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Runner's and Triathlete's Web Digest -January 4, 2004

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  • Ken Parker
    A FREE WEEKLY E-ZINE OF MULTISPORT RELATED ARTICLES. The Runner s and Triathlete s Web Digest is a weekly e-zine dealing with the sports of running and
    Message 1 of 1 , Jan 4, 2008
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      A FREE WEEKLY E-ZINE OF MULTISPORT RELATED ARTICLES.
      The Runner's and Triathlete's Web Digest is a weekly e-zine dealing with the sports of running and triathlon and general fitness and
      health issues. The opinions expressed in the articles referenced by the Digest are the opinions of the writers and not necessarily
      those of the Runner's Web. Visit the Runner's Web at http://www.runnersweb.com The site is updated multiple times daily. Check out
      our daily news, features, polls, trivia, bulletin boards and more. General questions should be posted to one of our forums available
      from our FrontPage.

      SUPPORT OUR ADVERTISERS:
      All of the revenue from our advertisers and affiliates goes to support clubs, athletes and clinics related to multisport and
      Canadian Olympians.

      1. Emilie's Run - The Emilie Mondor Memorial 5K Race for Women - Canada's Fastest Women's 5K
      November 10, 2007: Prize Money Announced for Teams
      RunnersWeb.com Inc. is pleased to announce the addition of $2,250 in prize money for the top teams for the 2008 Emilie's Run. This
      prize money is in addition to the previously announced $5,500 in individual prize money for the top open and masters runners and the
      primes for the leaders at 1 through 4K.
      The team prize money will be allocated as follows:
      1st (Open): $1,000,
      2nd:$750,
      3rd: $500
      A maximum of 5 entrants per team, top 3 to score.
      The 2008 edition of Emilie's Run will take place on Saturday, June 21st at the Aviation Museum in Ottawa with $5,500 in cash prizes
      for the top open and masters and merchandise prizes for the top teams and age-groupers.
      There will also be a 1K run for children.
      For more on the race visit the website at:
      http://www.emiliesrun.com.
      Join Emilie's Run Community and contribute at:
      http://groups-beta.google.com/group/emiliesrun?hl=en
      January 4, 2008: Goodlife Fitness has come on board as a sponsor of Emilie's Run
      GoodLife Fitness – Coed or Women’s Only
      Visit www.GoodLifeFitness.com today to receive 3 FREE Visits!
      Your 3 FREE visits include:
      · A Visual Fitness Planner Consultation
      · Fit Fix Orientation to learn how to exercise safely and effectively
      · Access to all cardio and strength-training equipment
      · Access to all of our world-class Group EXercise classes
      · A copy of Living the Good Life audio CD
      Get started today! Visit www.GoodLifeFitness.com Limited time offer.


      3. Road Runner Sports, the world's largest running store at:
      http://clickserve.cc-dt.com/link/click?lid=41000000010069822.
      New Arrivals from Nike With Web Exclusive Apparel and More!

      4. Toronto Waterfront Marathon, 2008
      http://www.torontowaterfrontmarathon.com/

      5. 26.2 with Donna:
      The National Marathon to Fight Breast Cancer
      "The only U.S. marathon dedicated solely to raising funds to end breast cancer."
      February 17, 2008 8 a.m.
      Location: Near Mayo Clinic
      Jacksonville, Florida
      Beneficiaries: Donna Hicken Foundation and Mayo Clinic
      Proceeds from the race will go directly to The Donna Hicken Foundation, a charitable organization dedicated to helping women with
      breast cancer. While a portion of the proceeds will be used by the Donna Hicken Foundation for the critical care of breast cancer
      survivors in need, the foundation has pledged to donate the majority of funds raised to Mayo Clinic for research and its
      Multidisciplinary Breast Clinic, which specializes in the detection and treatment of breast cancer.
      Visit the website at: http://www.breastcancermarathon.com

      6. Training Peaks
      Training Peaks, LLC is dedicated to the endurance athlete and coach. With our industry leading software products, we're committed to
      help you monitor, analyze and plan your training. We encourage you to draw on our passion for excellence to help you reach your
      athletic dreams. Trusted by thousands. Dedicated to you.
      http://www.trainingpeaks.com/

      7. Running Free
      Running Free is a complete online running store with everything for the casual to serious runner.
      They also have retail stores in the GTA (Toronto) and Markham.
      Check them out at:
      http://www.runningfree.com

      8. January 4, 2008: Goodlife Fitness has come on board as a sponsor of Emilie's Run
      GoodLife Fitness – Coed or Women’s Only
      Visit www.GoodLifeFitness.com today to receive 3 FREE Visits!
      Your 3 FREE visits include:
      · A Visual Fitness Planner Consultation
      · Fit Fix Orientation to learn how to exercise safely and effectively
      · Access to all cardio and strength-training equipment
      · Access to all of our world-class Group EXercise classes
      · A copy of Living the Good Life audio CD
      Get started today! Visit www.GoodLifeFitness.com Limited time offer.


      ASSOCIATIONS:
      The Runner's Web is a member of Running USA, The National Professional Organization for the Running Industry.
      http://www.runningusa.org/

      NEW SUBSCRIBERS:
      Check the "New Subscribers' note at the bottom of the newsletter

      Check out our RSS auto-feeds page for automated news updates:
      http://www.runnersweb.com/running/rw_auto_feeds.html

      Webmasters:
      Get our Syndicated headlines for your site.
      http://www.runnersweb.com/running/rw_getRSS.html
      Add the Runner's Web News feed to your site through a simple JavaScript.
      Check out OnTri.com's implementation at:
      http://www.ontri.com/runnersweb.html
      The Runner's and Triathlete's Web Digest is now available through an RSS feed for myYahoo at:
      http://e.my.yahoo.com/config/cstore?.opt=content&.url=http%3a//rss.groups.yahoo.com/group/RunnersWeb/rss
      [Long URL]
      The Digest is also available through other RSS Readers on request.

      Get the Runner's Web button for the Google Toolbar 4 for Internet Explorer from the link on our FrontPage at:
      http://www.runnersweb.com . We have added a button for Lauren Groves, Triathlete.

      If anyone is looking for a web mail provider, you might wish to consider Google's GMail. You can now sign up for free Gmail at
      Google WITHOUT AN INVITATION at:
      www.gmail.com

      Race Directors:
      Advertise your event on the Runner's Web.
      For more information:
      http://www.runnersweb.com/running/rw_advertising.html
      You can also list your events for free in our Interactive Calendars and on our Marathons, Races and Triathlons pages.

      NEW THIS WEEK:
      January 4, 2008: Goodlife Fitness has come on board as a sponsor of Emilie's Run
      GoodLife Fitness – Coed or Women’s Only
      Visit www.GoodLifeFitness.com today to receive 3 FREE Visits!
      Your 3 FREE visits include:
      · A Visual Fitness Planner Consultation
      · Fit Fix Orientation to learn how to exercise safely and effectively
      · Access to all cardio and strength-training equipment
      · Access to all of our world-class Group EXercise classes
      · A copy of Living the Good Life audio CD
      Get started today! Visit www.GoodLifeFitness.com Limited time offer.

