-94.

      Lowry, Janet Huber, Carla B. Howery, John P. Myers, Harry Perlstadt,
      Caroline Hodges Persell, Diane Pike, Charles H. Powers, Shirley A.
      Scritchfild, Cynthia M. Siemsen, Barbara Trepagnier, Judith Ann Warner,
      and Gregory L. Weiss, "Creating an Effective Assessment Plan for the
      Sociology Major." New York: The American Sociological Association. ASA
      Task Force on Assessing the Undergraduate Sociology Major, 2005.
      http://www.asanet.org/galleries/APAP/Assessment%20Final%20Copy%202005.pd
      f, Accessed May 25, 2006.

      McKinney, Kathleen, Carla B. Howery, Kerry J. Strand, Edward L. Kain,
      and Catherine White Berheide. "Liberal Learning and the Sociology Major
      Updated: Meeting the Challenge of Teaching Sociology in the Twenty-First
      Century." New York: The American Sociological Association. ASA Task
      Force on the Undergraduate Major, 2004.
      http://asanet.org/galleries/default-file/Lib_Learning_FINAL.pdf,
      Accessed May 24, 2006.

      Perlstadt, Harry. "Accreditation of Sociology Programs: A Bridge to a
      Broader Audience." Canadian Journal of Sociology 23, no. 1 (1998):
      195-207.

      ---. "Bringing Sociological Theory and Practice Together: A Pragmatic
      Solution." Sociological Perspectives 41, no. 2 (1998): 268-71.

      Rice, Patricia, McCurdy, David W. , ed. Strategies in Teaching
      Anthropology. 2nd ed. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentiss Hall,
      2002.

      Segal, Daniel A., and Sylvia J. Yanagisako, eds. Unwrapping the Sacred
      Bundle : Reflections on the Disciplining of Anthropology. Durham: Duke
      University Press, 2005.

      Trotter, Robert T. Anthropology for Tomorrow: Creating
      Practitioner-Oriented Applied Anthropology Programs. Washington, D.C.:
      American Anthropological Association, 1988.

      Trotter, Robert T., Nathaniel Tashima, and Cathleen Crain. "The Case for
      Accreditation of Training Programs." Practicing Anthropology 13, no. 3
      (1991): 2, 20-21.

      Van Willigen, John. "Development of Training Standards: The Necessary
      Step." Practicing Anthropology 13, no. 3 (1991): 23.

      ---. "Recommendations for Training and Education for Careers in Applied
      Anthropology: A Literature Review." Human Organization 38, no. 4 (1979):
      411-16.





      Information Literacy Standards in Other Disciplines



      ACRL Education and Behavioral Sciences Section Social Work/Social
      Welfare Committee. "Information Competencies for Social Work Students."
      2004. http://www.lib.msu.edu/corby/ebss/socialwork/swkpyramid.html,
      Accessed May 24, 2006.

      ACRL Law & Political Science Section Education Task Force. "Political
      Science Research Competency Guidelines Draft." 2005.
      http://lita.org/ala/acrlbucket/lpss/PoliticalScienceStandardsDraftRevisi
      onFeb2005.doc, Accessed May 24, 2006.

      ACRL Literatures in English Section Ad hoc Committee on Literary
      Research Competencies. "Research Competency Guidelines for Literatures
      in English Draft." 2004.
      http://www.ala.org/ala/acrl/acrlstandards/researchcompentenciesLES.htm,
      Accessed May 24, 2006.

      ACRL/STS Task Force on Information Literacy for Science and Technology.
      "Information Literacy Standards for Science and Technology: A Draft."
      2005. http://www.ala.org/ala/acrl/acrlstandards/infolitscitech.htm,
      Accessed May 24, 2006.

      Cary, Paul; Sampsel, Laurie J. "Information Literacy Instructional
      Objectives for Undergraduate Music Students: A Project of the Music
      Library Association, Bibliographic Instruction Subcommittee." Notes 62,
      no. 3 (2006): 663-79.

