Runner's and Triathlete's Web Digest - November 2, 2007
- A FREE WEEKLY E-ZINE OF MULTISPORT RELATED ARTICLES.
The Runner's and Triathlete's Web Digest is a weekly e-zine dealing with the sports of running and triathlon and general fitness and
health issues. The opinions expressed in the articles referenced by the Digest are the opinions of the writers and not necessarily
those of the Runner's Web. Visit the Runner's Web at http://www.runnersweb.com The site is updated multiple times daily. Check out
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1. Emilie's Run - The Emilie Mondor Memorial 5K Race for Women - Canada's Fastest Women's 5K
The 2008 race will be held on Saturday, June 21.
In this year's race Paula Githuka of Hamilton held off a closing Nicole Stevenson of Toronto to win Emilie's Run - The Emilie Mondor
Memorial 5K in Ottawa. Githuka held a nine second lead at 3K which Stevenson whittled down to two by the finish line. Githuka won in
16:37 to Stevenson's 16:39. in 2006 - in the RunnersWeb5K Race for Women - Stevenson won in 16:28 over Emily Tallen of Kingston
who placed third this year in 16:55. This year 45 women ran under 20:00. For more on the race visit the website at:
Join Emilie's Run Community and contribute at:
3. Road Runner Sports, the world's largest running store at:
Check out their Perfect Fit Finder for running shoes.
4. Toronto Waterfront Marathon, 2008
5. 26.2 with Donna:
The National Marathon to Fight Breast Cancer
"The only U.S. marathon dedicated solely to raising funds to end breast cancer."
February 17, 2008 8 a.m.
Location: Near Mayo Clinic
Beneficiaries: Donna Hicken Foundation and Mayo Clinic
Proceeds from the race will go directly to The Donna Hicken Foundation, a charitable organization dedicated to helping women with
breast cancer. While a portion of the proceeds will be used by the Donna Hicken Foundation for the critical care of breast cancer
survivors in need, the foundation has pledged to donate the majority of funds raised to Mayo Clinic for research and its
Multidisciplinary Breast Clinic, which specializes in the detection and treatment of breast cancer.
Visit the website at: http://www.breastcancermarathon.com
Sport massage has become an integral part of the new athletic regimen from after school athletics to high performance training.
With an athlete in mind SporteraT Sport preparations were developed. SporteraT Sport Lotions are designed to give an extra edge to
physically active persons and athletes at every level of training.
Complete workout routine includes not only the exercise itself, but also caring for the wear and tear and minor injuries that
naturally occur with strenuous movement. The nature of SporteraT Sport Lotions makes it ideal complement to a total training.
Anyone who routinely performs physical activities such as running, hiking, strength training, playing soccer, hockey, basketball,
and tennis will ultimately benefit from SporteraT Sport lotions.
SporteraT Lotions are designed to help the body prepare itself and recover from the stresses of all sports therefore improving
Visit their web site at:
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NEW THIS WEEK:
The winner in our November Pegasus Quiz is Steven Turner of Lake Toxaway, NC identified the runner as Brian Sell.
Steven wins a copy of the award winning software for runners: RunLog by Pegasus Software.
Running USA and RRCA Survey
This survey was originally created by Running USA and Road Runners Club of America to describe runners and non-runners. They have
asked Runnersweb.com to join in its distribution in order to get profiles of both Canadian and U.S. runners.
Take the survey at:
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RUNNER'S AND TRIATHLETE'S WEB CONTENT PARTNERS
RunnersWeb.com has teamed up with Active Trainer coaches to offer training programs that are a balance of aerobic, anaerobic and
cross-training workouts. These training programs are built to get people of all levels across the finish line. From the first timer
to the seasoned veteran you will find the right training plan for you. Good luck with your training and we will see you at the
Training Log and Analysis:
Log your daily workouts and monitor your progress along the way.
Set a realistic goal for training. Review the list of training programs developed by Active Trainer Coaches. Select the program that
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Select the daily email to receive your training by the day or log on to your account and review the entire schedule. Use the
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Sign up at: www.RunnersWebCoach.com OR http://training.active.com/ActiveTrainer/listing.do?listing=51
* Sports Nutrition by Sheila Kealey.
Sheila is one of Ottawa's top multisport athletes and a member of the OAC Racing Team and X-C Ottawa. She has a Masters in Public
Health and works in the field of nutritional epidemiology as a Research Associate with the University of California, San Diego. Her
column index is available at:
* Carmichael Training Systems
Carmichael Training Systems was founded in 1999 by Chris Carmichael.
From the beginning, the mission of the company has been to improve the lives of individuals we work with through the application of
proper and effective fitness and competitive training techniques. Whether your focus is recreational, advanced, or you are a
professional racer, the coaching methodology employed by CTS will make you a better athlete. Check the latest monthly column from
CTS at: http://www.runnersweb.com/running/cts_columns.html.
Carmichael Training Systems at:
* Peak Performance Online
Peak Performance is a subscription-only newsletter for athletes, featuring the latest research from the sports science world. We
cover the whole range of sports, from running and rowing to cycling and swimming, and each issue is packed full of exclusive
information for anyone who's serious about sport. It's published 16 times a year, including four special reports, by Electric Word
plc. Peak Performance is not available in the shops - only our subscribers are able to access the valuable information we publish.
Check out our article archive from Peak Performance Online at:
Visit the PPO site at:
Peak Performance Online:
* Peak Running Performance
Peak Running Is The Nation's Most Advanced Running Newsletter. Rated as the #1 Running Publication by Road Runner Sports (Worlds
Largest Running Store) , Peak Running caters to the serious / dedicated runner. Delivering world class running advice are some of
running's most recognizable athletes including Dr. Joe Vigil (US Olympic Coach),
Scott Tinley (2 Time Ironman Champ) Steve Scott (3 Time Olympian) and many more. This bi-monthly newsletter has been around for over
13 years, and in the past two it has been awarded the "Golden Shoe Award" in recognition of it's outstanding achievements.
Check out the Peak Running article index at:
Running Research News:
RRN's free, weekly, training update provides subscribers with the most-current, practical, scientifically based information about
training, sports nutrition, injury prevention, and injury rehabilitation. The purpose of this weekly e-zine is to improve
subscribers' training quality and to help them train in an injury-free manner.