      SpeedoUSA $6 Standard Shipping on All Orders through 1/31/08
      http://clickserve.cc-dt.com/link/tplclick?lid=41000000023388905&pubid=21000000000028567

      I've created a Runner's Web Group on Facebook.
      To join the NCRA Facebook group, if you are not a member of Facebook, you must first create a free Facebook account at
      www.facebook.com. Once you have your own space, search "Runner's Web" under "Groups". At the Runner's Web site, click "Join this
      group". Once I have approved your request to join, you'll be able to visit the site, post race photos, discuss training tips, and
      share information about running, racing and training.

      If you feel you have something to say (related to triathlon or running) that is worthy of a Guest Column on the Runner's Web, email
      us at: mailto:webmaster@... or leave your comments in one of our Forums at: http://www.runnersweb.com/running/forum.html
      or from our FrontPage.

      We have 2,324 subscribers as of publication time. Forward the Runner's Web Digest to a friend and suggest that they subscribe
      at: http://groups.yahoo.com/group/RunnersWeb/join .

      RUNNER'S AND TRIATHLETE'S WEB CONTENT PARTNERS

      * ACTIVE.COM
      RunnersWeb.com has teamed up with Active Trainer coaches to offer training programs that are a balance of aerobic, anaerobic and
      cross-training workouts. These training programs are built to get people of all levels across the finish line. From the first timer
      to the seasoned veteran you will find the right training plan for you. Good luck with your training and we will see you at the
      finish line.
      Training Log and Analysis:
      Log your daily workouts and monitor your progress along the way.
      Getting Started:
      Set a realistic goal for training. Review the list of training programs developed by Active Trainer Coaches. Select the program that
      best matches your current training schedule. If you have been inactive, select a conservative schedule to assure success and
      decrease the risk of injury. Plug in the start date or the date of your target race and go! The schedule will automatically be
      entered into your log. It is as simple as that...
      Training:
      Select the daily email to receive your training by the day or log on to your account and review the entire schedule. Use the
      interactive log to enter in valuable training information. The more information you enter in your personal log, the better. You will
      be able to use this information in the future to evaluate performance, keep track of what works and what doesn't and stay motivated
      to see just how far you've come.
      Sign up at: www.RunnersWebCoach.com OR http://training.active.com/ActiveTrainer/listing.do?listing=51

      * Sports Nutrition by Sheila Kealey.
      Sheila is one of Ottawa's top multisport athletes and a member of the OAC Racing Team and X-C Ottawa. She has a Masters in Public
      Health and works in the field of nutritional epidemiology as a Research Associate with the University of California, San Diego. Her
      column index is available at:
      http://www.runnersweb.com/running/SK_index.html

      * Carmichael Training Systems
      Carmichael Training Systems was founded in 1999 by Chris Carmichael.
      From the beginning, the mission of the company has been to improve the lives of individuals we work with through the application of
      proper and effective fitness and competitive training techniques. Whether your focus is recreational, advanced, or you are a
      professional racer, the coaching methodology employed by CTS will make you a better athlete. Check the latest monthly column from
      CTS at: http://www.runnersweb.com/running/cts_columns.html.
      Carmichael Training Systems at:
      http://www.trainright.com/promos.asp?code=DSBYBFCSP

      * Peak Performance Online
      Peak Performance is a subscription-only newsletter for athletes, featuring the latest research from the sports science world. We
      cover the whole range of sports, from running and rowing to cycling and swimming, and each issue is packed full of exclusive
      information for anyone who's serious about sport. It's published 16 times a year, including four special reports, by Electric Word
      plc. Peak Performance is not available in the shops - only our subscribers are able to access the valuable information we publish.
      Check out our article archive from Peak Performance Online at:
      http://www.runnersweb.com/running/PPO_index.html
      Visit the PPO site at:
      Peak Performance Online:
      http://www.pponline.co.uk/cmd.php?af=517509

      * Peak Running Performance
      Peak Running Is The Nation's Most Advanced Running Newsletter. Rated as the #1 Running Publication by Road Runner Sports (Worlds
      Largest Running Store) , Peak Running caters to the serious / dedicated runner. Delivering world class running advice are some of
      running's most recognizable athletes including Dr. Joe Vigil (US Olympic Coach),
      Scott Tinley (2 Time Ironman Champ) Steve Scott (3 Time Olympian) and many more. This bi-monthly newsletter has been around for over
      13 years, and in the past two it has been awarded the "Golden Shoe Award" in recognition of it's outstanding achievements.
      http://www.clixGalore.com/Sale.aspx?BID=37234&AfID=103794&AdID=5075&LP=www.peakrunningperformance.com
      Check out the Peak Running article index at:
      http://www.runnersweb.com/running/PRP_index.html .

      * Running Research News:
      RRN's free, weekly, training update provides subscribers with the most-current, practical, scientifically based information about
      training, sports nutrition, injury prevention, and injury rehabilitation. The purpose of this weekly e-zine is to improve
      subscribers' training quality and to help them train in an injury-free manner.
      Running Research News also publishes a complete, 12-page, electronic newsletter 10 times a year (one-year subscriptions are $35); to
      learn more about Running Research News, please see the Online Article Index and "About Running Research News" sections below or go
      to RRNews.com.
      Check out the article index at:
      http://www.runnersweb.com/running/RRN_index.html

      THIS WEEK'S PERSONAL POSTINGS/RELEASES:
      We will only post notes here regarding running and triathlon topics of interest to the community.
      We have NO personal postings this week.


      THIS WEEK'S DIGEST ARTICLE INDEX:

      1 All Athletes: Volume or Intensity
      2. VO2 Max Newsletter
      3. Dr. Gabe Mirkin's Fitness and Health e-Zine
      4. Exercise may help seniors stave off mental decline
      5. Extreme muscle soreness a warning
      6. The Science Behind PowerBar with C2 MAX: More Energy for Demanding Sports
      7. Newly Identified Exercise Gene Could Help With Depression
      8. Fighting Diseases Of Aging By Wasting Energy, Rather Than Dieting -- Works For Mice
      9. Running a Marathon Is Less Risky Than Driving One
      10. But First, Doctor, What Was Your Marathon Time?
      11. Improve Your Strength
      Congratulations! You’re Motivated! That could be a problem.
      11. Improve Your Strength
      Congratulations! You’re Motivated! That could be a problem.
      12. Balancing Act
      13. Two Secrets of Success
      14. Resolved - Set Goals
      15. This Week in Running
      16. The effects of face-cooling during hyperthermic exercise
      17. Oranges: They Can Help Prevent Heart Attacks
      18. Carbohydrate Supplementation During Exercise: Does It Help? How Much is Too Much?
      19. The Hardest Way To Get Fast
      20. Digest Briefs


      RUNNER'S WEB WEEKLY POLL:
      "What will your first competition of 2008 be?
      Marathon
      5/10K road race
      Half-Marathon
      Track race
      Triathlon
      Half-Ironman
      Ironman
      Other"

      You can access the poll from our FrontPage ( http://www.runnersweb.com) as well as checking the results of previous polls.

      LAST WEEK'S POLL RESULTS:
      "Do you plan to work out on Christmas Day and New Year's Day?"
      Answers Percent
      1. Christmas 2%
      2. New Years 17%
      3. Christmas and New Year's 78%
      4. No 2%


      FIVE STAR SITE OF THE MONTH: Down the Backstretch
      Down the Backstretch strives to be your first stop for information, results, and comments about track and field and running in and
      from Minnesota. Write us with suggestions, news tips, photos, and ideas ... and feel free to comment on our posts for others to
      read.
      Visit the site at:
      http://downthebackstretch.blogspot.com/


      PHOTO SLIDESHOW:
      Our Photo Slideshow is updated on a random basis. Check it out from our FrontPage.

