Runner's and Triathlete's Web - October 5, 2007
- A FREE WEEKLY E-ZINE OF MULTISPORT RELATED ARTICLES.
The Runner's and Triathlete's Web Digest is a weekly e-zine dealing with the sports of running and triathlon and general fitness and
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1. Emilie's Run - The Emilie Mondor Memorial 5K Race for Women - Canada's Fastest Women's 5K
The 2008 race will be held on Saturday, June 21.
In this year's race Paula Githuka of Hamilton held off a closing Nicole Stevenson of Toronto to win Emilie's Run - The Emilie Mondor
Memorial 5K in Ottawa. Githuka held a nine second lead at 3K which Stevenson whittled down to two by the finish line. Githuka won in
16:37 to Stevenson's 16:39. in 2006 - in the RunnersWeb5K Race for Women - Stevenson won in 16:28 over Emily Tallen of Kingston
who placed third this year in 16:55. This year 45 women ran under 20:00. For more on the race visit the website at:
Join Emilie's Run Community and contribute at:
3. Road Runner Sports, the world's largest running store at:
Check out their Perfect Fit Finder for running shoes.
4. Toronto Waterfront Marathon. September 30, 2007.
5. The Toronto Marathon, October 14, 2007
6. 26.2 with Donna:
The National Marathon to Fight Breast Cancer
"The only U.S. marathon dedicated solely to raising funds to end breast cancer."
February 17, 2008 8 a.m.
Location: Near Mayo Clinic
Beneficiaries: Donna Hicken Foundation and Mayo Clinic
Proceeds from the race will go directly to The Donna Hicken Foundation, a charitable organization dedicated to helping women with
breast cancer. While a portion of the proceeds will be used by the Donna Hicken Foundation for the critical care of breast cancer
survivors in need, the foundation has pledged to donate the majority of funds raised to Mayo Clinic for research and its
Multidisciplinary Breast Clinic, which specializes in the detection and treatment of breast cancer.
Visit the website at: http://www.breastcancermarathon.com
Sport massage has become an integral part of the new athletic regimen from after school athletics to high performance training.
With an athlete in mind SporteraT Sport preparations were developed. SporteraT Sport Lotions are designed to give an extra edge to
physically active persons and athletes at every level of training.
Complete workout routine includes not only the exercise itself, but also caring for the wear and tear and minor injuries that
naturally occur with strenuous movement. The nature of SporteraT Sport Lotions makes it ideal complement to a total training.
Anyone who routinely performs physical activities such as running, hiking, strength training, playing soccer, hockey, basketball,
and tennis will ultimately benefit from SporteraT Sport lotions.
SporteraT Lotions are designed to help the body prepare itself and recover from the stresses of all sports therefore improving
Visit their web site at:
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NEW THIS WEEK:
Watch the Chicago Marathon live at 8:30 AM (EDT) Sunday morning on WCSN at:
SweetskinsZ Bicycle Tires:
Nike Sports Essentials. Built to be the World's Greatest Sports Tee. Shop NikeStore.com
Women's workout gear. Work out. Chill out. Find Nike favorites at NikeStore.com
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RUNNER'S AND TRIATHLETE'S WEB CONTENT PARTNERS
RunnersWeb.com has teamed up with Active Trainer coaches to offer training programs that are a balance of aerobic, anaerobic and
cross-training workouts. These training programs are built to get people of all levels across the finish line. From the first timer
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Set a realistic goal for training. Review the list of training programs developed by Active Trainer Coaches. Select the program that
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Sign up at: www.RunnersWebCoach.com OR http://training.active.com/ActiveTrainer/listing.do?listing=51
* Sports Nutrition by Sheila Kealey.
Sheila is one of Ottawa's top multisport athletes and a member of the OAC Racing Team and X-C Ottawa. She has a Masters in Public
Health and works in the field of nutritional epidemiology as a Research Associate with the University of California, San Diego. Her
column index is available at:
* Carmichael Training Systems
Carmichael Training Systems was founded in 1999 by Chris Carmichael.
From the beginning, the mission of the company has been to improve the lives of individuals we work with through the application of
proper and effective fitness and competitive training techniques. Whether your focus is recreational, advanced, or you are a
professional racer, the coaching methodology employed by CTS will make you a better athlete. Check the latest monthly column from
CTS at: http://www.runnersweb.com/running/cts_columns.html.
Carmichael Training Systems at:
* Peak Performance Online
Peak Performance is a subscription-only newsletter for athletes, featuring the latest research from the sports science world. We
cover the whole range of sports, from running and rowing to cycling and swimming, and each issue is packed full of exclusive
information for anyone who's serious about sport. It's published 16 times a year, including four special reports, by Electric Word
plc. Peak Performance is not available in the shops - only our subscribers are able to access the valuable information we publish.
Check out our article archive from Peak Performance Online at:
Visit the PPO site at:
Peak Performance Online:
* Peak Running Performance
Peak Running Is The Nation's Most Advanced Running Newsletter. Rated as the #1 Running Publication by Road Runner Sports (Worlds
Largest Running Store) , Peak Running caters to the serious / dedicated runner. Delivering world class running advice are some of
running's most recognizable athletes including Dr. Joe Vigil (US Olympic Coach),
Scott Tinley (2 Time Ironman Champ) Steve Scott (3 Time Olympian) and many more. This bi-monthly newsletter has been around for over
13 years, and in the past two it has been awarded the "Golden Shoe Award" in recognition of it's outstanding achievements.
Check out the Peak Running article index at:
Running Research News:
RRN's free, weekly, training update provides subscribers with the most-current, practical, scientifically based information about
training, sports nutrition, injury prevention, and injury rehabilitation. The purpose of this weekly e-zine is to improve
subscribers' training quality and to help them train in an injury-free manner.
Running Research News also publishes a complete, 12-page, electronic newsletter 10 times a year (one-year subscriptions are $35); to
learn more about Running Research News, please see the Online Article Index and "About Running Research News" sections below or go
Check out the article index at:
THIS WEEK'S PERSONAL POSTINGS/RELEASES:
We will only post notes here regarding running and triathlon topics of interest to the community.