      Grant, Maria, and Marlowe Berg. "Information Literacy Integration in a
      Doctoral Program." Behavioral & Social Sciences Librarian 22, no. 1
      (2003): 115-28.


      ________________________________

      From: Lynch, Brian M [mailto:BLynch@...]
      Sent: Wednesday, October 04, 2006 12:43 PM
      To: Lewine, Mark
      Subject: Your post... was there an attachment?



      Mark, your message in the Yahoo groups list came through



      "Dr. Salem and others thought that this was an excellent base for
      discussion for social science professors in our community colleges as we
      are under the next 'gun' from the standards people after k-12"





      But I wasn't sure what you were referring to. Was there an attachment?



      Brian



      [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
    • rls@linkline.com
      This is the same thing I sent out before. This is a draft they are seeking responses on. One of the librarians who was involved in writing the draft will be
      Message 2 of 2 , Oct 6, 2006
      • 0 Attachment
        This is the same thing I sent out before. This is a draft they are seeking
        responses on. One of the librarians who was involved in writing the draft
        will be in San Jose in November and wants to attend the SACC business
        meeting to discuss it.

        --Becky



        -----Original Message-----
        From: SACC-L@yahoogroups.com [mailto:SACC-L@yahoogroups.com] On Behalf Of
        Lewine, Mark
        Sent: Wednesday, October 04, 2006 12:45 PM
        To: Lynch, Brian M
        Cc: SACC-L@yahoogroups.com
        Subject: [SACC-L] RE: Your post... was there an attachment? YES: ATTACHMENTS
        R REMOVED BY YAHOO; HERE IT IS IN TEXT






        ANSS: Anthropology and Sociology Section

        Association of College and Research Libraries (ACRL)

        Instruction and Information Literacy Committee

        Information Literacy Standards for Anthropology and Sociology Students

        Draft - July 7, 2006

        Preamble

        What do anthropology and sociology students need to know about doing
        research and constructing knowledge in their disciplines? Faculty and
        librarians consider this question from their particular vantage points
        and sometimes put their ideas into action in the classroom and in
        consultations with students. The following draft standards are an
        attempt by librarians and faculty to frame information-seeking and
        knowledge-acquisition in these two disciplines as an aid to helping
        students become effective researchers and critical thinkers. The
        standards reflect (a) how knowledge is produced in anthropology and
        sociology and (b) what contributes to critical information literacy.

        The standards can be a tool to:

        * provide ideas for infusing coursework, assignments, and websites
        with content that will both increase students' anthropology or sociology
        knowledge and enhance their research skills
        * assist faculty and librarians in communicating with students
        about research and critical approaches to information
        * equip faculty and librarians with a discipline-specific
        understanding of "information literacy" which can be useful in
        discussions with administrators, curriculum committees, and
        accreditation teams
        * facilitate faculty-librarian communication about information
        literacy goals and provide opportunities for wider discussion of these
        issues
        * inform the teaching and consulting that librarians provide
        anthropology and sociology students
        * help students understand what is expected of them in specific
        terms for research and writing in these two disciplines



        Completion and acceptance of the standards is the foundational phase of
        this project. Phase two will be the creation of an online repository of
        assignments, curricula, course syllabi, and active learning methods that
        can be used by faculty and librarians to enrich coursework and enable
        students to meet the standards.

        The draft standards are derived specifically for students in
        anthropology and sociology from the more general Association of College
        & Research Libraries standards (2000). Like the ACRL Standards, the
        draft includes five basic areas (determine information need, access,
        evaluate, and use information, and understand relevant ethical and legal
        issues). Unlike the ACRL document, however, this draft incorporates the
        fifth standard (ethics) into the other four so that it is not separate
        from but integral to all the knowledge and behaviors of critical
        information literacy.

