Runner's and Triathlete's Web Digest - September 7, 2007
- A FREE WEEKLY E-ZINE OF MULTISPORT RELATED ARTICLES.
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1. Emilie's Run - The Emilie Mondor Memorial 5K Race for Women - Canada's Fastest Women's 5K
The 2008 race will be held on Saturday, June 21.
In this year's race Paula Githuka of Hamilton held off a closing Nicole Stevenson of Toronto to win Emilie's Run - The Emilie Mondor
Memorial 5K in
Ottawa this morning. Githuka held a nine second lead at 3K which Stevenson whittled down to two by the finish line. Githuka won in
16:37 to Stevenson's 16:39. Last year - in the RunnersWeb5K Race for Women - Stevenson won in 16:28 over Emily Tallen of Kingston
who placed third this year in 16:55. 45 women ran under 20:00. For more on the race visit the website at: http://www.emiliesrun.com.
Join Emilie's Run Community and contribute at:
3. Road Runner Sports, the world's largest running store at:
Check out their Perfect Fit Finder for running shoes.
4. Toronto Waterfront Marathon. September 30, 2007.
5. The Toronto Marathon, October 14, 2007
6. 26.2 with Donna:
The National Marathon to Fight Breast Cancer
"The only U.S. marathon dedicated solely to raising funds to end breast cancer."
February 17, 2008 8 a.m.
Location: Near Mayo Clinic
Beneficiaries: Donna Hicken Foundation and Mayo Clinic
Proceeds from the race will go directly to The Donna Hicken Foundation, a charitable organization dedicated to helping women with
breast cancer. While a portion of the proceeds will be used by the Donna Hicken Foundation for the critical care of breast cancer
survivors in need, the foundation has pledged to donate the majority of funds raised to Mayo Clinic for research and its
Multidisciplinary Breast Clinic, which specializes in the detection and treatment of breast cancer.
Visit the website at: http://www.breastcancermarathon.com
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RUNNER'S AND TRIATHLETE'S WEB CONTENT PARTNERS
RunnersWeb.com has teamed up with Active Trainer coaches to offer training programs that are a balance of aerobic, anaerobic and
cross-training workouts. These training programs are built to get people of all levels across the finish line. From the first timer
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Sign up at: www.RunnersWebCoach.com OR http://training.active.com/ActiveTrainer/listing.do?listing=51
* Sports Nutrition by Sheila Kealey.
Sheila is one of Ottawa's top multisport athletes and a member of the OAC Racing Team and X-C Ottawa. She has a Masters in Public
Health and works in the field of nutritional epidemiology as a Research Associate with the University of California, San Diego. Her
column index is available at:
* Carmichael Training Systems
Carmichael Training Systems was founded in 1999 by Chris Carmichael.
From the beginning, the mission of the company has been to improve the lives of individuals we work with through the application of
proper and effective fitness and competitive training techniques. Whether your focus is recreational, advanced, or you are a
professional racer, the coaching methodology employed by CTS will make you a better athlete. Check the latest monthly column from
CTS at: http://www.runnersweb.com/running/cts_columns.html.
Carmichael Training Systems at:
* Peak Performance Online
Peak Performance is a subscription-only newsletter for athletes, featuring the latest research from the sports science world. We
cover the whole range of sports, from running and rowing to cycling and swimming, and each issue is packed full of exclusive
information for anyone who's serious about sport. It's published 16 times a year, including four special reports, by Electric Word
plc. Peak Performance is not available in the shops - only our subscribers are able to access the valuable information we publish.
Check out our article archive from Peak Performance Online at:
Visit the PPO site at:
Peak Performance Online:
* Peak Running Performance
Peak Running Is The Nation's Most Advanced Running Newsletter. Rated as the #1 Running Publication by Road Runner Sports (Worlds
Largest Running Store) , Peak Running caters to the serious / dedicated runner. Delivering world class running advice are some of
running's most recognizable athletes including Dr. Joe Vigil (US Olympic Coach),
Scott Tinley (2 Time Ironman Champ) Steve Scott (3 Time Olympian) and many more. This bi-monthly newsletter has been around for over
13 years, and in the past two it has been awarded the "Golden Shoe Award" in recognition of it's outstanding achievements.