Running Research News also publishes a complete, 12-page, electronic newsletter 10 times a year (one-year subscriptions are $35); to
learn more about Running Research News, please see the Online Article Index and "About Running Research News" sections below or go
Check out the article index at:
THIS WEEK'S PERSONAL POSTINGS/RELEASES:
We will only post notes here regarding running and triathlon topics of interest to the community.
We have ONE personal posting this week.
Island Triathlon Series, March 29th, 2008 Turks and Caicos Islands
Island Triathlon SeriesT has been described as a new and exciting luxury brand that will redefine the sport of triathlon.
Where else on earth could the pursuit of excellence in sport be coupled with such a divine landscape! The almost virginal and
self-described "beautiful by nature" island of Providenciales in Turks & Caicos is untouched, unspoiled and unparalleled to any of
the Caribbean Island destination. The beauty of the landscape is second only to that of the people of the Island.
What better choice for a family getaway or for spring breakers looking to relax then to head to the fabulous Turks and Caicos
Islands for your March Break vacation. Not only will you experience the culture but why not participate in your favorite sport by
testing your limits in the Island EightyT race. The Island EightyT features a 1 mi swim, 66 mi bike and 13 mi run, and although the
climate will test even the most seasoned athlete, the course promises to be gentle, fast and humble to those that pursue it. Better
still, your family and friends will be there to help at the event and cheer you on to the finish line. Now that's a vacation to
Leave the chilly, cold climate behind this New Year and take part in Island Triathlon SeriesT on March 29th, 2008 in the beautiful
Turks and Caicos Islands in the Caribbean. Visit us at our website at www.islandtriathlonseries.com for more details on the event.
THIS WEEK'S DIGEST ARTICLE INDEX:
1. Science of Sport: What Happens When You Replace Aerobic Running With Explosive Training?
2. VO2 Max Newsletter
3. Thoughts of A Roads Scholar - Return to Paradise
4. Twist and Ouch
Most athletes will have back trouble sooner or later -- if they're not suffering already. Here's what to do about it.
5. Self-coaching Tips From Olympian Frank Shorter
6. With Winter on Its Way, Wilderness Medicine Expert, Dr. Gravatt, Shares Frostbite Info/Tips Report
7. TriDiet: Reloading for Rapid Recovery
8. This Week in Running
9. Fitness Has Fallen Since The Days Of Ancient Greece
10. Protein: Pros, Cons and Confusion
11. Stay Lean, Active And Watch What You Eat To Avoid Cancer, New Report
12. Getting on with life after a heart attack
13. Joe Henderson's Running Commentary - Racing with Class
14. Mental Skills For Training and Racing
15. Lance Watson's Perspective: Triathlon, Do You Live and Die By It?
16. Dr. Gabe Mirkin's Fitness and Health e-Zine
17. Staph at the Gym? Not if You're Careful
18. Pyramid Scheme
Terrence Mahon's Two-Week Training Cycles for the Marathon and Half Marathon
19. A 6-step Plan to Speedy Marathon Recovery
20. Digest Briefs
RUNNER'S WEB WEEKLY POLL:
"Which of the following factors have played a significant role in your success (or lack thereof) as an athlete?"
You can access the poll from our FrontPage ( http://www.runnersweb.com) as well as checking the results of previous polls.
LAST WEEK'S POLL RESULTS:
"Would you support performance entry standards for all runners in the marathon?"
1. Yes 80%
2. No 20%
FIVE STAR SITE OF THE MONTH: Hansons-Brooks Distance Project
About the Hansons-Brooks Distance Project
The standards these athletes had to meet to be eligible for the Olympic Development program are 29:00/33:45 for the 10k, 14:00/16:15
for the 5k, and 2:20/2:42 for the marathon. These standards are the basis for the selection process although they are not set in
stone. Other factors such as the athletes willingness to relocate to the Rochester area, the meets where they ran their times at,
and also the size of the college that they attended come into play when the athletes are selected.
This opportunity provided by the Hansons is the best out there for runners coming out of college who have demonstrated the ability
and wish to continue running, but haven't quite advanced to the next level. The Olympics are the ultimate focus of the runners but
more importantly all the runners here are taking part in this program to see how fast they can become. Everything here focuses
around time to train. Our lifestyle is most accurately described as being like college only we don't have classes or homework.
The approach realized in the Hansons-Brooks Distance Project incorporates the following four principles:
~ Create an opportunity for successful college athletes to continue training beyond their college years.
~ Provide an environment in which training can be the focus of those post-collegiate athletes (without the financial necessity of
working full time or chasing after money in road races).
~ Develop a center for those athletes to train together as a team.
~ Incorporate the team members in local community activities to foster an excitement in the sport of distance running, and motivate
future distance runners.
Visit the website at:
Our Photo Slideshow is updated on a random basis. Check it out from our FrontPage.
BOOK/VIDEO OF THE MONTH: In Pursuit of Excellence-4th Edition
About the Product
Reach your potential! Whether you are an athlete, a coach, or a promising high achiever in another walk of life, In Pursuit of
Excellence provides the expert advice and proven techniques to help you fulfill your aspirations.
Author Terry Orlick, an internationally acclaimed sport psychologist, has helped hundreds of Olympic and professional athletes
maximize their performances and achieve their goals. In this fourth edition, Orlick provides new insights and a powerful
step-by-step plan for you to develop your own personal path to excellence.
You'll learn to focus for excellence and high-quality living. You'll gain a more positive outlook, a more focused commitment, better
ways of dealing with distractions, and strategies for overcoming obstacles. You'll also achieve greater personal and professional
satisfaction and discover better ways to work with teammates, respond more effectively to coaching, and become more self-directed in
your thoughts and actions.
Both practical and inspirational, In Pursuit of Excellence is a guide to daily living and motivation as well as a road map to
long-term achievement. Read it, use it, and win with it-on and off the field.
About the Author
Terry Orlick, PhD, is a world-renowned leader in the applied field of sport psychology, mental training, and excellence. A former
gymnastics champion and coach, Orlick has served as a high-performance coach for over 34 years to thousands of Olympic and
professional athletes in more than 30 sports. He has served as a performance-enhancement consultant and mental skills coach in
several Summer and Winter Olympic Games, as well as a consultant for various professional teams and leading business corporations.
Former president of the International Society for Mental Training and Excellence, Orlick has authored more than 20 highly acclaimed
books. He has created innovative programs and books for children and youth to develop humanistic perspectives and positive mental
skills for living, including Cooperative Games and Sports (2006, Human Kinetics) and Feeling Great: Teaching Children to Excel at
Living (2004, Creative Bound).