        The standards build from basic to more advanced, as do the key behaviors
        for success identified for each standard. Likewise, students will learn
        the necessary skills incrementally over time as each successive
        information-seeking and research experience provides opportunities for
        learning. Local institutions, academic departments, and curricular
        committees will decide how and when students are introduced to the
        concepts and skills that enable them to meet the standards, and at what
        point in the education for a major or a graduate degree each standard
        should be partially or fully met.

        The standards are written in such a way as to make it possible to assess
        whether students can accomplish the "key behaviors." The standards can
        therefore be used in department assessments and department/program
        reviews. They can also be used in conjunction with the ASA
        recommendations on the undergraduate sociology major (McKinney, Howery,
        Strand, Kain, & Berheide, 2004. pp. 2-29), the ASA's shared learning
        outcomes in anthropology and sociology (Kain, Wagenaar, & Howery, 2006,
        pp. 19-20), and similar statements on learning in or education for
        anthropology and sociology.

        Standard One - Know what kind of information is needed

        What the student needs to do:

        1. Define and articulate the information need.

        Key behaviors for success:

        a. Identifies and describes a manageable research topic or other
        information need appropriate to the scope of research questions in
        anthropology and sociology, using discipline-specific terminology,
        methods, and contexts.

        b. Reads information sources in anthropology and sociology to
        increase familiarity with the topic. Examples: Encyclopedia of
        Sociology; Encyclopedia of Cultural Anthropology.

        c. Identifies key concepts and terms that describe the information
        need. Examples: the discipline-focused encyclopedias, Thesaurus of
        Sociological Indexing Terms, and Outline of Cultural Materials (HRAF).

        d. Reevaluates the nature and extent of the information need to
        clarify, revise, or refine the question after some initial research,
        reading, interviews, and work with data or a population have taken
        place.

        2. Identify a variety of formats and sources in which
        anthropological and sociological information may appear.

        Key behaviors for success:

        a. Describes how information used in anthropology and sociology is
        formally and informally produced and disseminated. Examples: the U.S.
        Census, ethnographies, field notes, artifacts, data sets, conference
        papers, gray or fugitive literature, and peer reviewed scholarly
        articles.

        b. Recognizes that anthropological and sociological knowledge is
        organized in certain ways and in various formats which may influence how
        it is accessed and evaluated. Examples: scholarly journals, popular
        press, conference proceedings, museums, article databases, data archives
        such as those available via the ICPSR, Web sites, and multimedia.

        c. Differentiates between primary and secondary sources in
        anthropology and sociology, recognizing the use and value of each type.
        Examples: the use of field notes in writing ethnography, the use of site
        reports in archaeological analysis, and the value of raw data in
        constructing information and writing a sociological analysis.

        d. Recognizes that existing information can be combined with
        original thought, experimentation, and/or analysis to produce new
        information and insights into society, social phenomena, aspects of
        culture, and social theories.

        3. Consider the costs and benefits of acquiring the needed
        information.

        Key behaviors for success:

        a. Determines the availability of needed information and when
        necessary broadens the search beyond local resources. Examples:
        interlibrary loan, using resources at other locations including abroad,
        and obtaining images, videos, text, or sound.

        b. Defines a realistic overall plan and timeline to acquire the
        needed information, do the field work, analyze data, or learn new
        skills.

        Ethical, sociocultural, and legal dimensions and behaviors:

        c. Identifies and discusses issues related to free vs. fee-based
        access to information, including pertinent inequalities of access in the
        U.S. and abroad.

        Standard Two - Access needed information effectively, efficiently, and
        ethically

        What the student needs to do:

        1. Select the most appropriate investigative methods and
        information retrieval systems for accessing the needed information.