Check out the Peak Running article index at:
Running Research News:
RRN's free, weekly, training update provides subscribers with the most-current, practical, scientifically based information about
training, sports nutrition, injury prevention, and injury rehabilitation. The purpose of this weekly e-zine is to improve
subscribers' training quality and to help them train in an injury-free manner.
Running Research News also publishes a complete, 12-page, electronic newsletter 10 times a year (one-year subscriptions are $35); to
learn more about Running Research News, please see the Online Article Index and "About Running Research News" sections below or go
Check out the article index at:
THIS WEEK'S PERSONAL POSTINGS/RELEASES:
We will only post notes here regarding running and triathlon topics of interest to the community.
We have NO personal postings this week.
THIS WEEK'S DIGEST ARTICLE INDEX:
1. VO2max Newsletter
2. Dr. Gabe Mirkin's Fitness and Health e-Zine
3. Science of Sport: Overuse Muscle Damage in Runners - Are the Effects on Performance Mainly in the Head?
. The Relaxed Marathoner is a Winning Runner
5. Stares will follow the bouncing jogger
6. Stretching your horizons why timing counts
7. Ice or Heat: The Great Debate
8. Explosive type strength training enhances distance-running performance
9. Joe Henderson's Running Commentary - Timeless Racing
10. Battling body image
11. Tips for Improving Your Cycling When You're Not Riding (Part 2)
12. This Week in Running
13. PACE-Study - German Sport University Cologne:
14. 10 Mistakes to Avoid on Marathon Race Day
15. Fitness with Chris Carmichael
16. Yoga Is More Than Just Showing Up, but That Does Help
17. This Week in Running
18. Milling Around - Go With The Grain
19. Sports Bras - Why sighs matter
20. Digest Briefs
RUNNER'S WEB WEEKLY POLL:
"If you could get guaranteed entry into ONE of the following marathons, which one would you pick?"
You can access the poll from our FrontPage ( http://www.runnersweb.com) as well as checking the results of previous polls.
LAST WEEK'S POLL RESULTS:
"How many positive drugs tests will be revealed after the World Athletics Championships in Osaka, Japan?"
1. One 0%
2. Two 6%
3. Three 61%
4. Four 22%
5. Five 0%
6. More than five 11%
FIVE STAR SITE OF THE MONTH: SanyaRichards.net
Sanya Richards, The Fastest 400m Woman in U.S. History
She's fast, professional, beautiful and ready to have you watch her run with her website.
View Sanya Richards like you've never seen her before, enter her website.
Renowned for her ability to challenge a speeding bullet, Sanya Richards is the youngest woman ever to break the elusive 49-second
barrier at 400 meters. Her remarkable achievements include:
- 2006 World Female Athlete of the Year
- 400m American Record Holder - 48.70
- 3-time US Outdoor National Champion at 400m
- Olympic Gold Medalist (4x400m)
- Ranked #1 in the world in 2006 by the IAAF at 200 and 400m
- Undefeated at 400m in 2006
Check back regularly to see where Sanya is going to be next, view her most recent accomplishments, read her latest diary entries and
much, much more
Visit her web site at:
Our Photo Slideshow is updated on a random basis. Check it out from our FrontPage.
BOOK/VIDEO OF THE MONTH: Brain Training For Runners: A Revolutionary New Training System to Improve Endurance, Speed, Health, and
By Matt Fitzgerald
Based on new research in exercise physiology, author and running expert Matt Fitzgerald introduces a first-of-its-kind training
strategy that he's named "Brain Training." Runners of all ages, backgrounds, and skill levels can learn to maximize their
performance by supplying the brain with the right feedback. Based on Fitzgerald's eight-point brain training system, this book will
- Resist running fatigue
- Use cross-training as brain training
- Master the art of pacing
- Learn to run "in the zone"
- Outsmart injuries
- Fuel the brain for maximum performance
- And more
Packed with cutting-edge research, real-world examples, and the wisdom of the world's top distance runners, Brain Training for
Runners offers easily applied advice and delivers practical results for a better overall running experience.