We have NO personal postings this week.
THIS WEEK'S DIGEST ARTICLE INDEX:
1. VO2max Newsletter-Jason Karp
2. Ultrafit's e-Tips
3. Sheila's Nutrition Digest Vol 16 - Superfoods for Athletes Series: Tomatoes
4. The Aerobic-Strength Balance
5. 'Good' chemical, neurons in brain elevated among exercise addicts
6. Joe Henderson's Running Commentary - Old Gold
7. Oxygen kinetics - start smart for a mean finish!
8. Creatine Combined With Resistance Exercise Boosts Strength In Older Adults
9. Is Your Taper Too Long
10. Using Hormones for Sport
11. Athletes increasingly turning to yoga for focus and flexibility
12. Dr. Gabe Mirkin's Fitness and Health e-Zine
13. The Martin Chronicles
The long running story of Dr. David Martin and the Elite Athlete Performance Lab.
14. This Week In Running
15. Feet Don't Fail Me Now (Think Mind Over Matter)
16. Protein Nutrition and Endurance Exercise: What Does Science Say?
17. The Physiology of Marathon Running
Just What Does Running a Marathon Do to Your Body?
18. It's Alive!
19. No pain, no gain ... and other workout myths
20. Digest Briefs
RUNNER'S WEB WEEKLY POLL:
"Assuming that Marion Jones admits to drug use in her court testimony, should she be stripped of her Olympic medals?"
You can access the poll from our FrontPage ( http://www.runnersweb.com) as well as checking the results of previous polls.
LAST WEEK'S POLL RESULTS:
"Which of the following marathons have you run?"
1. Boston 23%
2. Chicago 7%
3. Honolulu 18%
4. London 2%
5. Los Angeles 2%
6. Marine Corps 4%
7. New York 5%
8. Ottawa 27%
9. Other 13%
FIVE STAR SITE OF THE MONTH: SanyaRichards.net
Sanya Richards, The Fastest 400m Woman in U.S. History
She's fast, professional, beautiful and ready to have you watch her run with her website.
View Sanya Richards like you've never seen her before, enter her website.
Renowned for her ability to challenge a speeding bullet, Sanya Richards is the youngest woman ever to break the elusive 49-second
barrier at 400 meters. Her remarkable achievements include:
- 2006 World Female Athlete of the Year
- 400m American Record Holder - 48.70
- 3-time US Outdoor National Champion at 400m
- Olympic Gold Medalist (4x400m)
- Ranked #1 in the world in 2006 by the IAAF at 200 and 400m
- Undefeated at 400m in 2006
Check back regularly to see where Sanya is going to be next, view her most recent accomplishments, read her latest diary entries and
much, much more
Visit her web site at:
Our Photo Slideshow is updated on a random basis. Check it out from our FrontPage.
BOOK/VIDEO OF THE MONTH: Brain Training For Runners: A Revolutionary New Training System to Improve Endurance, Speed, Health, and
By Matt Fitzgerald
Based on new research in exercise physiology, author and running expert Matt Fitzgerald introduces a first-of-its-kind training
strategy that he's named "Brain Training." Runners of all ages, backgrounds, and skill levels can learn to maximize their
performance by supplying the brain with the right feedback. Based on Fitzgerald's eight-point brain training system, this book will
- Resist running fatigue
- Use cross-training as brain training
- Master the art of pacing
- Learn to run "in the zone"
- Outsmart injuries
- Fuel the brain for maximum performance
- And more
Packed with cutting-edge research, real-world examples, and the wisdom of the world's top distance runners, Brain Training for
Runners offers easily applied advice and delivers practical results for a better overall running experience.
About the Author
Matt Fitzgerald coaches online through TrainingPeaks.com and serves as a communications consultant to sports nutrition companies. A
former editor at several top fitness magazines, he is the author of numerous articles and books. He lives in Northern California
Buy the book from Amazon at:
For more publications on running and triathlon visit:
THIS WEEK'S FEATURES:
1. VO2max Newsletter-Jason Karp:
* Workout Speeds
(excerpted from Karp, J.R. The Errors of Our Running Ways. Running Times. July/Aug. 2006.)
One of the biggest errors runners make is running workouts at incorrect speeds. Run your workouts too fast, and you may not meet
the purpose of the workout. At the very least, you'll add unnecessary fatigue to your legs without extra benefit. For example, say
you want to improve your maximal rate of oxygen consumption (VO2max), and you plan to run mile repeats at the speed at VO2max (100
percent maximal heart rate). If running each mile in 5:30 elicits VO2max (and max heart rate), running each repeat in 5:15 will
certainly also elicit VO2max. But why run each mile in 5:15 when you can run it in 5:30 and still get the same benefit? Running
faster is not always better. On the other hand, if you run your workouts too slow, you may not obtain the desired benefit at all.
For example, research has shown that cardiovascular benefits are minimal when running below about 60 percent of your maximal heart
rate. As a coach, I've noticed that the most difficult type of workout to run at the correct pace is the lactate threshold (tempo)
run. Many runners, especially those who are inexperienced with this workout, have a difficult time holding back the pace and
finding their fastest sustainable aerobic pace.
To determine the correct pace, you must know the purpose of each workout. Running at the correct pace will more specifically target
the physiological variable you're trying to train, such as VO2max or lactate threshold. Since the goal of training is to obtain the
greatest benefit while incurring the least amount of stress, you want to run as slow as you can while still obtaining the desired
result. To optimize your training, follow these pacing guidelines:
~ Recovery and Long Runs: 1.5 to 2 minutes slower than 5K race pace; 65 to 75 percent max heart rate.