Orlick, a graduate of Syracuse University, the College of William & Mary, and the University of Alberta, is a professor in the
School of Human Kinetics at the University of Ottawa, Canada, and founder of the innovative Journal of Excellence. He holds
distinguished service awards from numerous Olympic and education associations, as well as certificates of merit from governments,
universities, sport organizations, and schools for distinguished service to the community. He has given lectures on the pursuit of
excellence in virtually every corner of the world. Orlick lives with his family at Meech Lake, Quebec.
Buy the book from Human Kinetics at:
For more publications on running and triathlon visit:
THIS WEEK'S FEATURES:
1. Science of Sport: What Happens When You Replace Aerobic Running With Explosive Training?
New Research from Finland Says Strategy Produces Unique Gains in Running Performance
Great new research from Finland reveals that adding simple, explosive routines to running workouts can produce major gains in
performance for endurance runners. This is true even when the explosive drills replace regular running in the weekly schedule and
thus lower total training volume (1).
In this hot-off-the-press research, Jussi Mikkola (at right) and his colleagues worked with 25 fit young distance runners who were
studying at a sports high school in Finland. All 25 of the harriers had been engaged in endurance running training for at least two
13 of the individuals (nine males and four females) were assigned to an experimental (E) group, and the other 12 (nine males and
three females) acted as controls (C). Over an eight-week period, members of both groups trained for about nine hours each week.
However, E-group runners carried out three explosive routines each week, which added up to about 1.8 total hours of weekly explosive
training. During those 1.8 hours, C-group members conducted their usual running workouts (circuits, tempo running, long runs). Thus,
control runners covered considerably more miles each week.
More...from the Runner's Web at:
2. VO2 Max Newsletter:
* VO2max and Interval Training
Research has shown that the key to improving VO2max is to run at or close to the velocity (speed) associated with VO2max (called
"vVO2max"). A study published in Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport in February, 2007 compared a group of runners who did an
interval workout twice per week for 10 weeks consisting of 8 x 60% of the time they could sustain VO2max at vVO2max with a 1-to-1
work-to-rest ratio (3 to 3.5 minutes at vVO2max with equal time as recovery) to a second group that also did an interval workout
twice per week for 10 weeks consisting of 12 x 30 seconds at 130% vVO2max with 4.5 minutes recovery and to a control group that ran
for 60 minutes at 75% vVO2max four times per week for 10 weeks. Overall, the first group showed greater physiological and
performance changes, improving VO2max by 9.1%, vVO2max by 6.4%, the time vVO2max could be sustained by 35%, the speed at the lactate
threshold by 11.7%, and 3,000-meter performance by 7.3%. The second group improved VO2max by 6.2%, vVO2max by 7.8%, the time vVO2max
could be sustained by 32%, and 3,000-meter performance by 3.4%, but did not improve the speed at the lactate threshold. The control
group that did no interval training did not show significant changes in any of these variables. While the percent improvements for
each interval training group were statistically greater after training than before, the groups
were not statistically different from each other. In absolute terms, however, using longer intervals (60% of the time you can
sustain your speed at VO2max, which would equal about 3 to 4 minutes) is better than using shorter intervals with longer recovery
periods, even when those shorter intervals are run at a higher intensity.
Want to learn more about how to improve your VO2max? You can order my popular CD collection, The 3 Players of Distance Running, in
which you'll get all the info you could ever want on VO2max, running economy, and lactate threshold, including specific workouts to
help you reach your running goals, all presented in a colorful slide presentation! Purchase any CD for $9.95, any 2 CDs for $17.95,
or the whole set for just $23.95 (plus $2.95 shipping). Just go to http://www.runcoachjason.com/merchandise or e-mail
* Running and Atherosclerosis
Atherosclerosis is an inflammatory disease of the arteries caused by cells that accumulate in arterial plaques and produce factors
that cause damage. One of those factors, called tumor necrosis factor (TNF), causes plaque stability, dysfunction of the
endothelial lining of blood vessels, and inflammatory damage of the arterial wall. A study published in Journal of Applied
Physiology in September, 2007 found that people who performed high-intensity aerobic exercise for 12 weeks (30 to 40 minutes at 55
to 60% of maximum heart rate for 2 weeks, 65 to 75% of max HR for 2 weeks, and 75 to 80% of max HR for 8 weeks) showed a significant
decrease in the production of TNF compared to those who performed moderate-intensity aerobic exercise (30 to 40 minutes at 55 to 60%
of maximum heart rate) for 12 weeks. Both groups showed similar improvements in aerobic capacity.
* Muscular Strength Training
While many people run with heart rate monitors, knowing at what percentage of their maximum heart rate they're running, how many
people know at what percentage of their maximum muscle strength they're training when they lift weights? Admittedly, using relative
intensity with strength training is a bit more complicated than with running since we have only one cardiac muscle (and thus one max
heart rate) but many skeletal muscles (and thus many max strength values). To strength train using relative intensity, you need to
know your maximum strength, which is called the one repetition maximum, or 1-RM (the maximum amount of weight you can lift just
once). Since you have different 1-RMs for each muscle group, you should perform 1-RM tests for each muscle group. Warm up with 5 to
10 repetitions using a moderate weight (40-60% of your perceived maximum). Then do another 3 to 5 reps with a slightly greater
weight (60-80% of perceived maximum). Make a conservative increase in the amount of weight, and try to lift the weight just once.
If the lift is successful, rest for 3 to 5 minutes before making another slight increase in weight and trying to lift the weight
again. Repeat these steps until you have reached a weight that you cannot lift. Once you have reached that weight, decrease the
weight slightly (but still more than what you successfully lifted in the prior attempt), and try to lift the weight. The goal is to
isolate the exact amount of weight you can lift just once. Make sure you take enough time between lifts to adequately recover.
Because of the strenuous nature of 1-RM tests, work with a spotter or friend or ask a personal trainer to help you. Alternatively,
you can estimate your 1-RM with the following equations using any submaximum strength exercise performed to fatigue:
Males: 1-RM = weight lifted in pounds / [1.0278 ? (number of reps x 0.0278)]. For this equation, you can use any combination of
weight and reps as long as the number of reps to fatigue are 10 or less.