        Key behaviors for success:

        a. Identifies anthropological and sociological investigative
        methodologies applicable to the research project, such as fieldwork,
        participant observation, data analysis, survey research, and literature
        review.

        b. Selects information retrieval systems most appropriate to the
        information need. Examples: discipline-specific databases such as
        Anthropology Plus, AnthroSource, eHRAF, Sociological Abstracts, Social
        Sciences Citation Index, Population Index, Family & Society Studies
        Worldwide, Annual Review of Anthropology/Sociology, National Criminal
        Justice Service Abstracts, Ethnic NewsWatch, Bibliography of
        Data-Related Literature; library catalogs; data sets, e.g. the NORC
        General Social Survey and others from the ICPSR; and research guides for
        anthropology and sociology on academic library Web sites.

        c. Distinguishes between databases that provide up to date indexing
        of a variety of journals, book chapters, dissertations, and conference
        proceedings in anthropology and sociology (such as those listed in Two
        1.b), databases that provide the online text of journals from many
        disciplines but which are typically limited in date and/or scope for
        anthropology and sociology (examples: JSTOR, Expanded Academic ASAP,
        Google Scholar), and the companies or systems that license the databases
        or online text of journals (examples: CSA, EBSCO, Sage).

        d. Uses Web search engines such as Google critically and cautiously
        for scholarly research.

        Ethical, sociocultural, and legal dimensions and behaviors:

        e. Complies with laws and university rules on access to information
        resources, and storage and dissemination of text, data, images, field
        notes, and visual and audio works.

        f. Demonstrates an understanding of institutional policies
        related to human subjects research, including access to subjects,
        informed consent, and institutional review board requirements.

        g. Identifies and discusses privacy, confidentiality, security, and
        other ethical issues related to participant observation according to the
        American Anthropological Association Code of Ethics or the American
        Sociological Association Ethical Standards.

        2. Construct, implement, and refine well-designed search strategies
        that use a variety of methods to find information.

        Key behaviors for success:

        a. Uses appropriate sociological and anthropological terminology
        for searching databases, recognizing the different effects of using
        free-text keywords, synonyms, and vocabulary from the database's own
        particular list of subject indexing terms.

        b. Creates and uses effective search strategies in several
        anthropology and sociology databases (examples in Two.1.b) and various
        search interfaces using advanced search features, such as Boolean
        operators, truncation, and proximity searches; refines searches as
        needed later in the process to obtain additional or missing information.

        c. Searches for and finds books as well as scholarly journals, and
        sources appropriate to the inquiry, such as surveys, interviews, audio
        and visual sources, and data, and seeks out knowledgeable individuals in
        the library, academic department, and community as part of the research
        plan.

        3. Keep track of the information and its sources.

        Key behaviors for success:

        a. Produces accurate reference lists using the standard styles for
        anthropology and sociology.

        b. Uses a citation management system for organizing and managing
        citations, recording all pertinent citation information for future
        reference. Examples: RefWorks or EndNote.

        Ethical, sociocultural, and legal dimensions and behaviors:

        c. Knows when citation is necessary and applies the documentation
        style of the American Anthropological Association, the American
        Sociological Association, or the American Psychological Association
        consistently to cite sources and list references.

        Standard Three - Evaluate information and its sources critically;

        Incorporate selected information into knowledge base and

        value system

        What the student needs to do:

        1. Summarize the main ideas to be extracted from the information
        gathered and synthesize main ideas to construct new concepts.

        Key behaviors for success:

        a. Selects the main ideas from texts (books, scholarly articles,
        interview transcripts, ethnographies, etc.), chooses concepts to restate
        in his/her own words, and identifies verbatim material that can be
        appropriately quoted.

        b. Recognizes interrelationships among concepts, social theories,
        field observations, and other data and combines them into potentially
        useful primary statements with supporting evidence.

        c. Utilizes technologies (such as audio or visual equipment,
        spreadsheets, and statistical packages) for studying the interaction of
        ideas and other phenomena. Examples: to analyze migration patterns,
        census data, and videos and sound recordings of populations studied.