~ Lactate Threshold (Tempo) Runs: About 10 to 15 seconds per mile slower than 5K race pace (or about 10K race pace) for slower,
recreational runners (75 to 80 percent max heart rate); about 25 to 30 seconds per mile slower than 5K race pace (or about 15 to 20
seconds per mile slower than 10K race pace) for talented and highly-trained runners (85 to 90 percent max heart rate). The pace
should feel "comfortably hard."
~ Long Intervals (2 to 5 minutes): The speed at VO2max (about 3K race pace for highly-trained runners; between mile and 3K race
pace for less talented runners); reaching 95 to 100 percent max heart rate by the end of each work period.
~ Short Intervals (1 to 2 minutes): Mile race pace.
* Which Exercise Burns the Most Calories?
Want to burn lots of calories? Hop on the treadmill. A study published in Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, in which
subjects were free to select their own exercise intensity, found that oxygen consumption and caloric expenditure were significantly
greater during treadmill running than during stationary cycling, cross-country skiing on a NordicTrack, and aerobic riding on a
HealthRider. Heart rate was similar during treadmill running and cross-country skiing, but was lower during cycling and aerobic
riding. Although subjects reported a similar perceived exertion for treadmill running, cross-country skiing, and cycling, the
highest oxygen consumption and caloric expenditure occurred
during treadmill running.
* * To view past newsletters go to: http://www.runcoachjason.com/newsletter
Copyright Jason Karp All Rights Reserved - http://www.runcoachjason.com
2. Ultrafit's e-Tips:
* All Athletes: Endurance Research Study
A combined team from Spain, Norway and Wisconsin has concluded that a training diet that includes a greater proportion of
sub-threshold training significantly improved (28-percent greater reduction in running times) performance in experienced distance
runners compared to those who had a greater proportion of what you and I would call tempo (70-90 percent HR Max) training.
High-intensity training (above tempo pace) was the same in both groups. Only the proportions of low and tempo intensity training
While in itself the study speaks to the value of building a large endurance base, the conclusions that the researchers offered to
account for the difference in training results is telling. They conclude that when higher proportions of tempo training are included
in the mix at the expense of lower-intensity training, it may just be too hard on the athletes and interferes with proper adaptation
and responses to training.
Their "endurance" athletes were 5K track and 10K cross-country runners. If their observation is true for folks running at that
distance, do you think it might hold true at longer ultra-distances?
The take-homes are: The vast bulk of your training should be in Z1 and Z2. You do need some very intense training (Z5), but not too
much. The body adapts quite quickly to intense training. Tempo work should be at the same relative volume as intense training. This
is great news for masters athletes as we tend to train more in Z1 and Z2 anyway, but we do need some tempo and intense work to
maintain strength and power-just not too much.
Anthony C. "Woofie" Humpage is a Certified Strength and Conditioning Specialist and USA Triathlon Certified Coach who specializes in
the training of masters athletes for endurance and ultra-endurance sports. His focus blends performance enhancement with athletic
longevity. E-mail: mailto:woofie@....
* All Athletes: Transitioning to the Off-Season
Autumn is one of the nicest times of the year to ride or run. If you are one of those who can now look back at their "A" goal race
or event, it can be fun to be able to head out the door whenever you like, without the pressure of a "must-do" workout. At some
point though, once you are done with that last event, you might be left wondering what's next.
The athletes I coach complete a comprehensive Season Summary that helps us work together to assess the season so we can evaluate it
objectively. Here are three tips to have a productive transition to your off-season:
1. Ideally you will have stepped back and gotten enough total rest after your last "official" event to ensure that you are
physically and mentally ready to get the most from this period. Are you enthusiastically looking ahead? If not, you may need to take
another week or two completely off and see if your enthusiasm for training returns.
2. Allow enough time to "unload" the year's training from your legs. Right now would be a great time to commit to some Myofascial
Release using a Foam Roller to restore freshness and health to your muscles.
3. Shift your focus to learning a new skill or doing a completely different kind of activity that you would normally never do during
the season. Think outside of the box!
Use this transition phase to have some fun by using your residual fitness to embark on athletic endeavors that expand your horizons.
Whether it is focusing on improving a limiter to boost your base capability, or trying a new sport, get out there and enjoy!
Coach Al Lyman, CSCS, has a new DVD called RUNNER-CORE that contains the core and functional strength circuits you need to have a
stronger foundation so you can run faster and finish stronger! To learn more visit: http://runner-core.com/
e-Tips is published 12 times annually and posted online at www.ultrafit.com. e-Tips is a free publication. The goal of e-Tips is to
present Ultrafit's views on training, racing and nutrition for endurance athletes. The contents are not intended as personal
recommendations for individual athletes, and are only suggestions. For medical advice, and before starting a strenuous training
program, consult with your physician.
3. Sheila's Nutrition Digest Vol 16 - Superfoods for Athletes Series: Tomatoes:
By Sheila Kealey
Sheila's Nutrition Digest
In this series, XC Ottawa (and OAC Racing Team) member Sheila Kealey will help athletes choose the best foods for performance and
overall health. Sheila has a Masters in Public Health and works in the field of nutritional epidemiology as a Research Associate
with the University of California, San Diego.
"Superfoods" is a popular tem these days, coined to define foods dense in nutrients, vitamins, minerals, and protective
phytochemicals. Phytochemicals are compounds that keep plants healthy and help protect them from disease, and studies are revealing
that eating a diet with plenty of phytochemical-rich foods may benefit humans as well, by helping protect us from the ravaging
effects of free radicals, inflammation, and other factors that may compromise our health, immunity, and athletic performance.
In this series, I'll cover a variety of foods with healing properties, and give you tips on how to incorporate these foods into your
Here's a vegetable that is plentiful in markets at this time of year . . .
Who can resist a juicy, red, ripe tomato off the vine? Whether fresh or cooked, you can enjoy this incredibly versatile fruit in
salsas, sauces, soups, and main dishes. In addition, tomatoes contain a host of compounds that may help improve your immune function
and fight a number of ailments and conditions.
More...from the Runner's Web at:
4. The Aerobic-Strength Balance:
Kenneth H. Cooper, M.D., M.P.H.