About the Author
Matt Fitzgerald coaches online through TrainingPeaks.com and serves as a communications consultant to sports nutrition companies. A
former editor at several top fitness magazines, he is the author of numerous articles and books. He lives in Northern California
Buy the book from Amazon at:
For more publications on running and triathlon visit:
THIS WEEK'S FEATURES:
1. VO2max Newsletter:
From Jason Karp
* Breathing and Economy
Many of you know that my doctoral dissertation is on the coordination of breathing and stride rate in elite distance runners. Past
research has shown that coordinating these two
rhythms may improve running economy in unfit or inexperienced runners, possibly by decreasing the metabolic cost of breathing, as
the movement of the legs assists the movement of the chest cavity. Since all of my subjects coordinated their breathing to their
stride rates, precluding comparisons in economy between runners who coordinate the two rhythms to runners who don't, I calculated
correlations to see if there were relationships between running economy, the percentage of breaths that were coordinated to the
stride rate, and the step-to-breath ratio. Contrary to my hypothesis, there were no such relationships. It's possible that
coordinating breathing to stride rate may not improve running
economy over and above what elite runners have already gained through training.
* Altitude Training
In the last newsletter, I discussed the best strategy for altitude training. If you're used to training at sea-level but plan on
going to altitude, you need to adjust your workout paces to give you physiologically-equivalent workouts at different altitudes. If
you're traveling to an altitude below 3,000 to 3,500 feet, you may not have to adjust your paces at all since endurance performance
doesn't begin to decline until about 3,000 feet. If, however, you're traveling higher, research has shown that VO2max decreases by
about 2.6 percent for every 1,000 feet of altitude above 3,400 feet. So, if you run 5 x 1,000 meters in 3:45 (6:00 pace) to target
VO2max at sea-level, your workout at an altitude of 5,000 feet (e.g., Albuquerque, Denver, Salt Lake City) would be 5 x 1,000 meters
in 3:54 (6:15 pace, or 4.16 percent slower than at sea-level). If you're running the workout at 7,000 feet (e.g., Flagstaff, Santa
Fe, Park City), run 5 x 1,000 meters in 4:05 (6:33 pace, or 9.36 percent slower than at sea-level).
Here's how you calculate your paces for altitude workouts:
# of feet at altitude - 3,400 feet = A
A x .026 / 1,000 feet = B
B x your sea-level pace in minutes = C
C + your sea-level pace in minutes = your new altitude pace in minutes
Convert decimal from new altitude pace into seconds by multiplying decimal by 60 = your new altitude pace
For example, at an altitude of 5,000 feet and a sea-level pace of 5:30:
5,000 feet - 3,400 feet = 1,600 feet
1,600 x 0.026 / 1,000 feet = 0.0416
0.0416 x 5.5 = 0.2288
0.2288 + 5.5 = 5.7288 minutes
0.7288 x 60 = 43 seconds = 5:43 pace
Use the same calculation for your lactate threshold runs. If you live at altitude and are going to sea-level, subtract the time from
your altitude pace to find your sea-level pace since you'll be faster at sea-level than at altitude. Since there is a great amount
of variability in the altitude response between runners, you may have to adjust the paces based on your individual response to
altitude. You may also have to take a longer recovery period during interval workouts at altitude, but that's okay. Take as long
as you need to run the intervals at the correct pace.
* Size Matters
Ever wonder how much of a change you can expect to see from strength training? A study published in Medicine and Science in Sports
and Exercise on 585 subjects (342 women, 243 men) who strength trained the biceps of the non-dominant arm for 12 weeks found that
changes in muscle size ranged from -2 to +59% (-0.4 to +13.6 cm), increases in dynamic maximum strength ranged from 0 to +250% (0 to
+10.2 kg), and changes in isometric maximum strength ranged from -32 to +149% (-15.9 to +52.6 kg). Of the
585 subjects, 40 percent increased muscle size by 15 to 25 percent, less than two percent increased muscle size by over 40 percent,
and 6 percent increased muscle size by less than 5 percent. Men increased absolute strength more than did women, but women
exhibited greater relative increases in strength. Men also experienced a 2.5 percent greater increase in muscle size compared to
* * To view past newsletters go to: http://www.runcoachjason.com/newsletter
Copyright Jason Karp All Rights Reserved - http://www.runcoachjason.com
2. Dr. Gabe Mirkin's Fitness and Health e-Zine:
* Repetition Increases Efficiency
Training is specific, so the more you practice your sport, the better you are able to do it. That's why triathletes who compete
and train in three sports are relatively mediocre in each sport when compared to those who only run, cycle or swim. (Sports
Biomechanics, Volume 6, Issue 1, 2007). In this study, elite cyclists produced significantly more effective force on their pedals
than triathletes. They had far less wasted side-to-side motion, and they required less oxygen to do the same amount of work.