Females: 1-RM = (1.06 x weight lifted in kilograms) + (0.58 x number of reps) - (0.20 x age) ? 3.41. For this equation, women
should lift a weight that is 45% of their body weight.
* Central Nervous System Fatigue
The prevailing evidence and thought among scientists is that fatigue, at least during short-term exercise, is caused by changes
occurring in muscle, including acidosis from an accumulation of hydrogen ions, increases in the metabolites adenosine diphosphate,
inorganic phosphate, and potassium, and depletion of fuel like creatine phosphate and glycogen. However, some research supports
that the central nervous system (CNS) can cause fatigue by reducing its command sent to the muscles?most notably experiments
bypassing the CNS by electrically stimulating the nerve supplying the muscle of interest. The CNS seems to play a significant role
in fatigue during prolonged exercise, like
marathons and ultramarathons, when there are changes in the levels of the brain neurotransmitters, which increase the perception of
effort and lead to feelings of tiredness and
lethargy. Since the CNS command to the muscles can be reduced from the CNS being inhibited directly from changes in brain
neurotransmitters or from feedback from the muscles? metabolic condition, it's possible that under conditions that represent a risk
to organs, especially the heart, yet to be discovered inhibitory signals may be sent to the brain. In response to these signals,
the neural command is dampened and the muscles' power output consequently declines in an attempt to prevent damage to the heart.
This may partially explain why your maximum heart rate is lower at altitude, since the lower oxygen availability would put the heart
at risk at a lower heart rate than at sea-level. So the reason we slow down may ultimately be because our brains are trying to
protect our hearts.
* * To view past newsletters go to: http://www.runcoachjason.com/newsletter
Copyright Jason Karp All Rights Reserved - http://www.runcoachjason.com
3. Thoughts of A Roads Scholar - Return to Paradise:
On September 26th, 1982, I wrote the following entry in my green Bill Rodgers runner's log. "A runners paradise. I will be coming
here from now on." The paradise I was referring to was Eisenhower Park. It was conveniently located between work, which I did during
the day, and school, which I attended at night.
When I started running there, I had only been running for about six months, but running was already a defining part of who I was
becoming as a human being. Eisenhower Park was the hub of running activity on Long Island. From parking area 2, there were five
clearly marked tours of the park, each with its own distinctly colored arrows painted on the ground and pointing the way to routes
of one to five miles. All you had to do was follow the arrows with the color of the route you wanted to run.
It was only a few weeks later that I lost the park to winter's darkness. Once daylight savings time ended, the park was too dark to
run in, so I had to find alternative options for running in lighted areas of other places to get me through winter's cold clutches.
From the end of October on, I counted the days until spring's arrival, and with it, the arrival of evening daylight, so I could
return to the park.
My enthusiasm for running, and my fondness towards the park grew through most of the next year, but in September 1983, I moved to
North Carolina, and Eisenhower Park became paradise lost. It was like losing a friend. Of course, I quickly invented places to run
near my new home which became my new comrades, but, as Lloyd Benson would have said, they were no Eisenhower.
More...from the Runner's Web at:
4. Twist and Ouch:
Not long after a typically underwhelming showing by the British contingent at the Wimbledon championships in July, the British
Journal of Sports Medicine published the results of a study that suggested to beleaguered English tennis fans that things are only
going to get worse. In the study, researchers from the Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital scanned the spines of 33 elite adolescent
tennis players, male and female, who trained at the National Tennis Centre, the club of choice for Britain's most promising young
prospects. None of the players had reported back pain. But their backs, it turned out, were a mess.
Twenty-eight of the teenagers - 85 percent - were found to have serious spinal abnormalities, ranging from cysts to fractures.
Twenty-three had early-stage joint disease and 13 had herniated discs or desiccated, shriveled discs, common in septuagenarians but
much less prevalent in teenagers. These kids, the cream of the next generation of British tennis, had backs 60 years older than they
More...from the NY Times at:
5. Self-coaching Tips From Olympian Frank Shorter:
I have run for 48 years and covered somewhere around 140,000 miles. From the time I graduated from college, I have coached myself.
This may sound unusual--some might even consider it a glaring exception to the rule. After all, we have long been in an age of
agents, personal trainers and health clubs.
However, I do not think of myself as that unusual. To me, it shows how we have lost sight of just how individual and independent
athletic success can be with just a little self-motivated focus. In a way, relying on yourself is a lost art. I competed in two
Olympic Marathons, trained with no coach, and continued moving on in the sport with an entourage of zero.
My simple, basic theory involves running very easily--at what I call conversational pace--75-90 percent of the time. Integrate
short, fast interval training at 5k race pace if you want to run faster. If you want to run a marathon, add a long run once a week
working up to at least two hours (20 miles if you're very serious). A clear outline of these training theories can be found in my
book, Running for Peak Performance.
In a way I think of myself as a "sandlot" runner. Follow me on this:
It's acknowledged that many major league baseball players come from the sandlots of the western hemisphere and the best World Cup
soccer players can come from any place in the world where there's enough dirt on which to play a pick-up game with anything closely
resembling a ball.
More...from Active.com at:
6. With Winter on Its Way, Wilderness Medicine Expert, Dr. Gravatt, Shares Frostbite Info/Tips Report:
Frost Bite-What the Weekend Adventurer Must Know
Written by Andrea R Gravatt MD
The human body is of incredible design permitting it to adjust to variations of ambient temperature. In hot weather the blood
vessels dilate (vasodilatation) permitting heat transfer to blood vessels close to the surface of the skin. Through convection, heat
is transferred to the air and even more quickly by moving air (wind) or moving water. On the other hand, in cold environments the
body adapts by constricting (vasoconstriction) surface blood vessels, thereby shunting the blood to the vital organs. Safety
mechanisms are inherent; where blood vessels transiently dilate to permit blood flow once again to the skin. This is known as the
hunting response and is of great importance to those cultures living in Arctic areas.
In cold environments where protective measures no longer function and there is no shelter, adequate clothing and nutrition; where
wind and water potentiate the drop in skin temperature; where poor judgment either from substance abuse or high altitude prevent
rational thinking- frostbite ensues. Whether one is on the summit of Mt Everest or K2 or in the hills of the Blue Ridge in the
winter or running the SHUT -IN trail run, frost bite is an inherent medical condition that may result in significant morbidity and
Tissue will freeze when its temperature reaches 0 'C (32' F). This is easily attainable as the wind chill factor may reduce the
otherwise non- threatening temperature. In addition, wet clothes or perspiration, active movement (running, cycling,4-wheeleing)
further exacerbates the heat loss by convection. Sitting on cold or wet surfaces, permit further heat loss through a mechanism known
as conduction. Both of these mechanisms play a role in hypothermia. Frostbite is a significant medical concern in and of itself
without the additional complications of hypothermia.