Tyler C. Cooper, M.D., M.P.H.
With William Proctor
Both aerobics (endurance) and strength training should be a part of every person's fitness program - and aerobic exercise should
constitute at least 50 percent of a weekly workout schedule, no matter your age. In other words, you should include endurance
training such as walking, jogging, cycling, and swimming, plus muscle-building exercises. The muscle-building component might
involve calisthenics, such as push-ups, sit-ups, and pull-ups, or weight training of various types.
The aerobic or cardio respiratory endurance component of your exercise is extremely important because of scientifically proven
health and longevity benefits, which may not be associated with other types of exercise. For example, studies in many scientific
centers, including our own Cooper Institute, have demonstrated clearly that the more fit you are - as measured by treadmill
stress-test times for fitness - the lower your risk will be for mortality from all causes.1 In other words, the higher your level of
aerobic fitness, the less likely you are to die prematurely from a heart attack, cancer, diabetes, or any other cause.*
But as you grow older, the proportion of strength work should increase. In other words, you should do more strength work and less
aerobic work - but always keep in mind that by the time you turn 60, your aerobic exercise should still constitute at least half of
A major reason for this shift is that as you age, your bone density naturally declines and may put you at risk for osteoporosis. All
weight-bearing exercise, including different types of strength training, will help you ward off osteoporosis by building up your
bone mass. This danger of bone-thinning disease is especially serious for older women who are small-boned or have other risk
factors, such as a fair complexion, northern European or Asian ethnic background, low percentage of body fat, and family history of
bone disease. But the risk of a bone-loss disease is also very real for many men who are in their 60s or older.
In addition to helping ward off the osteoporosis threat, strength training is quite important to help older people maintain their
ability to function well when confronted with tasks that require unusual muscle exertion. The better shape your muscles are in, the
lower your risk of pulling or straining a muscle. Also, by keeping your muscles in shape, you'll be less likely to lose functioning
ability as a result of the natural process of aging. Among other things, you'll maintain better balance and thus be less likely to
take a dangerous fall.
When we speak to audiences packed with older people, we often say, "If, at 60 years of age, you're a person who concentrates almost
exclusively on aerobic conditioning, you may be able to run five miles in 40 minutes. But, you may also find that you can't pick up
a sack of groceries without straining your back. So it's essential to combine weight or resistance training with aerobic activity as
To head off such health threats, we advocate the following aerobic-strength training balance:
~ If you're 40 years old or younger, devote 80 percent of your workout time to aerobic training and 20 percent to strength training.
~ If you're 41 to 50 years old, shift to 70 percent aerobic and 30 percent strength work.
~ If you're 51 to 60, do 60 percent aerobic exercise and 40 percent strength training.
~ After you pass 60, divide your workout time more evenly between the two strategies - while still giving an edge to aerobic
exercise, which provides the most health benefits: 55 percent aerobic work and 45 percent strength work.
With this overview in mind, let's take a closer look at what your start-up program should actually include in the way of both
aerobic exercise and strength training.
Here are some specific thoughts about aerobic activity, strength training, and stretching for the beginner. Some of the exercises,
such as the calisthenics and the stretching movements, can be used by beginners and by more advanced exercises.
Your Start-Up Fitness Plan in a Nutshell
When you finally settle on your personal fitness program, the end product should fit into this basic daily model - which you are
certainly free to adjust as your endurance and strength increase:
~ Five minutes of warming up with walking or running in place, continuous stretching, or light calisthenics, such as jumping jacks.
~ Thirty to 40 minutes of aerobic activity or strength work each day. (About three to five days per week should be devoted to
aerobic exercise, two to three days to strength work.
Alternatively, instead of devoting a separate day to strength work, the strength phase can be added after a particular day's aerobic
~ Five minutes of cooling down, typically involving walking, continuous stretching, or light calisthenics.
*In recent years, the term "cardio exercise" has sometimes been used interchangeably with "aerobic exercise." But the "cardio" term
is something of a misnomer because it may suggest that endurance exercise has only cardiovascular (heart and blood vessels)
benefits. In fact, our studies and those of other scientists show that aerobic (endurance) exercise provides health and longevity
benefits that go well beyond the cardiovascular.
1. Blair el al. JAMA, 1989.
This excerpt comes from Start Strong, Finish Strong, the newly published book (The Penguin Group, New York) by Dr. Kenneth Cooper
and Dr. Tyler Cooper. http://www.coopercomplete.com/store/detail/222.php
For more health articles visit www.CooperComplete.com
5. 'Good' chemical, neurons in brain elevated among exercise addicts:
But OHSU researcher says jump in BDNF, neurogenesis may not be beneficial
PORTLAND, Ore. (USA) - Exercise enthusiasts have more reasons to put on their running shoes in the morning, but an Oregon Health &
Science University scientist says they shouldn't step up their work-outs just yet.
A study published today in the journal Neuroscience, journal of the International Brain Research Organization, confirmed that
exercise increases the chemical BDNF - brain-derived neurotrophic factor - in the hippocampus, a curved, elongated ridge in the
brain that controls learning and memory. BDNF is involved in protecting and producing neurons in the hippocampus.
'When you exercise, it's been shown you release BDNF,' said study co-author Justin Rhodes, Ph.D., a postdoctoral fellow in the
Department of Behavioral Neuroscience at OHSU's School of Medicine and at the Veterans Administration Medical Center in Portland.
'BDNF helps support and strengthen synapses in the brain. We find that exercise increases these good things.'
Mice bred for 30 generations to display increased voluntary wheel running behavior - an 'exercise addiction' - showed higher amounts
of BDNF than normal, sedentary mice. In fact, the BDNF concentration in the active mice increased by as much as 171 percent after
seven nights of wheel running.
'These mice are more active than wild mice,' Rhodes said, referring to the mice as small and lean, and seemingly 'addicted' to
exercise. 'Wheel running causes a huge amount of activity in the hippocampus. The more running, the more BDNF.'