        2. Apply appropriate criteria for evaluating both the information
        and its source.

        Key behaviors for success:

        a. Examines and compares information from various sources in order
        to evaluate reliability, validity, accuracy, authority, timeliness, and
        point of view or bias.

        b. Seeks differing viewpoints in alternative databases, books, Web
        sites, and articles, always evaluating the source of the information or
        argument, and determines whether to incorporate or reject viewpoints
        encountered.

        c. Analyzes the structure and logic of supporting arguments or
        methodology within an anthropology or sociology framework, understands
        what constitutes valid evidence in the discipline, analyzes the
        reasonableness of the conclusions, and recognizes prejudice, deception,
        or manipulation.

        d. Recognizes the cultural, physical, or other context within which
        the information was created and accessed, and understands the impact of
        context on interpreting the information. Examples: questions and
        understands whether the researcher had full access to pertinent
        government sources or to the population studied, whether the researcher
        encountered censorship or culturally imposed limitations in asking
        questions or gathering information, for whose benefit the research was
        produced, and which data or viewpoint might be missing from the
        analysis.

        Ethical, sociocultural, and legal dimensions and behaviors:

        e. Identifies and discusses issues related to censorship and
        freedom of speech in the U.S. and in countries/cultures being studied.

        f. Identifies and discusses issues related to privacy and
        security of information. Examples: cases in which field notes can be
        subpoenaed or government funding organizations can demand primary
        research data.

        3. Compare new knowledge with prior knowledge to determine the
        value added, contradictions, or other unique characteristics of the
        information and take steps to reconcile differences.

        Key behaviors for success:

        a. Determines whether the information satisfies the research need,
        and selects information that provides evidence for the topic, integrates
        new information, and draws conclusions based upon information gathered.

        b. Seeks expert opinion through interviews, email, etc. with
        anthropologists, sociologists, and subject-area specialists in the
        library to validate sufficiency and interpretation of the information.

        c. Reformulates initial query if necessary based on findings, and
        reviews and extends search strategies for additional concepts or broader
        synthesis. Examples: searching databases in related fields such as
        linguistics, education, political science, ethnomusicology, biology,
        geography, ethnic or local area studies, and psychology.

        Standard Four - Use information effectively and ethically to accomplish
        a specific purpose

        What the student needs to do:

        1. Apply new and prior information to the planning, creation, and
        revision of a particular product or performance.

        Key behaviors for success:

        a. Organizes and integrates the content, quotations, and
        paraphrasings in a manner that supports the purposes and format of the
        product or presentation. Examples: outlines, oral reports, drafts,
        videos, and presentation software, and manipulation/transfer of digital
        text, images, and data for the presentation or product.
        b. Maintains a journal of activities related to the information
        seeking, evaluating, and communicating process. Example: creates a blog
        to record searches conducted for an evaluation of hate crime law and
        legislation from a criminal justice perspective.
        c. Reflects on past successes, failures, and alternative strategies
        for integrating new and prior information and creating the presentation.
        Example: rewrites the text of an original presentation on Navaho weaving
        to make it more accessible to a general audience, adding sound files and
        images to augment the content.

        Ethical, sociocultural, and legal dimensions and behaviors:

        d. Demonstrates an understanding of what constitutes plagiarism and
        does not represent work attributable to others as his/her own.

        2. Communicate the product or performance effectively to others.

        Key behaviors for success:

        a. Chooses a communication medium, format, and style that best
        supports the purposes of the product or performance and the intended
        audience. Example: integrates maps, photos of artifacts and texts of
        field diaries into a PowerPoint package on a specific archaeological
        site and mounts it on the Internet to educate local residents about a
        salvage project involving a new highway.
        b. Uses a range of information technology applications,
        incorporating principles of design and communication, in creating the
        product or presentation. Example: creates a study of Polynesian music
        integrating sound bites and links to photographic images from the HRAF
        files and contemporary performances.