Vasoconstriction due to the cold may produce a pale white color to the skin and loss of sensation. This is first degree frost bite
(frost -nip) and is easily reversed by warming. Placing the affected area in tepid water (99-104'F) for 20-30 minutes and keeping
the area dry and protected by further cooling will easily return blood flow to these tissues. The areas most frequently involved are
the nose, ears, cheeks, fingers and toes.
Second degree frost bite will develop as the tissue temperature falls to 10'C (50'F). At this point, the vasoconstriction results in
leaky vessels and the release of chemical mediators that lead to tissue injury. Swelling occurs and the skin looks waxy. Further
drop in tissue temperature to minus 4'C (25'F) will result in ice crystal formation within the cells or outside of the cells
depending upon how fast the temperature drops. Clear blisters develop at this stage. The warming techniques are the same in the
treatment for first degree frost-bite. Do not break these blisters, but rather keep them intact and protect them from rubbing shoes,
etc. Protection from re-freezing and analgesics for pain should be provided as a burning sensation occurs and inflammatory mediators
leak into the tissues.
If freezing continues then significant tissue damage that extends to the muscle, tendons and bone occurs. Such injury may result in
multisystem organ failure, infections and electrolyte imbalances. Medical attention should be sought immediately. This is the point
where the tissues become ischemic and hemorrhagic blisters develop. Blisters should be drained by medical personnel as bacteria can
now enter an open wound. Intravenous therapy is provided and radiological studies are performed to determine if there is bone cell
death (technetium scan).Tetanus status should be ascertained. Re-warming at this point should occur only IF THE RISK FOR RE-FREEZING
DOES NOT EXIST. Freezing, re-warming then refreezing must never occur. It is better to have the victim walk out (preferable carried
out) of the wilderness with the area still frozen.
Recent studies suggest that amputation of dead tissue be delayed as the apparent area of tissue death is often less than initially
suggested. Experts in the field of Wilderness Medicine have adapted the phrase: FREEZE IN JANUARY, AMPUTATE IN JULY. Although the
advances in the intervention of frost-bite is slow, new modalities are being studied which may significantly alter the poor outcomes
of many victims.
In Wilderness Medicine prevention is the key! Appropriate dress and shelter, adequate nutrition and the knowledge base for the
management of frost bite in the field may prevent medical catastrophe and enhance the wonderful adventures and experiences that our
wilderness has to offer us.
Andrea is an active member of the Wilderness Medical Society and the International Society for Mountain Medicine. She has completed
a fellowship in Wilderness Medicine and currently practices Pediatric Emergency Medicine at Mary Bridge Children's Hospital in
Tacoma, Washington. Although she lives in Seattle, she frequently visits Asheville, North Carolina where she maintains a close
connection with family, the medical community and friends.
Source: PRnut.com on behalf of Dr. Gravatt
7. TriDiet: Reloading for Rapid Recovery:
What do you crave when you cross the finish line? After a long training session are you completely turned off by food or do you make
sure that the final mile lands you right in front of a fast food joint? (You were just training for 3 hours. You earned it, right?)
Every triathlete is different in regard to what works for them. Finding out what proves to be best for you will require some trial
and error but you can be certain that whatever you choose to consume after your workouts will affect the way your body recovers
between training sessions. This is especially important when training sessions end up being less than 24 hours apart because you
will want to maximize your rehydration and nutritional recovery to replace muscle fuel for the next workout.
Post training nutrition options varies from sports drinks and recovery mixes to energy bars, whole foods, fruit juices and perhaps
the choice gaining the most attention these days, low-fat (1%) chocolate milk. Regardless of the triathlete's preferred way to
reload, there are certain evidenced-based practices that should be considered when deciding what to choose for recovery nutrition.
To reload, your nutrition plan should aim to replenish muscle glycogen, body water (hydration), and electrolytes (primarily sodium).
You may be familiar with the common recommendation to reload within 30 minutes immediately follow exercise. Ever wonder why this
30-minute window is so crucial? Studies have shown that this window of time is when the body's sensitivity to insulin is at its
highest and this is when muscles are able to quickly absorb nutrients for maximum restoration and storage of muscle glycogen. A
triathlete's body can be depleted of muscle glycogen rather quickly; therefore immediate consumption of carbohydrate is very
important. Studies suggest anywhere from 0.5-0.7 grams per pound of body weight (1-1.2g/kg) is an optimal goal for rapidly absorbed
carbohydrate intake. Thus, a 155-pound triathlete (70 kg) may require about 80 grams of carbohydrate immediately following a long
More...from TriFuel at:
8. This Week in Running:
10 Years Ago- Peter Githuka (KEN) won the Tulsa Run (OK/USA) 15K with a 43:15, leading a 1-2-3-4
Kenyan sweep. He was followed by Godfrey Kiprotich (43:19), Thomas Osano (43:43)
and Joseph Kariuki (43:58). Delillah Asiago (KEN) won the women's race in 49:21
to lead a 1-2-3 Kenyan sweep. Margaret Kagiri (50:30) and Hellen Kimaiyo (50:37)
rounded out the top three with Albina Gallyamova (RUS) in 4th at 51:14.
20 Years Ago- Keith Brantly (USA) led a 1-2-3 USA sweep at the Wendy's Classic (KY/USA) 10K,
clocking a 29:01. James Cooper (29:07) and Chris Fox (29:21) followed. Sabrina
Dornhoefer (USA) led another 1-2-3 sweep in 32:49 with Margaret Groos (32:54)
and Martha Cooksey (33:26) following. The next year, this race changed its name
to the Bowling Green Classic and then in 2001, changed again to the Medical
30 Years Ago- Jerzy Finster (POL) won the Budapest (HUN) Marathon in 2:15:40.1. Hans-Joachim
Truppel (GER), Vincze Homoki (HUN), and Ferenc Szekeres (HUN) followed (times
not known to ADR). Sarolta Monspart (HUN) won the women's race in 2:48:59, the
15th fastest time for 1977.