      BOOK/VIDEO OF THE MONTH: Nancy Clark's Sports Nutrition Guidebook-4th Edition
      About the Product
      Boost your energy, manage stress, build muscle, lose fat, and improve your performance with the all-time best-selling sports
      nutrition guide!
      Nancy Clark’s Sports Nutrition Guidebook will help you make the right food choices in health clubs, convenience stores,
      drive-throughs, and your own kitchen.
      Whether you’re preparing for competition or simply eating on the go, let this leading sports nutritionist show you how to get
      maximum benefit from the foods you choose and the meals you make. You’ll learn how to eat before exercise and events as well as how
      to refuel afterward for optimal recovery.
      Updated and on the cutting edge, the fourth edition includes the latest sports nutrition research on hydration and fluid intake,
      vitamins, supplements, energy drinks, organic foods, and the role of carbohydrate and protein during exercise. You’ll also learn
      about the new food pyramid and the American Heart Association’s latest dietary guidelines.
      If you’re seeking advice on losing weight, getting energized to exercise, or improving your health and performance, Nancy Clark’s
      Sports Nutrition Guidebook has the answers you can trust.
      About the Author
      Nancy Clark, MS, RD, CSSD, renowned author and board-certified specialist in sports dietetics, is known for her ability to translate
      the science of nutrition for exercise and health into practical tips to enhance performance, manage weight, and resolve eating
      disorders. She has a private practice at Healthworks Fitness Center in Chestnut Hill, Massachusetts, where she offers nutrition
      consultations to both casual exercisers and competitive athletes. Her more renowned clients have included members of the Boston Red
      Sox, the Boston Celtics, and many collegiate, elite, and Olympic athletes from a variety of sports. She is also an advisory board
      member of Mizuno, Medical Wellness Association, and the Aerobics and Fitness Association of America.
      An internationally known lecturer, Clark has given presentations to professional groups such as the American Dietetic Association
      (ADA) and the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM), as well as team talks to athletes at Boston College and coaches with the
      Leukemia & Lymphoma Society’s Team in Training program. She offers workshops nationally to health professionals with her sports
      nutrition workshop series. As a result of her renowned work, her photo and nutrition advice appeared on the back of the Wheaties box
      after the 2004 Summer Olympics.
      Clark received her bachelor’s degree in nutrition from Simmons College in Boston and her master’s degree in nutrition from Boston
      University. She completed her internship in dietetics at Massachusetts General Hospital. She is a fellow of the American Dietetic
      Association, recipient of its Media Excellence Award, an active member of ADA’s practice group of sports nutritionists (SCAN), and a
      recipient of that group’s Honor Award. In addition, Clark is a fellow of the ACSM and a recipient of the Honor Award from ACSM’s New
      England chapter. She is also the recipient of the 2007 Simmons College Distinguished Alumna Award.
      Clark is the nutrition columnist for New England Runner, Adventure Cycling, and Rugby and is a frequent contributor to sports and
      fitness publications such as Shape and Runner's World. Clark also writes a monthly nutrition column called “The Athlete's Kitchen,”
      which appears regularly in over 100 sports publications and Web sites. She has authored Nancy Clark’s Food Guide for Marathoners:
      Tips for Everyday Champions and The Cyclist's Food Guide: Fueling for the Distance.
      Clark has competed at the 10K, half-marathon, and marathon distances. She has led many extended bike tours, including a Transamerica
      Trip and other tours through the Canadian and Colorado Rockies. She has trekked into the Himalayas and planned the high-altitude
      menu for a successful expedition. Her newest sport is rowing. She and her husband, son, and daughter live in the Boston area.
      Table of Contents
      PART I The Athlete’s Training Table
      1. Building Your Balanced Diet
      2. Eating to Stay Healthy in the Long Run
      3. Breakfast: The Key to a Successful Sports Diet
      4. Meals Planning at Home, On the Road, and On the Run
      5. Snacking Smarts
      6. Simplifying Carbohydrate
      7. Protein for Muscles and Performance
      8. Replacing Fluids

      PART II The Science of Eating for Sports’ Success
      9. Fueling for Exercise
      10. Refueling During and After Exercise
      11. Supplements, Performance Enhancers, and Sports Foods
      12. Age-Specific Nutrition Needs

      PART III Balancing Weight and Activity
      13. Your Body: Fat, Fit, or Fine?
      14. Adding Bulk, Not Fat
      15. Losing Weight Without Starvation
      16. Eating Disorders and Food Obsessions

      PART IV Winning Recipes for Peak Performance
      17. Breads and Breakfasts
      18. Pasta, Rice, and Potatoes
      19. Vegetables and Salads
      20. Chicken and Turkey
      21. Fish and Seafood
      22. Beef and Pork
      23. Beans and Tofu
      24. Beverages and Smoothies
      25. Snacks and Desserts

      Words of Praise
      "Nancy showed me how eating the right foods, at the right time, would both enhance performance and create a leaner physique. Those
      lessons, and many more, are included in Nancy Clark's Sports Nutrition Guidebook. It's a must-read for anyone involved in sport and
      fitness."
      Jennifer Shultis
      US Adventure Racing National Champion
      Captain of Team Eastern Mountain Sports
      "Nancy Clark understands what it takes to be properly fueled for peak performance in any activity. Her experience as both athlete
      and nutritionist helped in creating a book that will benefit any athlete-serious, recreational, or weekend warrior.
      Tommy L. Owens
      National Training Coordinator for Team in Training
      "The nutritional information in Nancy Clark's Sports Nutrition Guidebook helped me accomplish a lifelong goal of not only skating at
      the Olympics, but receiving the honor of becoming a silver medalist as well. I highly recommend her book."
      Kitty Carruthers Conrad
      Olympic Silver Medalist
      United States Figure Skating Hall of Fame Member
      Buy the book from Human Kinetics at:
      http://www.humankinetics.com/products/showproduct.cfm?associate=880&isbn=9780736074155

      For more publications on running and triathlon visit:
      http://www.runnersweb.com/running/human_kinetics.html and
      http://www.runnersweb.com/running/amazon.html

      THIS WEEK'S FEATURES:

      1. All Athletes: Volume or Intensity:
      Which is more important for improving race performance in endurance athletes, the volume of training or the intensity of training?
      It’s obvious that both play a role in racing well. Athletes tend to place a lot of value on volume more so than on intensity. I’ve
      yet to hear an athlete, when asked how training is going, respond by talking about intensity. The answer is usually based on volume
      (“I rode 200 miles last week.”) But given the choice, which should you place more emphasis on when making decisions about your
      training?
      Before attempting to answer these questions, let’s define the terms. Volume is the product of duration and frequency. Duration is
      how long a workout lasts. Frequency is how often workouts are done. Volume is usually expressed in terms of weekly accumulated
      training time or mileage. Intensity for the purpose of this discussion refers to training done at or above the anaerobic threshold
      (also sometimes called lactate threshold, ventilatory threshold, or functional threshold). Assuming that you are preparing for an
      event that takes about one hour or less to complete at a maximum sustainable effort, this intensity is about race intensity. For
      athletes competing in events that last longer than about one hour, training intensities at and above AT are more challenging than
      race effort. This is not to say that athletes training for longer events should not train above the AT. It is quite common,
      especially for elite and well-experienced athletes.
      Let’s get back to the original question: Will volume or intensity have a greater impact on your race performances? There is very
      little research on this matter, but what there is seems to be in agreement. Let’s examine two of these for some insight.
      In a German study, 17 experienced runners steadily increased their volumes from their normal 50 miles per week to 105 miles per week
      over a four-week period (1). All of these runs were done at about marathon pace or slower (2mmol/L lactate). One year later they
      allowed the researchers to tinker with their training again. This time they nearly doubled the amount of time they trained at high
      intensity, over a four-week period again. With increased intensity they improved on four measures of performance from 5 percent to
      17 percent. Increased volume produced no significant improvements in the same metrics.
      In another study of swimmers conducted by David Costill, PhD at Ball State University, it was found that increasing swim training
      volume from three hours per day to four per day and increasing swim weekly workouts from five to six sessions provided no greater
      benefits than training 60 to 90 minutes per day for five days per week (2).
      Does this mean you should keep your training volume low while jacking up intensity year round? Not at all. When you have been
      training with low volume and low intensity for some period of time, as when in the season-ending “transition” period, gradually
      increasing the stress load by boosting volume is probably a wise move (3,4). This will help to prevent injury by fortifying soft
      tissues before commencing with higher-intensity training later.
      During the Base period it is common in the classic/linear periodization model to increase the volume of training while also much
      more gradually increasing the intensity. In Base 1 I have my athletes training a considerable amount in zone 2. In Base 2 they add
      training volume in zone 3. And by Base 3 they are also training in zone 4. This is typical for all of my clients regardless of the
      events for which they are training. In the Build period the training becomes increasingly specific to the demands of their first
      A-priority race of the season, especially the intensity of those workouts.
      So what’s the bottom line? The intensity of one’s training is a better predictor of performance than the volume of training although
      some mix of both is necessary for success.
      Joe Friel is the author of the Training Bible book series and the founder of Training Bible Coaching, Ultrafit and Training Peaks.
      He may be reached through the Training Bible website at www.trainingbible.com.
      References
      Lehmann, M., et al. 1996. Unaccustomed high-mileage vs intensity training-related changes in performance and serum amino acid
      levels. Int J Sports Med 17(3):187-192.
      Costill, D.L., et al. 1991. Adaptations to swimming training: Influence of training volume. Med Sci Sports Exerc 23:371-377.
      Gomes, P.S. and Y. Bhambhaniy. 1996. Time course changes and dissociation in VO2max at maximum and submaximum exercise levels as a
      result of training in males. Med Sci Sports Exerc 28(5):S81.
      Fry, R.W., et al. 1992. Periodisation of training stress – a review. Can J Sport Sci 17:234-240.
      From UltraFit e-Tips: http://www.ultrafit.com


      2. VO2Max Newsletter:
      * Long Runs
      The winter is a good time to focus on long runs since it's harder to do higher quality training in the winter. Every runner knows
      that he or she should run long. But why?
      Long runs involve sustained aerobic metabolism and apply sustained pressure of oxygen through the muscle capillary system into the
      mitochondria. In response to the sustained pressure, our "metabolic machinery" is stimulated to increase its capacity to do more
      work. For example, the number of mitochondria increases along with the aerobic enzymes contained within them. Also, capillary
      diameter and number increase to accommodate more oxygen. The more capillaries you have perfusing the muscle fibers, the shorter the
      diffusion distance for oxygen from any given capillary to a mitochondrion.
      Long runs also increase the amount of stored carbohydrates (glycogen) in your skeletal muscles, which is of great benefit to runners
      who run long races, like the marathon. Scientists have known since the 1960s that the ability to perform prolonged endurance
      exercise is strongly influenced by the amount of glycogen stored in skeletal muscles, with fatigue coinciding with glycogen
      depletion. To the marathoner's benefit, the human body responds rather elegantly to situations that threaten or deplete its supply
      of fuel. Since carbohydrates are our bodies' preferred fuel during exercise, depleting this fuel source by running for long periods
      of time initiates a very strong signal to synthesize and store more glycogen. Empty a full glass, and you get a refilled larger
      glass in its place. Much like college fraternity parties.
      Another important reason for doing long runs, especially for the marathoner, is to teach your muscles to use fat more effectively.
      Since the marathon is the one unique race in which most people run out of glycogen, it becomes important to use fatty acids at a
      fast rate so the pace doesn't slow down too much. (Energy for muscle contraction is generated more slowly when using fat compared
      to when using carbohydrates. So, when you are forced to rely on fat because you have run out of carbohydrates, your pace will slow
      down.) Long runs will train your muscles to use fat when they have run out of carbohydrates. Research has shown that faster
      marathoners are able to use fatty acids for fuel at a faster rate than slower marathoners.
      While you should try to not let your long runs comprise more than about 30% of your weekly mileage, this rule can be broken in the
      name of necessity if you plan on running only a few times per week. While you should run at a comfortable, conversational pace
      (about two minutes per mile slower than 5K race pace, or about 70 to 75% of maximum heart rate), the exact pace is not as important
      as the continual pressure of oxygen going into your mitochondria. Lengthen your long run by one mile each week for three or four
      weeks before backing off for a recovery week. If you run more than about 40 miles per week, or if you run faster than about
      8-minute mile pace, you can add two miles at a time to your long run. If you're training for a marathon, keep adding miles until
      you reach 22 to 24 (or about 3 to 3.5 hours, whichever comes first), and do your longest run three weeks before your marathon. In
      my study on the training characteristics of the U.S. Olympic Marathon Trials qualifiers, I found that the men's and women's longest
      runs averaged 25 and 23.5 miles, respectively, and that they ran longer than 20 miles an average of 18 and 10 times, respectively,
      during the year preceding the Olympic Trials.
      To view past newsletters go to: http://www.runcoachjason.com/newsletter
      Copyright Jason Karp All Rights Reserved - http://www.runcoachjason.com