        Ethical, sociocultural, and legal dimensions and behaviors:

        c. Demonstrates an understanding of intellectual property,
        copyright, and fair use of copyrighted material, and obtains and posts
        necessary permissions from authors and organizations where needed to use
        copyrighted material in writing or presentations.

        d. Shares the product of the research, e.g., the report, data, or
        ethnography, with groups and sponsors in keeping with ethical principles
        of the AAA or ASA.

        Selected Bibliography

        Information Literacy - General

        Association of College and Research Libraries. "Characteristics of
        Programs of Information Literacy that Illustrate Best Practices: A
        Guideline." 2003.
        http://www.ala.
        <http://www.ala.org/ala/acrl/acrlstandards/characteristics.htm,>
        org/ala/acrl/acrlstandards/characteristics.htm, Accessed
        June 4, 2006.

        ---. "Information Literacy Competency Standards for Higher Education."
        2000.
        http://www.ala.
        <http://www.ala.org/ala/acrl/acrlstandards/informa-tionliteracycompetency>
        org/ala/acrl/acrlstandards/informa-tionliteracycompetency
        .htm, Accessed May 24, 2006.

        Association of College and Research Libraries. "Objectives for
        Information Literacy Instruction: A Model Statement for Academic
        Librarians." 2001.
        http://www.ala.
        <http://www.ala.org/ala/acrl/acrlstandards/objectivesinformation.htm,>
        org/ala/acrl/acrlstandards/objectivesinformation.htm,
        Accessed May 24, 2006.

        Elmborg, James K. "Information Literacy and Writing across the
        Curriculum." Reference Services Review 31, no. 1 (2003): 68-80.

        ---. "Critical Information Literacy: Implications for Instructional
        Practice." The Journal of Academic Librarianship 32, no. 2 (2006):
        192-199.

        Grafstein, Ann. "A Discipline-Based Approach to Information Literacy."
        Journal of Academic Librarianship 28, no. 4 (2002): 197-204.

        Owusu-Ansah, Edward K. "Information Literacy and Higher Education:
        Placing the Academic Library in the Center of a Comprehensive Solution."
        Journal of Academic Librarianship 30, no. 1 (2004): 3-16.

        ---. "Information Literacy and the Academic Library: A Critical Look at
        a Concept and the Controversies Surrounding It." Journal of Academic
        Librarianship 29, no. 4 (2003): 219-41.

        Simmons, Michele Holschuh. "Librarians as Disciplinary Discourse
        Mediators: Using Genre Theory to Move toward Critical Information
        Literacy." portal: Libraries and the Academy 5, no. 3 (2005): 297-311.

        U.S. National Commission on Libraries and Information Science. "The
        Information Literacy Life Cycle: Stages, Resources, Tools, Contexts &
        Outcomes." Working Draft, 2002.
        http://www.nclis.
        <http://www.nclis.gov/libinter/infolitconf&meet/InformationLiteracyStages>
        gov/libinter/infolitconf&meet/InformationLiteracyStages
        Responsibilities&OutcomesMatrix.pdf, Accessed May 24, 2006.

        Anthropology and Sociology

        American Anthropological Association. "Code of Ethics of the American
        Anthropological Association." Washington, D.C.: American
        Anthropological Association, 1996-2004.
        http://www.aaanet. <http://www.aaanet.org/committees/ethics/ethicscode.pdf,>
        org/committees/ethics/ethicscode.pdf, Accessed June
        29, 2006.

        American Sociological Association. "Code of Ethics and Policies and
        Procedures of the ASA Committee on Professional Ethics." Washington,
        D.C.: The American Sociological Association, 1999.
        http://www.asanet.
        <http://www.asanet.org/galleries/default-file/Code%20of%20Ethics.pdf,>
        org/galleries/default-file/Code%20of%20Ethics.pdf,
        Accessed June 29, 2006.

        Burawoy, Michael. "Combat in the Dissertation Zone." American
        Sociologist 36, no. 2 (2005): 43-56.