In a study Rhodes also co-authored that extends these findings, to be published in the October edition of the American Psychological
Association journal Behavioral Neuroscience, scientists demonstrated that not only do the mice display more of this 'good' BDNF
chemical in the hippocampus, they grow more neurons there as well.
More...from Medical News Today at:
6. Joe Henderson's Running Commentary - Old Gold:
Three key factors made the golden agers of U.S. marathoning faster in depth than any group of Americans in the past 25 years: (1)
they didn't wait too long to start racing marathons; (2) they ran with abandon, and (3) they raced mostly for free.
STARTING "TOO SOON." An old idea, which should have died in the golden age, has taken root again in recent decades. It's the myth
that marathoning is a refuge for aging and slowing runners -- that it's their parents' and grandparents' event, not one for a young
speedster to try.
Young runners are urged to wait. Exploit their speed first, because the marathon will kill it. Once a marathoner, there's no turning
back to the track.
Oh, no? How about Billy Mills? He qualified for the 1964 Olympic Marathon before making the 10,000-meter team, and ran the long race
in Tokyo after winning the short one.
Alberto Salazar set American track records for 5000 and 10,000 meters after running his world-best marathon. Frank Shorter placed
fifth in the Munich Olympic 10,000 -- a week before winning the marathon there.
Shorter and Bill Rodgers both qualified for the 10,000 at the Montreal Games (but neither ran that event there), after going 1-2 in
the Marathon Trials. Joan Benoit ran internationally in cross-country and track while in her marathon prime.
These five runners are venerated elders in the sport now, but were in their 20s during their golden ages. Mills turned 26 in his
golden year. Benoit won her Bostons at 21 and 25, and her gold medal at 27. Shorter was 24 when he won at Munich.
More...from Joe Henderson at:
7. Oxygen kinetics - start smart for a mean finish!
The way your body transports and uses oxygen during the initial stages of vigorous exercise might not sound very exciting, but new
research suggests that understanding this process and adjusting your pre-race preparation accordingly can result in truly remarkable
performance gains. Professor Andy Jones explains
Endurance sports rely primarily on oxidative (aerobic) metabolism for energy supply. It's not surprising therefore that factors
related to oxygen (O2) transport and consumption such as the maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), economy of movement, and the fraction
of the VO2max that can be sustained without a significant accumulation of lactate in the blood (the lactate threshold, LT) are
important determinants of endurance exercise performance.
These parameters of aerobic fitness are typically measured during an incremental-type exercise test in which the exercise intensity
is very low to begin with but then increases progressively until the athlete is unable to continue, and they can provide invaluable
information on various aspects of physiological function and the responses to training. However, the manner in which the work rate
is imposed during these tests does not accurately reflect the metabolic loading that an athlete will experience at the start of an
endurance competition. That's because at the beginning of a race, an athlete will be required to accelerate up to race pace within
just a few seconds. The energetic consequences of this abrupt increase in energy turnover in the working muscles can be profound.
More...from Peak Performance Online at:
8. Creatine Combined With Resistance Exercise Boosts Strength In Older Adults:
If you are an 'older adult' and take creatine as well as doing exercise you may well enjoy greater benefits than just doing the
exercise, say researchers from McMaster University, Canada. One of the common consequences of growing older is an increase in body
fat and lowering of muscle mass, say the researchers.
You can slow down the loss of muscle mass by doing exercise, say the scientists. Dr. Mark Tarnopolsky, a professor of pediatrics and
medicine, and team carried out a study which showed that if you take a combination of creatine monohydrate (CrM) and conjugated
linoleic acid (CLA) along with resistance exercise training the results will be greater still.
You can read about this study in PLoS ONE, the peer-reviewed online journal of the Public Library of Science, October 3rd issue.
This randomized double blind trial included 20 women and 19 men; they were all at least 65 years old. The program of regular
resistance exercise training lasted six months. Some of the participants received a daily supplement of creatine and linoleic acid,
while other received a placebo. Participants in both groups did exactly the same exercise program.
More...from Medical News Today at:
9. Is Your Taper Too Long:
It could be, say many coaches, pointing out that today's lower-mileage training plans don't necessitate the long, gradual tapers of
old. Here's what you need to know.
If you looked at Peter Gilmore's training log in the weeks leading up to the 2006 Boston Marathon, you might wonder what the guy was
thinking. Four weeks out, 150 miles, followed by weeks of 130, 107, and 85 miles. Even by elite standards, those totals were high;
most top runners drop to around 70 miles the week before an event.
Why was Gilmore tapering so little? Because of a conversation he had with another elite, Brian Sell, three months earlier at the
Houston Half-Marathon. The two Americans had had distinctly different races: Sell won, while Gilmore struggled through the entire
13.1 miles. At the finish, the runners found themselves comparing tapering notes. "Brian told me he'd been cutting his mileage back
less, and as a result didn't feel like crap anymore," says Gilmore, who had felt stale and sluggish. "A lightbulb went on in my
head. I'd been changing my natural state by cutting my miles too drastically."
So in the three weeks leading up to Boston, Gilmore trimmed his weekly mileage by 35 percent--not the 55 percent he normally would.
The result? He shaved one minute and 17 seconds off his personal record with a 2:12:45.
Gilmore has joined the growing ranks of elite runners who have found that maintaining a higher volume during the taper period can
give you a better chance of peaking on race day. "The problem with a big cut in mileage," says Greg McMillan, an exercise
physiologist and coach of elite and recreational runners in Flagstaff, Arizona, "is that your body gets used to being on vacation."
Gilmore's coach, Jack Daniels, Ph.D., puts it more bluntly: "You can taper too much."
More...from Runner's World at:
10. Using Hormones for Sport:
Both professional and non-professional athletes take performance-enhancing drugs. They can be dietary supplements, growth hormone,
anabolic steroids or designer compounds that escape detection by doping tests. These substances affect muscle strength, endurance
and the ability to pump blood, oxygenate muscles and breathe. They are sometimes called roids, stacks, andro and juice. Doctors say
that these drugs can cause serious side effects such as low sperm count, breast enlargement, carpal tunnel syndrome and can decrease
good HDL cholesterol and put people at risk for cardiovascular disease, heart attacks and even death.