      3. Dr. Gabe Mirkin's Fitness and Health e-Zine:
      * Why Exercise Protects Your Memory
      Recent research shows that a regular exercise program can help to prevent some of the loss of memory that comes with aging. A part
      of your brain called the hippocampus is the control station for memories that you store in other parts of the brain. Another brain
      structure called the prefrontal cortex is the central station that assembles data from other parts of your brain when you want to
      recall something from your past. Aging causes the brain to shrink and you lose synapses that transmit messages from one nerve to
      another.
      Exercise causes the brain to produce a substance called Brain Derived Neurotropic Factor (BNDF) that strengthen old synapses and
      causes new one to grow (Proceedings of the
      National Academy of Sciences, May 2007). Researchers used MRIs of their human subjects to show that an exercise program of an hour
      a day, four days a week for three months caused new neurons to grow in the hippocampus. Several previous studies showed that
      exercise enlarges the hippocampus in rats and doubles or even triples the rate of the formation of new nerves. However, one way
      that rats differ from humans is that most of them like to run and need no encouragement to spend several hours a day on a treadmill.
      There is also emerging evidence that physical activity may be protective against neurological disorders, including Alzheimer's and
      other forms of dementia, Parkinson's disease, strokes and spinal cord injuries. If you are not a regular exerciser, check with your
      doctor and get started.
      * Dear Dr. Mirkin: You recommend taking sugar during long exercise; does this apply to me since I am diabetic?
      A: Yes. I am also diabetic; my HBA1C was 7.2 (normal is below 6) and it is now 5 with no medication. Unless I am exercising, I
      avoid sugar, flour and all other refined carbohydrates. However, when I exercise for more than two hours, I have to take a source
      of sugar or my muscles run out of their stored sugar supply and I become very tired. This was confirmed in a recent study in
      Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise (December 2007.)
      On long bicycle rides, I drink soda and eat granola bars or other foods that contain sugar. I have no adverse effects because the
      exercising muscles draw sugar rapidly from the bloodstream. However, I wait until I have been exercising for at least half an hour
      before I start to eat. Taking sugar before starting to exercise, or too early in the ride, raises insulin which causes low blood
      sugar that makes me tire earlier.
      * Growth Hormone Does Not Prevent Loss of Muscle Strength
      As you age, expect to lose muscle fibers and strength unless you exercise. A study from the University of Florida in Gainesville
      shows that a program of exercise training later in life helps aging rats to reverse this age-related loss of muscle size and
      strength (American Journal of Physiology: Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology, November 14, 2007). The study also
      showed that short-term administration of growth hormone late in life does not prevent loss of muscle strength. Previous studies show
      that it may help people get rid of fat.
      At this time, there is not enough evidence for an older person to take growth hormone to improve muscle strength, and there is no
      long-term data on safety. Sudden deaths reported in athletes who have taken growth hormone are probably due to the effect of
      enlarging the heart muscle without also adequately enlarging the blood supply. The larger heart requires more blood and cannot meet
      its needs for oxygen, so it starts to beat irregularly.
      * Cold Weather Hinders Weight Loss
      Many people gain weight during the cold months even if they exercise and watch what they eat. One reason may be that you burn fewer
      calories when you exercise in cold weather than you do when it's hot. The hotter it is, the more extra work your heart must do to
      prevent you from overheating. More than 70 percent of the energy produced by your muscles during exercise is lost as heat. So the
      harder you exercise, the hotter your muscles become. In hot weather, not only must your heart pump extra blood to bring oxygen to
      your muscles, it must also pump hot blood from your heated muscles to your skin where heat can be dissipated.
      On the other hand, in cold weather, your heart only has to pump blood to your muscles and very little extra blood to your skin to
      dissipate heat. Your muscles produce so much heat during exercise that your body does not need to produce more heat to keep you
      warm. So your heart works harder and you burn more calories in hot weather. This information should not discourage you from
      exercising when its cold, because staying in shape is a year-round proposition. However, it may help to explain why so many people
      find the pounds creeping on in the wintertime, even when they stay active.
      From Dr. Gabe Mirkin's Fitness and Health E-Zine at: http://www.drmirkin.com


      4. Exercise may help seniors stave off mental decline:
      Older Americans play with video games that promise to keep their minds sharp. Some do crossword puzzles, try to master foreign
      languages or learn to play musical instruments — all in the hope of staving off Alzheimer’s disease. Now, a growing body of research
      is offering tantalizing evidence that a brisk walk in the morning or some laps in the pool might accomplish the same task.
      “There’s an avalanche of neuroscience to support that (physical) exercise is good for the brain,” said John Ratey, an associate
      clinical professor of psychiatry at Harvard Medical School and co-author of an upcoming book on the subject.
      That’s hopeful news for many who worry that growing old may mean losing their minds.
      A 2006 survey conducted by Harris Interactive for the MetLife Foundation found that Alzheimer’s was a bigger source of anxiety for
      Americans 55 and older than heart disease, stroke and diabetes.
      “Losing one’s mental faculties is people’s biggest fear,” said Shawn Brennan, who specializes in promoting senior health initiatives
      for Montgomery County’s Department of Health and Human Services. “Whenever we have an event focusing on improving your memory,
      people just flock to it.”
      More...from the Missourian at:
      http://www.columbiamissourian.com/stories/2007/12/28/exercise-may-help-seniors-stave-mental-decline/


      5. Extreme muscle soreness a warning:
      Your workout is either too intense for your body to handle, or you changed your program recently. Try a more gradual approach.
      Q: I took a body-sculpting class at my gym and was so sore the next couple of days I could hardly walk. What causes this, and do you
      have any suggestions to help me avoid or reduce this type of soreness in the future?
      A: Muscle soreness generally occurs 24 to 48 hours after a tough workout and usually decreases after 72 hours. Fit people experience
      muscle soreness when they increase the intensity, frequency or duration of their workouts or when they change the type of exercise
      they do. Others feel sore when they first start exercising or when they resume workouts after taking time off.
      The consensus of most fitness experts is that muscle soreness is caused by microscopic tears in the muscle and connective tissue
      during eccentric contractions. These are contractions in which the muscle is under tension while it is being lengthened. When doing
      a biceps curl, for example, the downward phase of the exercise would be the eccentric phase. Another example would be the downward
      phase of a bench press, because the chest muscles are under tension and lengthening as the bar is being lowered.
      Eccentric contraction also can occur during cardio workouts such as stair-climbing or downhill running. This consensus would explain
      why most exercisers don't experience as much soreness doing non-eccentric exercises, such as a plank pose in yoga (holding the body
      stiff while in a push-up position).
      There are many schools of thought regarding the best way to get rid of muscle soreness -- ice, massage, stretching or
      anti-inflammatory drugs. But there is not one proven, consistent method for relieving muscle soreness for everyone, even though any
      of the above methods might work for some people.
      More...from the LA Times at:
      http://www.latimes.com/features/health/la-he-matters31dec31,1,4218656.story?coll=la-headlines-health


      6. The Science Behind PowerBar with C2 MAX: More Energy for Demanding Sports:
      As an endurance athlete, any exercise you do burns a combination of fat and carbohydrates. The more intense the exercise, the more
      you rely on carbs as your energy source. About 20 years ago, researchers first published studies clearly demonstrating that
      consuming carbs during prolonged, moderate or high intensity exercise improved athletic performance.1,2 Now, it’s a fact: taking in
      carbs while training or competing will help an athlete to maintain a supply of energy. The reason for this is that even the very
      best athletes have a limited supply of carbohydrate energy, known as glycogen, in their bodies. Consuming carbs during exercise
      helps to spare your supply of muscle and liver glycogen and helps maintain blood glucose levels. 1,2 With more carbs held in
      reserve, you are able to maintain your energy supply for demanding activities.
      Training for or competing in endurance events without replenishing carbs is a recipe for disaster. Once your glycogen reserves are
      depleted, your blood sugar will drop and you will have no choice but to slow down or even stop. Cyclists call it bonking and runners
      call it hitting the wall. No matter what you call it, if you are an endurance athlete, it’s a physiological state you want to avoid.
      Accepted Limits to Carb Utilization
      Although carbs are the primary energy source for intense endurance exercise, there is a limit to the rate at which your body can
      absorb them. This is believed to be the primary factor in how fast you can metabolize or burn carbohydrates consumed during
      exercise. Scientists call this metabolic burning of carbohydrates “carbohydrate oxidation”. Based on prior studies, researchers have
      long believed that the maximum burn or oxidation rate of ingested carbs is about 1 gram per minute. 3 In fact, the American College
      of Sports Medicine currently advises endurance athletes to consume up to 60 grams of carbs during each hour of training or
      competition, which equates to 1 gram of carbs per minute.4 Consuming more carbs than you are able to effectively absorb and
      metabolize does you no good and can lead to digestive discomfort.
      More...from Power Bar at:
      http://www.powerbar.com/ca/NutritionResource/NutritionArticleDetail.aspx?ArticleId=FD2D5185-9C8B-4d3f-8FDE-E63375540438
      [Long URL]