40 Years Ago- Alistair Murray (SCO) won the Around the Bay (ON/CAN) 30.73K with a 1:33:28.
Andy Boychuk (CAN) was 2nd in 1:36:16 while Louis Castagnola (USA) was 3rd
50 Years Ago- Pavel Kantorek (CZE) won an hour run in Celakovice CZE with a distance of 19.183 km.
From The Analytical Distance Runner, the newsletter for the Association of Road Racing Statisticians with a
focus on races, 3000m and longer, including road, track, and cross-country events.
The ARRS has a website at http://www.arrs.net.
9. Fitness Has Fallen Since The Days Of Ancient Greece:
We may not be as fit as the people of ancient Athens, despite all that modern diet and training can provide, according to research
by University of Leeds exercise physiologist, Dr Harry Rossiter.
Dr Rossiter measured the metabolic rates of modern athletes rowing a reconstruction of an Athenian trireme, a 37m long warship
powered by 170 rowers seated in three tiers. Using portable metabolic analysers, he measured the energy consumption of a sample of
the athletes powering the ship over a range of different speeds to estimate the efficiency of the human engine of the warship. The
research is published in New Scientist today (February 8).
By comparing these findings to classical texts that record details of their endurance, he realised that the rowers of ancient Athens
- around 500BC - would had to have been highly elite athletes, even by modern day standards.
More...from Science Daily at:
10. Protein: Pros, Cons and Confusion:
Athletes who want to build muscles and recover well from workouts are often confused by ads for protein supplements. How much and
what kinds of protein should athletes consume? And can egg whites and chicken can do the job? The following information can help you
optimize your protein intake--and offer peace of mind.
Question: "I want to bulk up. I've started drinking three protein shakes per day between meals. Is this enough or too much?
Answer: To determine how many protein shakes you need, you should first determine how much protein your body actually can use. You
need adequate protein to enhance muscle growth; excess protein is not better.
Most exercise scientists agree that one gram of protein per pound of body weight is a very generous protein allowance for athletes
building muscle mass. (More likely, 0.5 to 0.75 grams of protein per pound will do the job if you are eating plenty of calories--but
let's be generous.) This means a novice 180-pound body builder gets more than enough protein with 180 grams of protein per day. He
can easily consume that much with one quart of skim milk, two cans of tuna (i.e., two sandwiches at lunch) and one large
(eight-ounce) chicken breast at dinner. Consuming protein shakes on top of this simply adds (expensive) calories. You could more
wisely get the calories from carbs to fuel your workouts.
More...from Active.com at:
11. Stay Lean, Active And Watch What You Eat To Avoid Cancer, New Report:
A report issued by an international panel of experts says that the best way to significantly reduce the risk of getting cancer is to
be lean, exercise vigorously every day, avoid fast food, eat less red meat, and avoid preserved meat such as ham and bacon, eat more
plant-based foods and cut down on alcohol.
The panel said that diet and lack of exercise cause one third of all cancers which could be prevented by changes in lifestyle.
However, the overriding message from the detailed 537-page report titled "Food, Nutrition, Physical Activity, and the Prevention of
Cancer", issued by the World Cancer Research Fund, is the strong link between obesity and cancer risk.
Sir Michael Marmot, who is professor of epidemiology and public health at University College London, chaired the expert panel that
reviewed 7,000 papers on the causes of cancer and consulted 200 experts worldwide. He said "the most striking thing to emerge from
the report is the importance of overweight and obesity".
Another panel member who chairs the International Obesity Task Force based in the UK, Dr W Philip T James, said the report had one
message that was "as clear as a bell". The link between cancer and obesity is "so robust, it is going to rank close to the smoking
problem in America pretty soon".
More...from Medical News Today at:
12. Getting on with life after a heart attack:
Cardiac rehabilitation, which includes supervised exercise, works. It can even reduce the risk of death. But fewer than 20% of
patients get the therapy, a study says.
Americans who have had a stroke or a hip replacement take for granted that they'll need a few weeks or months of rehabilitation to
relearn speech or movement and to figure out how to care for themselves.
But when people have a major heart problem, more often than not they leave the hospital with nothing more than a bottle of aspirin
and a couple of prescriptions. They receive very little training and education in how to eat, exercise, manage stress and otherwise
pick up their lives and care for their damaged tickers. A study in the Oct. 9 journal Circulation found that among 267,427 Medicare
recipients who had suffered a heart attack or had coronary artery bypass surgery, only about 18% had even one session of cardiac
rehabilitation within a year of their hospital discharge.
About 1.2 million people suffer a heart attack each year (about 40% of them die), and about half a million of them have had a
previous heart attack, according to the American Heart Assn. For more than a decade, evidence has been accumulating that cardiac
rehabilitation can reduce the risk of death from a second heart attack by as much 30%.
More...from the LA Times at:
13. Joe Henderson's Running Commentary - Racing with Class:
"Teacher" is an honorable title, one that I wear proudly even if it doesn't quite fit. True, I teach running at the University of
Oregon. But these aren't classes with lectures, guest speakers, textbooks, term papers and tests. Students spend most of our time
together running, not hearing about it. They mostly learn by doing, not by studying.
My hardest lesson to learn as a writer-turned-teacher was how to write short. I had to condense book chapters, which already were
distillations of life's running experiences, into single paragraphs e-mailed to students after each class. Here I further shrink the
mini-lessons. These are the lessons that I believe all runners in my 5K/10K racing class must take away from the class even if they
hear or read nothing else.
-- WHY RACE? Racing is hard, and moderately risky -- but also exciting, challenging and motivating. It puts your training and
resolve to their final test. You don't take this test alone but in the company of dozens, hundreds or even thousands of runners like
yourself. You aren't competing with them; you're cooperating. The competition isn't with others but with the distance, the course,
the conditions and the voice inside that pleads with you to ease off.
-- WINNING WAYS. A great beauty of running is that it gives everyone a chance to win. Winning isn't automatic; you still have to
work for success and risk failure. But unlike other sports there's no need to beat an arbitrary standard (such as "par" or an
opponent's score). You measure yourself against your personal records. The PR gives you an objective measure of success and progress
that doesn't depend upon beating anyone else.