Repeating the same motion over and over causes your muscles to become more efficient so they can generate more power with less
oxygen. For example, when you run, you use your arms to maintain your center of gravity. When your right leg moves forward, so does
your left arm; your left leg and right arm move backward. Efficiency requires that you move your body forward with the least motion
wasted going side to side, so that the more energy you use to drive your body forward, the less oxygen your muscles require. The
same efficiency is required in pedaling a bicycle. You are supposed to move your pedals through a full 360 degrees, rather than just
pushing through one phase of pedaling, and you move your body from side to side as little as possible.
In competitive sports today, the best athletes put in the most time training. Runners usually run more than 100 miles a week,
cyclists often go over 400 miles a week, and weight lifters spend many hours each day in the gym lifting prodigious amounts of
weights. If you want to compete at a high level, you need to spend a lot of time practicing.
* Warm Up Your Heart
Most people know that you have to warm up skeletal muscles to help protect them from injury, but many do not know that warming up
the heart muscle also helps to prevent heart attacks in people with blocked arteries leading to the heart
Before you try to run very fast, you can protect your muscles from injury by performing a series of runs of gradually-increasing
intensity to increase the circulation of blood to your muscles. The same principle applies to the heart. Angina is a condition in
which the blood vessels leading to the heart are partially blocked so the person has no pain at rest, but during exercise, the
blocked arteries don't permit enough blood to get through to the heart muscles, causing pain. A study from the Quebec Heart
Institute shows that exercising very slowly before a person with angina picks up the pace allows him to exercise more intensely
before he feels heart pain.
If you have any suspicion of heart problems, always check with your doctor before you begin an exercise program or increase the
intensity of your existing program.
What induces the warm-up ischemia/angina phenomenon: Exercise or myocardial ischemia? Circulation, 2003, Vol 107, Iss 14, pp
1858-1863. P Bogaty, P Poirier, L Boyer, J Jobin, GR Dagenais. Bogaty P, Hop Laval, Quebec Heart Inst, 2725 Chemin St Foy, St Foy,
PQ G1V 4G5, CANADA
* What Causes Muscle Soreness
Your muscles should feel sore on some days after you exercise. If you go out and jog the same two miles at the same pace, day after
day, you will never become faster, stronger or have greater endurance. If you stop lifting weights when your muscles start to burn,
you won't feel sore on the next day and you will not become stronger. All improvement in any muscle function comes from stressing
and recovering. On one day, you go out and exercise hard enough to make your muscles burn during exercise. The burning is a sign
that you are damaging your muscles. On the next day, your muscles feel sore because they are damaged and need time to recover.
Scientist call this DOMS, delayed onset muscle soreness.
It takes at least eight hours to feel this type of soreness. You finish a workout and feel great; then you get up the next morning
and your exercised muscles feel sore. We used to think that next-day muscle soreness is caused by a buildup of lactic acid in
muscles, but now we know that lactic acid has nothing to do it. Next-day muscle soreness is caused by damage to the muscle fibers
themselves. Muscle biopsies taken on the day after hard exercise show bleeding and disruption of the z-band filaments that hold
muscle fibers together as they slide over each other during a contraction.
Scientists can tell how much muscle damage has occurred by measuring blood levels of a muscle enzyme called CPK. CPK is normally
found in muscles and is released into the bloodstream when muscles are damaged. Those exercisers who have the highest post-exercise
blood levels of CPK often have the most muscle soreness. Using blood CPK levels as a measure of muscle damage, researchers have
shown that people who continue to exercise when their muscles feel sore are the ones most likely to feel sore on the next day.
Many people think that cooling down by exercising at a very slow pace after exercising more vigorously, helps to prevent muscle
soreness. It doesn't. Cooling down speeds up the removal of lactic acid from muscles, but a buildup of lactic acid does not cause
muscle soreness, so cooling down will not help to prevent muscle soreness. Stretching does not prevent soreness either, since
post-exercise soreness is not due to contracted muscle fibers.