        Dodgen, Lynda, Sarah Naper, Olia Palmer, and Adrian Rapp. "Not So Sili:
        Sociology Information Literacy Infusion as the Focus of Faculty and
        Librarian Collaboration." Community & Junior College Libraries 11, no. 4
        (2003): 27-33.

        Grauerholz, Liz, and Sharon Bouma-Holtrop. "Exploring Critical
        Sociological Thinking." Teaching Sociology 31, no. 4 (2003): 485-96.

        Grey, Mark A. , Robert A. Hackenberg, and Donald D. Stull. "The Case
        against Accreditation and Certification of Applied Anthropology."
        Practicing Anthropology 13, no. 3 (1991): 21-22.

        Hilbert, Richard A. " Some Critical Remarks on Competency Based
        Education and the ASA Declaration on Teaching." Humanity & Society 5,
        no. 2 (1981): 184-90

        Hill, Robert, Mary Granica, Lenora Bohren, and Peter Van Arsdale. "On
        Certification, Accreditation, Standards and the Academy." Practicing
        Anthropology 14, no. 1 (1992): 2, 27-29.

        Hohm, Charles F., and William S. Johnson. Assessing Student Learning in
        Sociology. 2nd. ed, ASA Resource Materials for Teaching. Washington,
        D.C.: The American Sociological Association, 2001.

        Kain, Edward L. "Building the Sociological Imagination through a
        Cumulative Curriculum: Professional Socialization in Sociology."
        Teaching Sociology 27, no. 1 (1999): 1-16.

        Kain, Edward L., Theodore C. Wagenaar, and Carla B. Howery. "Models and
        Best Practices for Joint Sociology-Anthropology Departments." 1-24:
        American Sociological Association, Academic and Professional Affairs
        Program, 2006.
        http://www.asanet.
        <http://www.asanet.org/galleries/Governance/Sociology%20and%20Anthropolog>
        org/galleries/Governance/Sociology%20and%20Anthropolog
        y%20Joint%20Departments.pdf, Accessed June 27, 2006.

        Keith, Bruce. "Taking Stock of the Discipline: Some Reflections on the
        State of American Sociology." American Sociologist 31, no. 1 (2000):
        5-14.

        Killian, Lewis M. "Can Sociology Afford Certification? No!" Humanity &
        Society 11, no. 3 (1987): 390-94.

        Lowry, Janet Huber, Carla B. Howery, John P. Myers, Harry Perlstadt,
        Caroline Hodges Persell, Diane Pike, Charles H. Powers, Shirley A.
        Scritchfild, Cynthia M. Siemsen, Barbara Trepagnier, Judith Ann Warner,
        and Gregory L. Weiss, "Creating an Effective Assessment Plan for the
        Sociology Major." New York: The American Sociological Association. ASA
        Task Force on Assessing the Undergraduate Sociology Major, 2005.
        http://www.asanet.
        <http://www.asanet.org/galleries/APAP/Assessment%20Final%20Copy%202005.pd>
        org/galleries/APAP/Assessment%20Final%20Copy%202005.pd
        f, Accessed May 25, 2006.

        McKinney, Kathleen, Carla B. Howery, Kerry J. Strand, Edward L. Kain,
        and Catherine White Berheide. "Liberal Learning and the Sociology Major
        Updated: Meeting the Challenge of Teaching Sociology in the Twenty-First
        Century." New York: The American Sociological Association. ASA Task
        Force on the Undergraduate Major, 2004.
        http://asanet.
        <http://asanet.org/galleries/default-file/Lib_Learning_FINAL.pdf,>
        org/galleries/default-file/Lib_Learning_FINAL.pdf,
        Accessed May 24, 2006.

        Perlstadt, Harry. "Accreditation of Sociology Programs: A Bridge to a
        Broader Audience." Canadian Journal of Sociology 23, no. 1 (1998):
        195-207.