More...from Science Daily at:
11. Athletes increasingly turning to yoga for focus and flexibility:
Yoga is spreading its wings.
According to the 2005 Yoga in America study sponsored by Yoga Journal magazine, Americans spend $2.95 billion annually on yoga
classes and products, and 16.5 million U.S. adults practice yoga -- 77.1 percent of whom are women and 22.9 percent men.
Yoga has become as mainstream as mochas, but much more effective across the spectrum of athletics. Enthusiasts in sports from golf
to tennis, surfing and triathlon are turning to yoga as part of their training.
Just ask golf superstar Tiger Woods or tennis queen Venus Williams, pro soccer player Cobi Jones or Indy Car Series driver Danica
Patrick -- all yoga practitioners.
Or just ask golfer John Oertel, 60, of Merritt Island.
"Flexibility is really the main thing that I get out of yoga that applies to golf," said the NASA retiree. "Being able to turn,
being able to squat down and read a putt and get back up. I've got to feel that it's helped."
Oertel averages about three Bikram yoga sessions a week and also finds the breathing element important.
More...from Florida Today at:
12. Dr. Gabe Mirkin's Fitness and Health e-Zine:
* Strengthen Muscles at Any Age
You are never too old to enlarge and strengthen your muscles. A study from Copenhagen, Denmark shows that just 12 weeks of
lifting weights significantly strengthened the muscles of men 85 to 97 years of age (Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in
Sports, August 2007). After 12 weeks of training, the cross sectional circumference of their quad muscles in the front of their
upper legs increased by 10 percent, and muscle strength increased by 35 to 50 percent. Furthermore, the muscle fibers that are used
for strength and speed increased significantly.
Frailty in old age is caused by lack of exercise, not just by growing old. With aging, you lose nerves. Each nerve is
attached to a single muscle fiber, so as you lose muscle fibers you become weaker. Older people who exercise against resistance can
enlarge their muscle fibers. This counteracts the effects of losing fibers and they can retain a significant amount of strength.
People with weak hearts can suffer heart damage with vigorous exercise. Before an older person starts an exercise program,
it may be wise to check with a doctor to make sure that the heart is sound. The most dependable heart test is a thallium stress
test. Then engage a personal trainer to teach the person how to exercise on a series of individual weight lifting machines that
stress different muscle groups. Usually the recommended program involves going to each machine and lifting and lowering the weight
on that machine in a single set of three to ten repetitions. Most people can do this three or more times a week.
From Dr. Gabe Mirkin's Fitness and Health E-Zine at: http://www.drmirkin.com
13. The Martin Chronicles:
The long running story of Dr. David Martin and the Elite Athlete Performance Lab.
The drab yellow brick exterior of old Kell Hall on the Georgia State University campus in downtown Atlanta belies the significance
of what has gone on within. Slated for demolition in a couple years, the physically undistinguished edifice is a familiar sight to
scores of elite American distance runners and a handful of foreign athletes, all of whom have slipped through its doors with some
frequency over the past three decades. And they all came for the same reason: to visit Dr. Dave.
"Dave's like a brother, a dad and a granddad all rolled into one" says Keith Brantly, the athlete David Martin worked with more than
any other. "I don't think I could have found a better mentor and friend in my life. He gets credit for everything that I ever did in
my running career." Heartfelt praise such as this is heard time and again from those who have come into contact with Martin, someone
who works mostly in the background to bring American distance running to the forefront. His influence has been nothing short of
Now 68 and Regents Professor Emeritus at GSU's College of Allied Health Sciences, Martin's interest in running began when he
participated in intramural cross country during his undergraduate days at the University of Wisconsin. There he received a B.S. in
zoology in 1961 and continued to complete an M.S. in education, which led him to start teaching biology, chemistry and physics at
Madison's Wisconsin High School. But when offered a Ford Foundation fellowship, Martin eagerly accepted and entered medical school,
completing two years of basic medical science followed by five years of research to earn a Ph.D. in physiology.
Just as he was completing his Ph.D. dissertation, Martin was recruited to join the faculty at Georgia State University's College of
Health Sciences. He would not have predicted that he'd still be in Atlanta four decades later, but in fact Martin has never
seriously considered leaving. He set up his lab in Kell Hall in the fall of 1970 and began teaching courses in pulmonary,
cardiovascular and exercise physiology. Combined interests in track and field, scientific research and wellness medicine naturally
pointed Martin in the direction of assisting elite athletes. "I had already been asking myself why athletes so often seemed to be
injured," he says. "The term 'healthy athlete' to me was almost an oxymoron." For more than three decades his work has not only kept
runners healthy, it has made them faster.
More...from Running Times at:
14. This Week In Running:
10 Years Ago- Elijah Lagat (KEN) won the Berlin (GER) Marathon by a two second margin
over Eric Kimaiyo (KEN), 2:07:41 to 2:07:43. Sammy Lelei (2:08:00) and
Jackson Kipngok (2:08:36) completed a Kenyan sweep of the first four places.
Ronaldo daCosta (BRA) was 5th in 2:09:07; the next year at Berlin, daCosta
would lower the WR to 2:06:05. Catharina McKiernan (IRL) won the women's
race in 2:23:44 with Madina Biktagirova (RUS) next in 2:24:46 and Marleen
Renders (BEL) 3rd in 2:26:18.
20 Years Ago- Jon Sinclair (USA) won the Virginia (VA/USA) 10M in 47:19, defeating Nick
Rose and Stephen Binns, both ENG, who ran 47:37 and 47:51 respectively.
Anne Audain (NZL) won the women's race in 54:56 with Teresa Ornduff (USA)
just three seconds back. 43-year old Priscilla Welch (ENG) took 3rd with
30 Years Ago- Veli Balli (TUR) won the Balkan Games (TUR) Marathon in 2:22:56. The silver
ad bronze medalists are needed for the ARRS website.