Next-day muscle soreness should be used as a guide to training, whatever your sport. On one day, go out and exercise right up to the
burn, back off when your muscles really start to burn, then pick up the pace again and exercise to the burn. Do this
exercise-to-the-burn and recover until your muscles start to feel stiff, and then stop the workout. Depending on how sore your
muscles feel, take the next day off or go at a very slow pace. Do not attempt to train for muscle burning again until the soreness
has gone away completely. Most athletes take a very hard workout on one day, go easy for one to seven days afterward, and then take
a hard workout again. World-class marathon runners run very fast only twice a week. The best weightlifters lift very heavy only once
every two weeks. High jumpers jump for height only once a week. Shot putters throw for distance only once a week. Exercise training
is done by stressing and recovering.
* Reduce Oxidants Instead of Taking Antioxidants
Instead of taking antioxidants, researchers now think you should aim to prevent your mitochondria from making excessive amounts of
oxidants. The cells of your body have tiny chambers in them called mitochondria that help convert food to energy. When they do this,
they knock of electrons from nutrients, and these extra electrons eventually end up attached to oxygen. Electron-charged oxygen,
called reactive oxygen species or free radicals, then attach to the DNA cells to damage them and shorten your life.
At this time, scientists have found only one practical way to reduce the amount of oxidants produced by mitochondria: exercise.
Vigorous exercise helps the mitochondria burn food more cleanly with the production of fewer oxidants. The same effect can be
accomplished with severe calorie restriction, or with chemicals such as resveratrol or dichloroacetate, but the results of these
studies in animals have not yet been successfully applied to humans.
Here's another study showing that taking antioxidant vitamins does not prevent heart attacks (Archives of Internal Medicine, August
2007). 8,171 women over the age of 40, all with a history of heart disease or with three or more risk factors for that disease (high
blood pressure, diabetes or high cholesterol) were randomly assigned into groups and given either 500 milligrams of ascorbic acid
(vitamin C) every day, 600 units of vitamin E every other day or 50 milligrams of beta carotene every other day. None of the
antioxidant vitamins, either alone or in combination, helped reduce the risk of a heart attack. As of today, there is no evidence
that taking antioxidants vitamin pills helps prevent heart attacks. More on cell mitochondria -
From Dr. Gabe Mirkin's Fitness and Health E-Zine at: http://www.drmirkin.com
3. Science of Sport: Overuse Muscle Damage in Runners - Are the Effects on Performance Mainly in the Head?
Scientists say muscle overuse changes RPE but not lactate threshold .....
Exercise scientists have not been certain about the effects of exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD) on endurance running
performance. In mice forced to run downhill for extended periods of time (an activity which creates mayhem in the murids' quads),
endurance capacity falls by about 65 percent during subsequent, sub-maximal running efforts (1). In human runners, however, the
results have been quite different. Several different studies have revealed that EIMD has no negative impact at all on key
physiological variables associated with endurance performance, including running economy, energy metabolism during running, heart
rate, and oxygen consumption (2, 3, & 4). There is a failing in this research, though: The human runners have not been asked to
complete time trials or actual competitions. Thus, it's possible that EIMD might have little impact on the "usual suspects" (the
variables traditionally associated with performance) and yet still could hurt competitive times.
To learn more about the effects of EIMD on running performance, Sam Marcora and A. Bosio from the School of Sport at the University
of Wales-Bangor in the United Kingdom recently worked with 30 adult runners (24 men and six women). These athletes averaged 31 years
of age, were fairly fit (VO2max = 54.2), were moderately lean (13-percent body fat), and trained four to five times each week with
an average workout duration of 48 minutes (5).
EIMD was induced in half (15) of the runners via the completion of 100 "drop jumps." For each drop jump, a runner stood on a
35-centimeter-high bench (- 14 inches high), from which he/she dropped to the floor with both feet, squatted to a 90-degree knee
angle, and then jumped in place as high as possible. After 10 such drop jumps, a one-minute recovery was enforced, followed by nine
more sets of 10 drop jumps, with one-minute recoveries between sets. Thus, the whole workout was 10 sets of 10 reps, with one-minute
recoveries. Research has shown that drop jumping can produce significant EIMD, particularly in runners who have had little
experience with the maneuver (6).
More...from the Runner's Web at:
4. The Relaxed Marathoner is a Winning Runner:
At the starting line, one can always see the determined faces of runners. Even before they take a single step, they already fix
their eyes on the finish line. And in their overwhelming desire to win the race, they sometimes show signs of tension and stress.