More...from Joe Henderson at:
14. Mental Skills For Training and Racing:
By Matt Russ
Being physically gifted is only one attribute of a successful athlete. There are many others that are not so easily quantified such
as drive, ambition, determination, and the ability to focus mentally through adversity. These mental skills are not genetically
imposed, but are learned from a variety of sources such as parents, coaches, sport psychologists and other athletes. Learning and
refining your mental skills can give you an advantage over more talented but less focused athletes. The ability to focus mentally is
equally important in training and racing, and can make each work out more productive. Mental skills are an often neglected part of
training. It is advantageous to develop and refine your mental as well as your physical skills.
There are many internal and external stimuli that can invade your psyche and cause you to lose focus. Examples of external stimuli
are weather, a chronic injury, or a malfunctioning bicycle. Internal factors that can reduce focus are fear (crash), self doubt,
anger at another competitor, or simply a wandering mind. There are a variety of techniques to combat these stimuli. They include
scanning, self coaching, reverse conditioning, and visualization.
Scanning is the practice of regularly monitoring and adjusting yourself as you train or race. If you use a heart rate monitor you
must periodically check to make sure you are in the proper heart rate zone. Have you ever looked at your monitor and found yourself
10 beats out of your range? Scanning can prevent this from happening. Safety is a foremost concern, so make sure you are scanning
the upcoming terrain, the course for obstacles or road debris, the riders around you, and traffic. Scanning your environment is
especially important in a pack or pace line where you are riding in close quarters. Assuming you have a work out that considers
heart rate, cadence, and timed intervals you must monitor and be aware of all these systems as you ride. Practice scanning this data
at regular intervals and it will become a habit. You can also scan your riding for bad form, or to remind yourself to eat and drink.
If you have particular techniques that need improvement, check your form every few minutes. "Is my back straight?" "Am I in proper
climbing position?" Dehydration can drastically affect performance. You can set a watch alarm to remind yourself to drink every
More...from the Sport Factory at:
15. Lance Watson's Perspective: Triathlon, Do You Live and Die By It?
Many athletes live and die by their triathlon racing and training. Are you one of those athletes? Do believe that your self-image is
tied to your performances in racing, training and workouts, your body composition, what kind of equipment you have, the number of
Consider the type of personalities that consider to "tri" the lifestyle commitment it takes to train for triathlon, especially for
Ironman distance. It takes huge commitment. Most people "think" we are crazy or Type A+++ personalities. One requires dedicating a
huge amount of time into training, an extremely regimented diet, early mornings to the pool, limited social life, and not to mention
at times dealing with a roller coaster of emotions. It can take a toll, year after year.
You don't necessarily need to be a consumed tri geek to be a great triathlete. In fact, some of the greatest triathletes I have
coached have balance in their lives. I note that as they mature with age from their 20' to their 30's, their performance improves.
You can have relationships, family, and a social life, eat junk once in a while and skip the occasional workout without becoming
obsessive and still have great results.
Alternately, once you get hooked into extremely high expectations, and base "who you are" and "what you stand for" completely on the
outcome of a sporting event, triathlon quickly stops being fun. If it isn't fun you have to question yourself why you do it?
More...from XTri.com at:
16. Dr. Gabe Mirkin's Fitness and Health e-Zine:
* Exercise Prevents Diabetes
Exercise is even more important than weight loss for prevention or control of diabetes, according to a report from the Australian
National University in Canberra (Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, September 2007). Dr. Richard Telford concludes that
obesity is associated with, but does not cause, diabetes, heart disease and premature death. The health benefits of exercise
include increasing cells' ability to respond to insulin, lowering blood sugar levels, and preventing all the side effects of
diabetes. Weight loss is not necessary for a person to gain these benefits from an exercise program.
Most cases of Type II diabetes are caused by the body's inability to respond to insulin. Strengthening muscles makes cells more
responsive to insulin (Diabetes Care, September 2007). Your ability to respond to insulin depends on the ability of muscles to burn
oxygen without producing excessive free radicals (called oxidative capacity). When your body converts food to energy, it produces
free radicals that can damage the DNA in your cells to shorten life. Exercise causes cells to burn food for energy more
efficiently, without producing large amounts of free radicals.
Thirty-five percent of Americans today can expect to become diabetic. To help prevent diabetes or heart disease, most people should
exercise for about an hour a day, alternating
vigorous and easy days. If they still have high blood sugar levels, they probably need to exercise more and may also need to take
* Dear Dr. Mirkin: Is it true that weight loss during exercise is due only to loss of fluid?
If you weigh yourself before and after an hour or two of exercise, the difference is likely to be fluid loss. However, in events
lasting several hours or even several days, measurable fat loss can occur. At a competitive 12-hour indoor stationary bicycle
marathon, one athlete took fluids and food throughout the entire competition, and still lost 2.64 pounds (Schweizerische Rundschau
f|r Medizin Praxis, July 2007). Of this weight loss, 1.98 pounds was due to loss of fat. His calculated muscle weight increased
by 1.46 pounds due to damage to the muscle cells, which results in fluid retention in the cells.
During vigorous cycling, an athlete can burn between 600 and 1000 calories per hour, so this cyclist probably used more than 9000
calories in his 12-hour event. That is equal to the amount of energy needed to form almost three pounds of fat. He lost only two
pounds of fat because of the prodigious amount of food and drink he took in during the marathon. You can lose fat during a single
exercise session, but you have to be in extremely good shape and exercise for a very long time to accomplish this. For most
exercisers, true weight loss will be measured over weeks or months.
* Dear Dr. Mirkin: Are hot tubs and saunas helpful or harmful for exercisers?
For many years I have believed that heating muscles in a whirlpool or sauna after exercise interferes with muscle contractions and
hampers muscular endurance. However, a
study from the University of Otago in New Zealand shows that taking a sauna after workouts for three weeks helped athletes to
exercise longer to exhaustion (Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport / Sports Medicine Australia, August 2007).
Trained runners sat in a humid sauna for 30 minutes at 89.9 degrees centigrade immediately after exercising, 12 times in three
weeks. They then ran as hard as they could on a treadmill for about 15 minutes, to exhaustion. Sauna use increased run time to
exhaustion by 32 percent, which would equal an improvement of approximately two percent in a full-length endurance time trial. Their
blood volumes increased by more than seven percent, and higher blood volume increases endurance. If further research confirms these
findings, athletes will be advised to use saunas after their workouts for several weeks before competition.