      7. Newly Identified Exercise Gene Could Help With Depression:
      Boosting an exercise-related gene in the brain works as a powerful anti-depressant in mice-a finding that could lead to a new
      anti-depressant drug target, according to a Yale School of Medicine report in Nature Medicine.
      "The VGF exercise-related gene and target for drug development could be even better than chemical antidepressants because it is
      already present in the brain," said Ronald Duman, professor of psychiatry and senior author of the study.
      Depression affects 16 percent of the population in the United States, at a related cost of $83 billion each year. Currently
      available anti-depressants help 65 percent of patients and require weeks to months before the patients experience relief.
      Duman said it is known that exercise improves brain function and mental health, and provides protective benefits in the event of a
      brain injury or disease, but how this all happens in the brain is not well understood. He said the fact that existing medications
      take so long to work indicates that some neuronal adaptation or plasticity is needed.
      He and his colleagues designed a custom microarray that was optimized to show small changes in gene expression, particularly in the
      brain's hippocampus, a limbic structure highly sensitive to stress hormones, depression, and anti-depressants.
      More...from Medical News Today at:
      http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/90285.php.


      8. Fighting Diseases Of Aging By Wasting Energy, Rather Than Dieting -- Works For Mice:
      By making the skeletal muscles of mice use energy less efficiently, researchers report that they have delayed the animals' deaths
      and their development of age-related diseases, including vascular disease, obesity, and one form of cancer. Those health benefits,
      driven by an increased metabolic rate, appear to come without any direct influence on the aging process itself, according to the
      researchers.
      Metabolism researchers at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis have found that although it does not extend maximum
      lifespan in mice, activating a protein in muscle tissue increases average lifespan and prevents some age-related diseases. The
      researchers believe a similar approach may someday help people avoid age-related problems such as atherosclerosis, diabetes,
      hypertension and even some cancers.
      More...from Science Daily at:
      http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2007/12/071204122007.htm


      9. Running a Marathon Is Less Risky Than Driving One:
      Happy New Year. Why not resolve this year not to be fooled by apparent risks, rather than real ones? Let's start with running a
      marathon. Everyone knows (because the media reports it) that every so often a healthy marathon runner drops dead during the race.
      And before we can think it through, we come to assume that marathon-running is a risky sport. Well, a new report suggests it's not
      as serious as taking the automobile.
      Canadian researchers report in the British Medical Journal on their study comparing the risks of sudden cardiac death during a
      marathon run with the risk of dying in a motor accident that might have occurred if the roads hadn't been closed for the race.
      The data came from marathons run on public roads with at least 1000 runners over the last 20 years. Of over 3.2 million runners, 26
      had sudden cardiac death, equivalent to 0.8 deaths per 100,000 runners. Because of road closures, an estimated 46 accidental deaths
      were prevented, which is equivalent to a 35% reduction in relative risk of running rather than driving (or being driven). Put
      another way, 1.8 crash deaths were saved for every runner who dropped dead. So get training! After all, road accidents are something
      that happen often and repeatedly, and yet we manage to continue to ignore them. Walking or running to your destination (or even -
      gasp! - using public transport) may be a safer way to get there.
      More...from Health and Age at:
      http://www.healthandage.com/public/news-home/13263/Running-a-Marathon-Is-Less-Risky-Than-Driving-One.html


      10. But First, Doctor, What Was Your Marathon Time?
      If you’re an athlete should you seek doctors who are athletes, too?
      YOU are an athlete, or, at least, very active. Should you seek doctors who are athletes, too? After all, some obese people pass
      around lists of “fat friendly” doctors who treat them with respect. Women often want female doctors.
      Are athletes also a special group? And, if so, do they fare any differently if they see doctors who are athletes?
      “Nobody knows,” said Dr. James Fries, a 20-mile-a-week runner and a professor of medicine at Stanford. “There’s no data.”
      There are some hints, though, said Dr. Ronald Davis, who is the president of the American Medical Association and a specialist in
      preventive medicine at the Henry Ford Health System, which includes hospitals, clinics, a managed-care plan and a large physician
      group practice.
      Dr. Davis cited a study by Dr. Erica Frank, who is now at the University of British Columbia. Her study, published a few years ago,
      involved a survey of about 4,000 female doctors and found that those who were at least moderately active were much more comfortable
      advising patients about exercise and encouraging them to exercise.
      A doctor who is physically active, Dr. Davis said, “is more likely to provide advice on exercise that will be meaningful to
      patients.”
      More...from the New York Times at:
      http://www.nytimes.com/2008/01/03/health/nutrition/03Best.html?ref=fitnessandnutrition


      11. Improve Your Strength:
      Congratulations! You’re Motivated! That could be a problem.
      If you’re reading this then there is a good chance you fit into one of two categories: either you are a long time runner and you’re
      combing the internet looking for a training tip, or you just purchased the Nike+ system as part of your 2008 Resolution plan. In
      either case, you’re motivated enough to take the time to learn more about running and there is no doubt that when you go for a run
      you’ll be motivated to work hard and give 100%. Problem is, your eager motivation could become a problem if it manifests itself in a
      running injury in 2008, rather than that first half-marathon that you’ve been planning or that 5k PR.
      The reason that your motivation might be a problem has to do with how the human body adapts to training. There is a simple principle
      in human physiology, developed by Hans Selye, called the General Adaptation Syndrome. The principle simply says that the human body,
      once stressed, can and often does adapt to the stress if - and only if - there is ample time for the body to recover and rejuvenate.
      When the human in question has adequate time to recover then the beautiful change occurs as the person has made an adaptation. This
      phenomenon is often referred to as Supercompensation; in running lingo we’d call it “getting fit.” Simple, right? But as Thelonious
      Monk said, “Simple ain’t easy” and the problem for all endurance athletes is that the rate at which your heart and lungs can improve
      is faster than the rate at which your bones, joints, tendons and muscles can improve. As my friend and peer Mike Smith likes to say,
      “metabolic changes take place faster than structural changes.” And that is the problem - the motivated runner who starts the New
      Year full of great expectations may find that two or three weeks into training they feel good running, yet they have a nagging
      injury they can’t seem to shake. Come February 1st, the runner may be unable to run.
      More...from Nike at:
      http://insidenikerunning.nike.com/2007/12/21/improve-your-strength/