But if you're a highly competitive athlete, the tension is just part of the job.
That is why it is already axiomatic for endurance runners and other athletes to have physical strength and endurance, will power,
and discipline. It is also part and parcel of their job to encounter a number of physical and health concerns that come as a result
of strenuous physical activity.
Long-distance runners, for example, are very prone to fatigue and muscle cramps. Most marathons involve a long-distance run of about
42 kilometers or about 26 miles. These runs can be either on-road or off-road.
More...from Articlesbase at:
5. Stares will follow the bouncing jogger:
On Ocean Boulevard in Long Beach, a lone jogger appears to defy the laws of physics, soaring high into the air with each step like
an amped-up gazelle. Motorists slow down to stop and gawk.
In the world of novelty sports shoes, Kangoo Jumps may take the cake.
Ski boot-like shoe-things with circular springs on the soles, the shoes pop the jogger into the air with pogo-like efficiency, then
cushion the landing as they pop the jogger back up into the air.
Kangoo Jumps, its maker says, are designed to improve athletic endurance, promote weight loss and protect the joints -- which,
curiously, they seem to do. A quick jog down the street will get the heart going and the sweat flowing while leaving the knees
Commercially available since 1999, the shoes are beginning to gain traction in the U.S. and abroad, says Denis Naville, president of
Switzerland-based RDM sarl, which makes Kangoo Jumps.
More...from the LA Times at:
6. Stretching your horizons why timing counts:
Recent research has shown that some types of pre-exercise stretching may not only fail to enhance performance, but can also be
counter-productive. However, according to James Marshall, that doesnt mean that you shouldnt be stretching you just have to
Practice and research shows that the components of stretching are as varied as other training principles such as speed or strength.
But all too often, stretching is either just tagged on to other forms of training, or overlooked completely. And repeating the same
stretching routine day in, day out inevitably gets you the same results. However, adding a variety of stretches and altering the
types of stretching that you do at different times of day, time of season, or time of year should enable you to improve your
flexibility and your performance.
Is stretching is bad for you?
Ive recently had this comment thrown at me by coaches and athletes alike. As is often the case, information can be misinterpreted
or applied in the wrong context (with the best of intentions) and then becomes dogma for example weight training makes you slow.
There has been a lot of research in recent years that has shown that static stretching as part of a warm-up may not improve
performance, and may actually inhibit speed and power activities. But some athletes and coaches have extrapolated these findings to
conclude that all stretching is bad for you at any time. In fact, there may be a clue in the phrase warm-up as to what you are
supposed to do! We will examine this later.
In the 1960s, martial artists from the East who came to Britain did warm-ups with little no static stretching, but lots of
movements. At the same time, Eastern European coaches were getting their athletes to do lots of movements in their warm-ups.
Anecdotally, having worked in the fitness industry for eight years in the 1990s, I suspect the fad for doing a warm-up then
stretches, and then the workout, came from gym-based exercise courses. I was always asking my fitness staff why they prescribed
warming up on an exercise bike for 5 minutes, and then 5 minutes of static stretches, then run on a treadmill for 20 minutes, rather
than simply walk, jog and then run on a treadmill!
More...from Peak Performance Online at:
7. Ice or Heat: The Great Debate:
Ice or heat? As straightforward as this question sounds, these two choices are often points of hot debate amongst athletes
attempting to soothe injured body parts. Yet despite strong arguments from both sides, heres the simple truth: ice and heat both
have their advantages and neither is a cure-all. Therefore, the safest bet to heal sports-induced injuries is to understand which
method works best for what conditions and when.
Lets start off on the cold front. Ice is one of the most common fall-back solutions for many sports-related injuries. Sprain your
ankle? Tie some ice around it. Got a nasty bruise from a fall? Go grab a cold compress. While ice certainly does have some
undeniable healing effects for hurting athletes, it shouldnt always be the answer you turn to. So when should you use ice? In
short, swelling is the key.
According to most research, its the time immediately after direct trauma to the body that ice should be applied. Fractures,
sprains, and even muscle spasms highly benefit from the speedy application of a cold compress. As studies from Nursing journal have
documented, the cold temperature produced by ice helps treat such conditions by reducing the presence of pain and swelling.