40 Years Ago- Ivailo Charankov (BUL) won the Balkan Games (TUR) Marathon in 2:24:52.0.
The silver and bronze medals went to Ismail Akcay (TUR) and Nikola Simeonov
(BUL) who ran 2:25:10.6 and 2:27:07.4 respectively.
50 Years Ago- Pavel Kantorek (CZE) won the Bechovice-Prague (CZE) 10K in 32:45.6.
From The Analytical Distance Runner, the newsletter for the Association of Road Racing Statisticians with a
focus on races, 3000m and longer, including road, track, and cross-country events.
The ARRS has a website at http://www.arrs.net.
15. Feet Don't Fail Me Now (Think Mind Over Matter):
IF Matt Fitzgerald was your coach, he would have you running against the grain. Squat jumps would be a weekly must: Crouch down.
Leap into the air. Repeat.
To increase your running speed, he occasionally would have you deliberately pound the ground to prevent overstriding. And, every
once in a while, he would recommend doing an extra-long run without ingesting Gatorade or energy gels.
No doubt Mr. Fitzgerald, a 36-year-old running coach and racer who has written seven training books in the last four years, three
for Runner's World, gives unconventional advice. That is because his exercises are not meant to train your body. They are aimed at
training your brain.
If you can change the way your brain interprets the signals your body sends, such as the all-too-familiar "My quads are killing me,"
then you will not slow down, Mr. Fitzgerald said. Instead, you'll soldier on.
The workouts he creates for the more than 700 clients on TrainingPeaks.com, an endurance coaching site for runners, cyclists and
triathletes, are based on the so-called central governor model, a controversial exercise theory that has been a source of debate
among exercise physiologists for decades.
More...from the NY Times at:
16. Protein Nutrition and Endurance Exercise: What Does Science Say?
Athletes, coaches and scientists have recognized for decades that training and nutrition are highly interrelated when it comes to
improving performance. An accumulating body of scientific evidence now confirms that nutrition can profoundly influence the
molecular and cellular processes that occur in muscle during exercise and recovery.1 This brief review analyzes the potential for
performance enhancement through protein ingestion, whether during activity or by enhancing muscle recovery.
Protein Ingestion During Exercise
A properly formulated carbohydrate-electrolyte beverage (CEB) improves performance during exercise primarily because of two key
ingredients: carbohydrate (CHO), which provides fuel for working muscles, and sodium, which helps to maintain fluid balance.2
Recently, two studies suggested that adding a small amount of protein (~2% whey protein) to a CEB produced improvements in endurance
capacity compared to the sports drink alone.3,4 However, the practical relevance of these studies is hampered by the way the
research was conducted. First, the rate of CHO delivered in the CEB was less than what is considered optimal for performance2; and
second, the method of the performance test (exercise time to fatigue) did not mimic the manner in which athletes typically compete.
In a recent study5, we addressed these issues by having trained cyclists ingest a CEB during exercise at a rate considered optimal
for CHO delivery (60 gram per hour), and perform a task that closely simulated athletic competition.
Subjects performed an 80-km cycling time trial on three occasions and drank either a 6% CHO blend, a 6% CHO + 2% whey-protein blend,
or a sweetened placebo. All of the subjects consumed the solutions at a rate of 1 liter per hour. The study was "double blind"
meaning neither the athletes nor the researchers knew what drink was consumed during a given trial. The study was also
counterbalanced so that the order in which the subjects received the three treatments was systematically varied to prevent
test-order bias. The trials determined that the average performance time was identical during the CHO and CHO+protein trials
(roughly 135 min) and both were significantly faster (by approximately 4%) than the placebo trial (141 min). This study5
demonstrated that when athletes ingested a CEB during exercise at a rate considered optimal for CHO delivery, protein provided no
additional performance benefit during an event that simulated "real life" competition.
More...from the GSSI at:
17. The Physiology of Marathon Running:
Just What Does Running a Marathon Do to Your Body?
Running a marathon has been viewed, and still is by many, as too extreme to be healthy. Certainly, the physical stress of running a
marathon played some role in not holding a women's Olympic marathon race until 1984. On the flip side, casual runners think that if
a pampered celebrity can run a marathon, it can't be all that strenuous. While marathon running is far from damaging, it should be
respected for the physiological stress inflicted over its 26.2 miles.
For example, running a five-minute-per-mile marathon requires a 15-fold increase in energy production for over two hours. Even
runners who finish in over four hours maintain a 10-fold increase in their metabolism. Such extended energy demands require the
cardiorespiratory, endocrine, and neuromuscular systems to operate at an elevated level for an inordinate length of time. It is no
wonder then that the story of Pheidippides and his marathon run to Athens easily grew into a tragic tale about how running a
marathon killed the first person to do so. Fortunately, scientists have researched the physiological stresses of running a marathon.
The findings from such studies can help potential marathon runners better appreciate what they will be up against and remind
seasoned marathon runners just how amazing the human body is.
The physiology on marathon running starts with Pheidippides, who reputedly ran from the plains of Marathon to the city of Athens to
report the victory of the Athenian army over the Persians. Upon his arrival, Pheidippides exclaimed, "Rejoice, we conquer" and
dropped dead-or did he? The accuracy of this account has been questioned by modern scholars (Martin and Gynn 2000); however, the
unfortunate outcome of Pheidippides is manifested in a few marathon runners every year. Just how stressful to the human body is
running a marathon? This and other questions regarding marathon running were addressed at The Marathon: Physiological, Medical,
Epidemiological, and Psychological Studies conference in 1976. The boldest theory regarding marathon running was made by Dr. Tom
Bassler (1977), who suggested that the stress of running a marathon built immunity to the development of fatty deposits within
coronary arteries. In other words, running a marathon prevents coronary artery disease (CAD). Bassler compared marathon runners to
the heart-disease-free Masai warriors and Tarahumara Indians in that they all maintain active lifestyles, eat healthy diets, and
have enlarged and wide-bore coronary arteries.