      12. Balancing Act:
      Whatever time of day you run, you have 60 minutes after your workout to properly refuel. Here's how to take it all in.
      If you're like a lot of runners, your postworkout routine goes something like this: Stretch, drink water, shower, and get on with
      your day. Food? That can wait until you're hungry, right?
      Not if you want to feel your best on your next run. When you run, you burn mostly glycogen, a fuel stored in your muscles. Your
      mission right after a run, therefore, is to eat, even if you don't feel hungry. And fast. No matter what time of day you run, the
      enzymes that are responsible for making glycogen are most active immediately postworkout-leaving you a 60-minute window in which
      those highly stimulated enzymes are at maximum capacity to produce glycogen.
      "After exercise, especially following intensive or prolonged bouts, the body is primed to reload muscle glycogen," says Suzanne
      Girard Eberle, M.S., R.D., author of Endurance Sports Nutrition. Wait more than an hour to refuel, and your body's ability to make
      glycogen out of what you consume drops by an astounding 66 percent. And the longer you wait, the more likely you are to feel
      sluggish.
      "Everything runners do is about how well we recover," says Lisa Dorfman, M.S., R.D., a sports nutritionist and marathoner. "That's
      when the gains from training come."
      More...from Runner's World at:
      http://www.runnersworld.com/article/0,7120,s6-242-303-307-9478-0,00.html?cm_mmc=nutrition-_-2008_01_03-_-nutrition-_-Your%201-Hour%2
      0Window
      [Long URL]


      13. Two Secrets of Success:
      By Chris Carmichael
      Call it a resolution, plan, objective, or target. Call it your alarm clock or the incentive to get out there when it’s cold. Call it
      whatever makes you happy, but do yourself a favor and set at least one effective goal for 2008. My goal, which should be no surprise
      to anyone who’s read this newsletter over the past two years, is to earn my big belt buckle for finishing the Leadville 100 mountain
      bike race in less than 9 hours on August 10, 2008. Lance Armstrong’s goals for 2008 may be more surprising, but I’ll get to that
      later.
      A goal can be a great foundation for providing motivation and defining your path through training and nutrition, but only if it’s
      specific. A loosely-worded “I want to lose weight” or “I want to climb faster” marks a poor beginning to a journey that’s likely to
      fail. To be effective, goals have to meet two requirements:
      More...from Train Right at:
      http://www.trainright.com/articles.asp?uid=3181


      14. Resolved - Set Goals:
      New Year’s Resolutions.
      It’s that time again. The gyms will be bursting at their seams again for about four weeks, as hordes of people try to get rid of
      excess weight. Unfortunately, the majority of them will have given up by the time February comes round. Fortunately, we are runners,
      and therefore already fit, slim and healthy, aren’t we?!
      New Year’s resolutions will do the rounds in our circles nonetheless, so here are a few suggestions:
      - Set a mileage goal for 2008. No matter if it’s 500 or 300 miles, try to beat your 2007 marker, but remain sensible. Don’t double
      your mileage in one go.
      - Involve your family in your next race. I don’t mean let them stand shivering in the freezing cold while you zip by. I mean take
      them for a weekend to a race a bit further away, and make a family break out of it.
      - If you have children of the right age, get them involved in running. Share a mile or two with them, obviously at their pace, not
      yours. Don’t use any pressure, chances are they will enjoy running with mummy or daddy and will soon ask to come again.
      More...from Complete Running at:
      http://completerunning.com/archives/2008/01/03/resolved-set-goals/


      15. This Week in Running:
      10 Years Ago- Khalid Skah (MAR) won the Corrida de Houilles (FRA) 10K in 27:57, followed closely
      by Habte Jifar (ETH) in 27:58, Thomas Nyariki (KEN) in 27:59, and El Hassane Lahssini
      (MAR) in 28:00. Worku Ayelech (ETH) took the women's race by a wide margin with her
      33:04. Christine Mallo (FRA) was 2nd in 34:13.
      20 Years Ago- Paul Arpin (FRA) won the Corrida de Houilles (FRA) 9.3K in 26:48 with Fernando
      Mamede (POR) 2nd (time unknown) and Pat Porter (USA) in 5th with a 27:52. Linda
      Milo (BEL) won the women's 6K race in 21:02.
      30 Years Ago- Werner Dörrenbacher (GER) won the Sea of Galilee International (ISR) Marathon,
      held on New Year's Day, in 2:19:33. Maxwell Coleby (ENG) was 2nd in 2:21:11 while
      Michael Spöttel (GER) was 3rd in 2:22:29. Zehava Shmueli (ISR) won the women's
      race in 3:02:38.
      40 Years Ago- Gaston Roelants (BEL) won the Around the Houses (BRA) 8.4K in 24:31.2. David Ellis
      (CAN) was 3rd (time not known). This race is now known as the São Silvestre and is
      held at 15K.
      50 Years Ago- Murray Halberg (NZL) won a three mile track race in 13:27.2.
      From The Analytical Distance Runner, the newsletter for the Association of Road Racing Statisticians with a
      focus on races, 3000m and longer, including road, track, and cross-country
      events.
      The ARRS has a website at http://www.arrs.net.


      16. The effects of face-cooling during hyperthermic exercise:
      There’s no doubt that effective face-cooling strategies can help improve sport performance in very hot conditions. However (as Matt
      Lancaster has indicated elsewhere in this issue), effective cooling protocols are not always convenient or possible during match or
      race conditions. Face-cooling (applying cold packs to the forehead) as a cooling strategy is easy to implement but how effective is
      it?
      That’s the question scientists from the University of Birmingham in the UK have been trying to answer in a study on cycling in hot
      conditions. Ten fit but non heat-acclimatised males (average age 23 years, average VO2max 56mls per kg per min) exercised for 40
      minutes on a cycle ergometer at 65% of their peak aerobic power in ambient temperatures of 33ºC and 27% relative humidity on two
      separate occasions with face-cooling and without face-cooling (the control condition). In particular, the scientists were keen to
      see the effects of face-cooling on core temperature, heart rate, blood lactate, perceived rate of exertion (PRE), prolactin release
      (a measure of exercise stress) and subjective thermal comfort. The results were as follows:
      With face-cooling, forehead temperature was maintained around 6ºC lower than with no face-cooling while the temperatures of other
      skin sites were similar or slightly higher;
      More...from Peak Performance Online at:
      http://www.pponline.co.uk/encyc/does-face-cooling-improve-sports-performance-35903


      17. Oranges: They Can Help Prevent Heart Attacks:
      Oranges have been a staple food in the Mediterranean countries from time immemorial. They have also been a major player in
      protecting the people of that region from heart disease. So, if you never thought of oranges as a "must" food for your heart, here
      are some good reasons to start:
      Oranges and vitamin C
      Oranges are very rich in vitamin C. This vitamin has the following effects in the body:
      ~ It protects the arteries from free radicals, highly damaging molecules that cause cells to oxidize.
      ~ It helps prevent the oxidation of cholesterol; oxidized cholesterol sticks to the walls of the arteries, building up plaque.
      Plaque can grow large enough to block blood flow in small blood vessels, causing a heart attack or a stroke.
      ~It helps recycle vitamin E, one of the most powerful antioxidants and the first line of defense when it comes to the oxidation of
      our cells.
      Oranges and folate
      Oranges are naturally rich in folate, or folic acid, a vitamin of the B group. One role of folate is to process the amino acid
      homocysteine in the body. When folate is lacking, homocysteine is not broken down, piles up in our blood vessels and becomes toxic,
      even in small amounts. The accumulation of high levels of homocysteine in the blood may cause a heart attack even among people who
      have adequate cholesterol levels.
      More...from Health and Age at:
      http://www.healthandage.com/public/article/3296/Oranges-They-Can-Help-Prevent-Heart-Attacks.html