More...from the Final Sprint at:
8. Explosive type strength training enhances distance-running performance:
One of the most fundamental rules of training is specificity; if you want to train for an event, your training should replicate the
demands of that event. The rule of specificity arises because different events tend to rely on different energy systems in the body
(which need to be specifically trained) and also because many disciplines require a specific set of motor skills and neurological
However, the reality is that while many endurance events draw heavily on the aerobic energy system, they often also require short
high-energy bursts provided by the anaerobic energy pathways (for example, during the sprint for the line) pathways that are often
neglected in training because of the desire to concentrate on endurance performance. But new research by Finnish scientists at the
Research Institute for Olympic Sports suggests that this strategy may be counterproductive for endurance runners, and that anaerobic
performance can be readily enhanced without increasing training volume or compromising endurance.
In the study, the effects of concurrent explosive strength and endurance training on aerobic and anaerobic performance and
neuromuscular characteristics were studied in 25 distance runners, who were split into an experimental group (13 runners) and a
control group (12 runners). All of the runners trained for eight weeks with the same total training volume, but in the experimental
group 19% of the endurance training time was replaced by explosive-type training, including sprints and strength drills. After the
eight-week training programme, all the runners were evaluated for various aspects of performance with the following results:
More...from Peak Performance Online at:
9. Joe Henderson's Running Commentary - Timeless Racing:
Our earliest habits die the hardest. I come from a time-conscious tradition, modeling myself after a track-fan dad who taught me to
read his stopwatch soon after I learned to tell time.
Later, while racing on the track myself, I plotted and recorded splits down to the tenth-second for every half-lap. This habit
didn't transfer well to the roads, and especially not to my first marathon.
I ran it at Boston, which then drew checkpoint lines at odd places such as 6.7 and 17.6 miles. Translating these splits into pace
per mile and projecting a final time overtaxed my midrace computing skills.
So I ran blind, holding the pace that felt right without knowing exactly what it was until the marathon ended. The final time
surprised me by being 15 minutes faster than hoped.
Hopes immediately grew. I thought: if this is possible without knowing pace, think that can happen with planning.
My marathon splits were never this unplanned again. I'd write them on my race number or on tape stuck to the wristband of my watch.
They would never let me go as fast as I had while trusting instinct to set the pace at Boston.
Splits seldom come up exactly as planned, meaning they're less likely to improve a race than to disrupt it. "Too slow" a split
causes an unwise acceleration beyond that day's ability. "Too fast" a split causes an unnatural holding back.
More...from Joe Henderson at:
10. Battling body image:
By the time she reached high school, Nicole Knighton still hadn't found her place in sports. She played softball and volleyball but
she didn't quite feel comfortable.
At about 5-foot-6 and well over 150 pounds, she doesn't look the part of a typical high school athlete.
"I played softball. I didn't make varsity but I was on JV," said Knighton, a senior at Bountiful. "The coaches kept saying, 'I
can't believe you can do this' because of my size. I think people stereotype that you don't do anything if you're bigger. I think
people look down on bigger people."
The questions didn't stop in volleyball, either. Knighton thought people questioned if she could be as athletic as the other
girls. She vowed she wouldn't play the sport in high school, and that's when Knighton got into discus throwing and shot-putting.
There, she felt she wasn't judged by her height or weight.
"I think with other sports, girls do struggle with body image," Knighton said. "But not with track. There are so many sizes of
When Kit Zeigle was a cross country runner at Bingham, she, too, had body image issues.
"It all started in the eighth grade. I was eating really healthy, but I was increasing my exercise far beyond," said Zeigle, who
recently recovered from bulimia. "I became compulsive."
These two girls - Knighton, who is strong and solid, and Zeigle, who is slender and toned - seem to be on opposite ends of the
spectrum. But they are struggling with the same issue - society's unattainable image of beauty for girls and women.
More...from the Salt Lake Tribune at:
11. Tips for Improving Your Cycling When You're Not Riding (Part 2):
By Dave McIntosh, CTS Senior Coach
In Part I (http://www.trainright.com/articles.asp?uid=2797) of this article, I said there were five key aspects to optimizing
recovery between the hours you spend in the saddle: Massage, Stretching/Yoga, Sleep, Hydration, and Nutrition. And while all five
are important on their own, nutrition and hydration are especially crucial because they can impact the quality of your sleep and the
effectiveness of massage and stretching.