From Dr. Gabe Mirkin's Fitness and Health E-Zine at: http://www.drmirkin.com
17. Staph at the Gym? Not if You're Careful:
THE news has been scary: a virulent strain of methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus, or MRSA, a staph bacterium usually
associated with hospitals and nursing homes, has been surfacing in other settings. In the last month, schools across the country
have reported outbreaks, some of them deadly.
The infection can be spread by a shared towel, razor or piece of sports equipment, or through skin-to-skin contact.
This may have fitness enthusiasts wondering if they can contract MRSA at a gym. Health officials say yes, although the risk is low.
Staph grows rapidly in warm, moist environments, but could potentially live on surfaces like the grips of exercise machines. "It's
still a healthy thing to work out, but people need to make sure they don't have any open sores on their body, and if they do, to
keep them covered," said Dr. Kent Aftergut, an assistant clinical instructor of dermatology at the University of Texas Southwestern
Medical Center in Dallas. He has treated about a half dozen patients who say they contracted staph at the gym.
Dr. Rachel Gorwitz, a medical epidemiologist at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in Atlanta, said 25 to 30 percent of
the general population carries staph in the nose (only 1 percent carry MRSA), but it normally does not cause an infection.
More...from the NY Times at:
18. Pyramid Scheme:
Terrence Mahon's Two-Week Training Cycles for the Marathon and Half Marathon.
The team will do three cycles of these two week schedules, punctuated by a test effort race at the end of each cycle. They'll
complete two or three six-week mesocycles leading up to a major marathon like London or Boston.
"We kind of do a pyramid within each six-week cycle," says Mahon, explaining that each six-week segment consists of three repeated,
yet subtly altered, two-week microcycles. The intervals become longer in each cycle and the length of the tempo runs and marathon
simulation workouts is increased. "Over the last two weeks," Mahon says, "we'll bring the distance back down but increase the
speed." The week preceding the test races is a modified taper, to give the runners a physical as well as a mental break from the
stress of high level training.
The Team USA members usually work out twice a day, with the key workout being performed in the morning and the afternoons designated
as recovery runs, a switch from traditional training practice. "We count minutes rather than miles," says Mahon, a practice dictated
in part by their training base in Mammoth Lakes, CA, located at an elevation of 8,000 feet. "I'm not big on running a ton of mileage
for its own sake," he continues. "I think it's more important to focus on your key workouts. For us mileage doesn't give us
confidence; that comes from the ability to hit workouts properly."
They also usually run their intervals on a measured road loop rather than a track. "If you're racing on the roads, you have to get
used to that kind of surface, its hardness as well as its undulations, when you run fast in practice," says Mahon.
In addition to the running workouts, the Team USA athletes do core strength training six days a week, and perform drills to work on
their running motor skills. Monday, Tuesday, Thursday and Friday they also do weight work. "We'll work on legs one day, arms the
next," says Mahon, noting that the runners perform only four or five exercises each session. "We do a lot less volume than other
More...from Running Times at:
19. A 6-step Plan to Speedy Marathon Recovery:
Congratulations, you've finished the marathon! Now what? Complete marathon recovery can take anywhere from several weeks to several
months, depending on the intensity of your race performance and your race-day recovery strategy. Truth is, post-marathon recovery is
inevitable, but the speed at which you recover can be drastically improved by following a few simple post-race tricks.
Six Steps to Speedy Marathon Recovery
Marathon recovery begins the minute you cross the finish line. Keep walking at least 10 minutes after you cross the finish line to
allow your body to return to its resting state gradually. Get your medal, take your photos, pick up your gear and keep walking. It
will allow your heart rate and blood flow to return to its normal state as well as reduce the risk of blood pooling in your legs
which can cause fainting. Get up and walk around 10-15 minutes every few hours for the rest of the day.
Refuel depleted muscles as soon as possible with a meal that includes carbohydrates, protein and sodium. Fuel is most efficiently
absorbed in the first 30-60 minutes post-race. A peanut butter and jelly sandwich, banana and sports drink is one example. If you
struggle with eating post-race, try a liquid recovery drink. Recovery drinks are formulated with everything you need to refuel your
body--carbohydrates, protein, electrolytes and fluid. A good ole can of V-8 or chocolate milk works well too.
More...from Active.com at:
20 Digest Briefs:
* The Stress Of Running Alone, Running In Groups Better For The Brain
Many people struggle to maintain a regular exercise schedule on their own, but do better when they exercise with friends. In rats,
exercising in groups is better for the brain as well, reports a study in the April issue of Nature Neuroscience.
Elizabeth Gould and colleagues study the effects of running on the generation of new neurons (neurogenesis) in the brains of adult
rats housed in groups and in isolation. The authors report that running increases neurogenesis only when rats were housed in groups.
However, in rats that run in social isolation, neurogenesis is suppressed.
Running caused similar elevations of the stress hormone corticosterone in isolated or group-housed rats, but only animals that ran
alone were vulnerable to the negative influence of corticosterone on neurogenesis.
Moreover, individually housed runners showed higher levels of corticosterone in response to additional stress when compared to
group-housed runners. Preventing the elevation in corticosterone levels in individually housed runners stimulated neurogenesis.
These results suggest that without social interaction, a normally beneficial experience can have negative effects on the brain.
Elizabeth Gould (Princeton University, Princeton, NJ, USA)
THIS WEEK'S FEATURED EVENTS:
*Please verify event dates with the event websites*
Check the Runner's Web FrontPage for links to the race sites.
November 3, 2007:
Ironman Florida - Panama City Beach, FL
Athlete Tracking from AT&T Wireless
U.S. Olympic Team Trials - Men's Marathon - New York, NY
2008 Beijing Olympic Games qualifier
NBC Sports Webcast
Television - NBC
2 p.m. EDT Olympic Trials Highlights
November 4, 2007:
Athens Classic Marathon - Athens, Greece
City of Santa Clarita Marathon - Santa Clarita, CA
Dinosaur Dash - Tustin, CA
ING NYC Marathon - New York, NY
Metro Silicon Valley Marathon - San Jose, CA
U.S. Half Marathon / 12K - San Francisco, CA
June 21, 2008
Emilie's Run - The Emilie Mondor Memorial 5K race for Women
For more complete race listings check out our Upcoming Races, and Calendars.
Check the Runner's Web on Sunday and Monday for race reports on these events at:
For Triathlon Coverage check out The Sports Network at:
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Forward the Runner's Web Digest to a friend and suggest that they subscribe at:
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