      18. Carbohydrate Supplementation During Exercise: Does It Help? How Much is Too Much?
      Carbohydrate intake during exercise can delay the onset of fatigue and improve performance of prolonged exercise as well as exercise
      of shorter duration and greater intensity (e.g., continuous exercise lasting about 1 h and intermittent high-intensity exercise),
      but the mechanisms by which performance is improved are different.
      · During prolonged exercise, the performance benefits of carbohydrate ingestion are likely achieved by maintaining or raising plasma
      glucose concentrations and sustaining high rates of carbohydrate oxidation, whereas during intense exercise, carbohydrate intake
      seems to positively affect the central nervous system.
      · Carbohydrate from a single source, such as glucose, can only be oxidized at rates of approximately 60 g/h.
      · When a combination of carbohydrates is ingested (e.g., glucose and fructose) oxidation rates of slightly more than 100 g/h can be
      achieved if large amounts of carbohydrate are ingested (e.g., > 140 g/h).
      · Ingesting a carbohydrate solution that is very concentrated and/or has a high osmolality is likely to cause gastrointestinal
      discomfort.
      · The amount of carbohydrate an individual athlete should ingest during exercise should be determined by trial and error, and a
      balance should be struck between increasing carbohydrate availability during exercise and minimizing gastrointestinal distress.
      More...from GSSI at:
      http://www.gssiweb.com/Article_Detail.aspx?articleID=757


      19. The Hardest Way To Get Fast:
      By Coach Matt Russ
      Increasing your speed requires consistent and careful application of training stress. However, if you are gaining body fat, you are
      working against yourself. One of the most difficult tasks is creating enough of a caloric deficit to facilitate body fat loss while
      training intensely. This deficit may lead to a more rapid depletion of energy, and training quality can suffer as a result. You
      can't train hard on a salad. So when is the best time to reduce body fat and the best methods for doing so?
      The first thing you must realize is that your power-to-weight ratio is one of the most significant factors, if not the most
      significant factor, affecting your speed. Even a modest body fat loss will result in an increase in speed. A runner will drop
      approximately 2.5 seconds per mile with each pound of body fat lost. Drop 10 pounds and you just shaved 11 minutes off your
      marathon! For cyclists, watts-per-kilogram is the “golden ratio,” and you can fairly judge an athlete's performance based on it.
      Your max VO2 is yet another key determinant of performance and it is expressed in milliliters of oxygen per kilogram of body weight.
      If you get tested regularly, ask the test administrator to put in your goal weight versus your actual weight and notice the
      difference in your numbers.
      You can also perform a simple test by cycling with a fluid pack weighing 10 pounds. You will notice a significant difference in
      heart rate and perceived exertion, especially on climbs. Or try walking (not running) on an inclined treadmill with the extra
      weight. Now that you know how drastically extra body fat affects your performance, the next step is getting it off. The best time to
      accomplish this is when your caloric deficit will have the least impact on your training. For most athletes, this will be during
      base season and most athletes' base seasons occur in the fall and winter months. The reasons this is a good time to address body fat
      loss…
      More...from the Sport Factory at:
      http://speed-factory.com/site/nutritionnews/The_Hardest_Way_To_Get_Fast.shtml


      20. Digest Briefs:
      * Medical myths that even doctors believe
      People should drink at least eight glasses of water a day
      This advice has been promoted as healthful as well as a useful dieting or weight control strategy. But when the researchers looked
      further, they found no medical evidence to suggest that anyone needs that much water.
      Vreeman thinks this myth can be traced back to a 1945 recommendation from the U.S. Nutrition Council that a person consume 64 ounces
      of fluid a day. But an important part of the Council's recommendation has been lost over the years: that amount also includes the
      large amount of fluid contained in food, especially fruits and vegetables, as well as in the other beverages that people drink every
      day.
      The study authors note that drinking excess water can be dangerous, since it could lead to the potentially fatal condition of water
      intoxication.
      * Absorb, Process, Persevere
      By Coach Matt Russ
      One of the key ingredients to being a successful athlete is not motivation, or talent, or mental focus, it is the ability to learn
      from your mistakes. Bad races happen to everyone and they will likely happen to you at some point. A race is only "bad," however, if
      you do not walk away some knowledge that will help you in the future.
      Having worked with many elite athletes, I can tell you one of their key charactoristics is the ability to absorb an injury, bad
      race, equipment failure, or other setback, learn from it, and move on. I have observed talented athletes that did not have this
      ability fall by the wayside, victims to their own discouragement.
      It is ok to be disappointed, but then you must look for answers. If it was something out of your control such as a mechanical,
      weather, or illness then you must simply shrug it off. There are numerous accounts of unlucky athletes that stuck with their sport
      and came back to achieve their goals. If it is a factor within your control, break it down, come up with a plan over come it, and
      keep moving forward. A successful athlete is like Teflon; they do not let negativity stick to them.
      Matt Russ has coached and trained elite athletes from around the country and internationally for over ten years. He currently holds
      expert licenses from USA Triathlon, USA Cycling (Elite), and is a licensed USA Track and Field Coach. Matt is head coach and owner
      of The Sport Factory, and works with athletes of all levels full time. He is a free lance author and his articles are regularly
      featured in a variety of magazines such as Inside Triathlon, and Triathlete. Visit www.thesportfactory.com for more information or
      email him at mailto:coachmatt@...



      THIS WEEK'S FEATURED EVENTS:
      *Please verify event dates with the event websites*

      January 5, 2008:
      Mississippi Blues Marathon - Jacksonville, MS

      January 6, 2008:
      Avia OC Marathon - Newport Beach, CA

      Prom Classic - Nice, France


      Saturday, June 21, 2008
      Emilie's Run - The Emilie Mondor Memorial 5K race for Women
      http://www.emiliesrun.com

      For more complete race listings check out our Upcoming Races, and Calendars.
      Check the Runner's Web on Sunday and Monday for race reports on these events at:
      http://www.runnersweb.com/

      For Triathlon Coverage check out The Sports Network at:
      http://www2.sportsnet.ca/tvschedule/tvsked_sport.php?region=ONTARIO&schedule_id=25

      Send this to a Friend:
      Forward the Runner's Web Digest to a friend and suggest that they subscribe at:
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      YOUR FEEDBACK AND COMMENTS:
      Comments, contributions and feedback are always welcome via this list at:
      mailto:runnersweb@yahoogroups.com and in our Runner's Web Forum, available off our FrontPage. If you post to the mailing list and
      get your email returned, please contact the Runner's Web at
      mailto:webmaster@... to notify us of the problem. To update your Runner's Web eGroups subscriber's profile, go to the web
      site at http://groups.yahoo.com/group/RunnersWeb/join , sign in and update your changes.
      Forward the Runner's Web Digest to a friend and suggest that they subscribe at:
      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/RunnersWeb/join

      Have a good week of training and/or racing.

      Ken Parker
      Runner's Web
      mailto: webmaster@...
      http://www.runnersweb.com/running.html
      A running and triathlon resource portal
      Runner's Web Online Store
      http://store.runnersweb.com
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      http://www.runnerswebcoach.com

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