After reviewing the cause of death in marathon runners from the previous 10 years, Bassler claimed that "there have been no reports
of fatal, histologically proven, [CAD] deaths among 42K men." While he noted that some runners have died while running marathons, he
concluded that these deaths were due to other factors such as nonatherosclerotic heart diseases (such as myocarditis or coronary
spasms), congenital abnormalities, hyperthermia, or undertraining. To his credit, Bassler also acknowledged that a low-fat diet and
abstention from smoking play important roles in developing immunity to heart disease. Bassler concluded that whether running a
marathon offered absolute protection from CAD would be proven within the following 10 years.
More...from Marathon and Beyond at:
18. It's Alive!
By Lindsay Langford, CTS Coach and Sports Dietitian
The idea of willfully introducing any bacteria into our foods would usually churn our stomachs. But that's what we do every time we
scoop out a spoonful of yogurt and eat it. And not only do these live organisms not affect us, they actually make us thrive.
Scientists attribute yogurt's benefits to the ability of these live and active cultures (LAC), or probiotics, to create an acidic
environment that inhibits the formation of harmful bacteria. In effect the bacteria in yogurt obliterates any foreign nasties lodged
in your gut-the kind that can lead to chronic or acute diarrhea. In fact, studies have shown that feeding yogurt to children and
adults with diarrhea will speed recovery.
Yogurt is even beneficial to those who are lactose intolerant. These people can't digest milk-based products because they lack the
enzyme "lactase" which breaks down milk's form of carbohydrate. But yogurt actually produces the lactase enzyme during fermentation,
making the milk easier to digest and making the benefits of the LAC, calcium, and protein available to them.
More...from CTS at:
19. No pain, no gain ... and other workout myths:
Celebrity trainer Harley Pasternak separates fitness facts from fiction.
We've all heard the expression "No pain, no gain," but did you know that's actually not true? Author and celebrity trainer Harley
Pasternak dispels this and some other common fitness myths:
Myth: No pain, no gain
Fact: Many people think if their muscles don't hurt, they're not having a quality workout. This is way off base. While resistance
training can be intense, and some level of discomfort may occur, pain is not required for a successful workout. It's also important
to note that pain can be a warning sign of an exhausted muscle or torn ligament.
Myth: Stretching before a workout will reduce the risk of injury.
Fact: The British Medical Journal published an article in 2002 in which researchers determined that available evidence does not
support the role of stretching in preventing muscle soreness after exercise or in reducing risk of injury. It's a controversial
finding, but a theory Pasternak subscribes to; he rarely, if ever, stretches with his clients.
More...from MSNBC at:
20 Digest Briefs:
* Question: Is it really necessary to take daily vitamins?
Answer: There's no evidence that vitamin supplements help most people stay healthy, and vitamin deficiency is very rare in this
country. Daily vitamins might be beneficial to some people who are on a very low-calorie diet, who are vegetarian, or women who are
pregnant. Since nutrition science has only identified a fraction of the nutrients humans need, supplements can only provide those
vitamins and minerals that are known. It's best to get nutrients from a variety of fresh foods, which can contain some nutrients
science hasn't even named yet. Fat soluble vitamins, like Vitamin A, are stored in the body for future use, and so too much can
build up to a toxic amount. Many other vitamins simply get excreted from the body as waste, so, in general, it's best not to exceed
100% of the daily recommended intake.
-- Susan Brink, Health section staff writer, LA Times
* "The Kenyan runners who always win marathons never jog," says pro soccer player LANDON DONOVAN. So Donovan trains at 80 percent
of his maximum heart rate until he's exhausted, teaching his body "recovery endurance" through a sequence of sprints and rests. Over
time, you'll still need to give your body a break to optimize gains (see Train with a Plan, below), but this ability to push
yourself to the brink of collapse and recover quickly is essential for top aerobic athletes.
* TO GET FASTER, YOU MUST PUSH YOURSELF
"A runner churning out seven-minute miles will never know how quickly his arms and legs have to move to run a six-minute mile. You
can't practice by running slow." -MARK VERSTEGEN, Athletes' Performance founder, author of the Core Performance series.
THIS WEEK'S FEATURED EVENTS:
*Please verify event dates with the event websites*
Check the Runner's Web FrontPage for links to the race sites.
October 6, 2007:
Fall Colours Duathlon - Cumberland, ON
Grete's Great Gallop Half Marathon - New York, NY
Television - 2 p.m. EDT
Track and Field on CBC: IAAF World Athletics Final
CBC - 4 - 6 EDT
2-hour Highlights show of Scotiabank Toronto Waterfront Marathon
Webcast on www.cbcsports.ca
October 7, 2007:
Army Ten-Miler - Washington, DC
BAA Half-Marathon - Boston, MA
Disney Race for the Taste 10K - Orlando, FL
Lasalle Bank Chicago Marathon - Chicago, IL
Watch Live in WCSN
Medtronic Twin Cities Marathon & TC 10 Mile - Minneapolis, MN
USA Masters Championship & USA Men's 10 Mile Championship
Melbourne Marathon - Australia
Milwaukee Lakefront Marathon - Milwaukee, WI
Mohawk-Hudson River Marathon - Schenectady, NY
Mt. Rushmore Marathon - Black Hills, SD
Ottawa Fall Colours Marathon, Half, 5/10K - Cumberland, ON
Portland Marathon - Portland, OR
Royal Victoria Marathon - Victoria, BC
October 8, 2007:
Tufts Health Plan 10K for Women, Boston, MA
USA Women's Championship / USARC Finale
June 21, 2008
Emilie's Run - The Emilie Mondor Memorial 5K race for Women
For more complete race listings check out our Upcoming Races, and Calendars.
Check the Runner's Web on Sunday and Monday for race reports on these events at:
For Triathlon Coverage check out The Sports Network at:
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