        ---. "Bringing Sociological Theory and Practice Together: A Pragmatic
        Solution." Sociological Perspectives 41, no. 2 (1998): 268-71.

        Rice, Patricia, McCurdy, David W. , ed. Strategies in Teaching
        Anthropology. 2nd ed. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentiss Hall,
        2002.

        Segal, Daniel A., and Sylvia J. Yanagisako, eds. Unwrapping the Sacred
        Bundle : Reflections on the Disciplining of Anthropology. Durham: Duke
        University Press, 2005.

        Trotter, Robert T. Anthropology for Tomorrow: Creating
        Practitioner-Oriented Applied Anthropology Programs. Washington, D.C.:
        American Anthropological Association, 1988.

        Trotter, Robert T., Nathaniel Tashima, and Cathleen Crain. "The Case for
        Accreditation of Training Programs." Practicing Anthropology 13, no. 3
        (1991): 2, 20-21.

        Van Willigen, John. "Development of Training Standards: The Necessary
        Step." Practicing Anthropology 13, no. 3 (1991): 23.

        ---. "Recommendations for Training and Education for Careers in Applied
        Anthropology: A Literature Review." Human Organization 38, no. 4 (1979):
        411-16.

        Information Literacy Standards in Other Disciplines

        ACRL Education and Behavioral Sciences Section Social Work/Social
        Welfare Committee. "Information Competencies for Social Work Students."
        2004. http://www.lib.
        <http://www.lib.msu.edu/corby/ebss/socialwork/swkpyramid.html,>
        msu.edu/corby/ebss/socialwork/swkpyramid.html,
        Accessed May 24, 2006.

        ACRL Law & Political Science Section Education Task Force. "Political
        Science Research Competency Guidelines Draft." 2005.
        http://lita.
        <http://lita.org/ala/acrlbucket/lpss/PoliticalScienceStandardsDraftRevisi>
        org/ala/acrlbucket/lpss/PoliticalScienceStandardsDraftRevisi
        onFeb2005.doc, Accessed May 24, 2006.

        ACRL Literatures in English Section Ad hoc Committee on Literary
        Research Competencies. "Research Competency Guidelines for Literatures
        in English Draft." 2004.
        http://www.ala.
        <http://www.ala.org/ala/acrl/acrlstandards/researchcompentenciesLES.htm,>
        org/ala/acrl/acrlstandards/researchcompentenciesLES.htm,
        Accessed May 24, 2006.

        ACRL/STS Task Force on Information Literacy for Science and Technology.
        "Information Literacy Standards for Science and Technology: A Draft."
        2005. http://www.ala.
        <http://www.ala.org/ala/acrl/acrlstandards/infolitscitech.htm,>
        org/ala/acrl/acrlstandards/infolitscitech.htm,
        Accessed May 24, 2006.

        Cary, Paul; Sampsel, Laurie J. "Information Literacy Instructional
        Objectives for Undergraduate Music Students: A Project of the Music
        Library Association, Bibliographic Instruction Subcommittee." Notes 62,
        no. 3 (2006): 663-79.

        Grant, Maria, and Marlowe Berg. "Information Literacy Integration in a
        Doctoral Program." Behavioral & Social Sciences Librarian 22, no. 1
        (2003): 115-28.

        ________________________________

        From: Lynch, Brian M [mailto:BLynch@qvcc. <mailto:BLynch%40qvcc.commnet.edu>
        commnet.edu]
        Sent: Wednesday, October 04, 2006 12:43 PM
        To: Lewine, Mark
        Subject: Your post... was there an attachment?

        Mark, your message in the Yahoo groups list came through

        "Dr. Salem and others thought that this was an excellent base for
        discussion for social science professors in our community colleges as we
        are under the next 'gun' from the standards people after k-12"

        But I wasn't sure what you were referring to. Was there an attachment?

        Brian

        [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]







        [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
      Your message has been successfully submitted and would be delivered to recipients shortly.