Proper hydration is a necessity in any endurance activity. The appropriate amount of fluid intake depends on factors such as
activity level- both duration and intensity, as well as the surrounding environment; hotter weather means more fluid lost through
How much fluid is necessary to stay hydrated? A good, standard rule of thumb is one half to one full gallon of fluid per day for
To more accurately gauge fluid needs, weigh yourself before and after your ride. You should aim to drink fluids equal to 1 ½ times
the weight that was lost during exercise. Simply put, if you lost a pound (16 oz) you should try to consume at least 24 oz of water
in the hour afterwards.
When youre out on your ride, regardless of how long it is, you shouldnt lose more than 2% of your total body weight from sweating.
Since some people sweat more heavily than others, the exact amount of fluid you need each hour to minimize weight loss will vary. A
good starting point is to drink 4-6 oz. of water every 15 minutes during a normal training run. Weigh yourself afterwards and adjust
the amount of fluid you consume during rides until your post-workout weight is within 2% (typically 1-2 pounds) lighter than your
pre-workout weight. If youre heavier when you get home, you consumed too much fluid.
More...from Carmichael Training Systems at:
12. Psychology: Case Study in Mental Toughness...
On the evening of May 20, 2000, Ryan Bolton and I went for a walk in the dark on a golf course near where we were staying in Fort
Worth, Texas. The next day would be the U.S. Triathlon Olympic Trials for the men. We had been focusing on this day for more than
three years. The first two American finishers would qualify for the Games in Sydney, Australia, the first time triathlon would be an
As we walked, we talked about the various scenarios that could unfold the next day and how he should respond to each. We had
discussed these possible situations before, but with the big exam tomorrow, this was our last chance to review them. We were both a
bit nervous but didnt let it show.
Ryan was one of the fastest runners among elite American triathletes. He had been an All American runner at the University of
Wyoming and had broken 30 minutes for 10,000 meters. But even with those credentials, I told him as we walked that if he came off of
the bike more than 90 seconds behind the leaders it was all over. He wouldnt be able to make up any more than that on an elite
field, so he had to be close by T2 should something go wrong on the swim or bike.
The next day things did go wrong. Our worst possible scenario occurred: Ryan had a poor swim, getting off course slightly, and came
out of the water near the tail end of the field. There were three Americans along with two Aussies already in transition with a
small gap on the remainder of the field, with Ryan bringing up the rear. Foreign athletes were allowed to compete for prize money
that day but, of course, could not qualify for Team USA. One of the three Americans leading the race was Hunter Kemper, who had
already qualified for the Olympic team. So Ryan had to catch one of the other two Americans to make the team.
Out on the bike course, there were three distinct groups. The five leaders worked well together and began to open a gap on the large
chase group. Ryan and a Brit brought up the tail end alone. But they worked together well (drafting is allowed in Olympic triathlon)
and soon caught back on with the peloton. His instructions now were to get this chase group organized and to reel in the leaders.
But the riders wouldnt cooperate, with each athlete wanting someone else to do the hard work. So the leaders disappeared up the
road and the gap kept growing.
By the time Ryans group hit T2 the leaders had a two-minute, 15-second lead. As Ryan came out of transition starting the 10k run I
yelled 2:15 at him. He knew what that meant. I was saying to him you cant do it now since I had emphasized the importance of
being within 90 seconds starting the run the night before. I was disheartenedbut Ryan had fire in his eyes.
I had spotters on the course with walkie-talkies who were reporting time gaps to me. Incredibly, he was closing the gap at a
remarkable rate. As he completed lap one and ran by me again I could see he was on a mission. He was not going to give up. I could
sense his tenacity. He now had me believing. He had to catch the third American runner, Doug Friman, to qualify. Doug had only about
75 seconds on him with two laps to go. I yelled, 75.
The spotters reported that Ryan was still closing in as he went by each of them on the second lap. Starting the final lap Ryan
caught Doug right in front of me. Incredibly, he had made up two minutes and 15 seconds in just over six kilometers and was in
position to qualify for the Olympicsif he held that place.
Now I was concerned about the heat. It was 90 degrees at start time with high humidity. The previous day the leader of the womens
race, Barb Lindquist, had succumbed to the heat on the second lap of the run and dropped out. So I shouted at Ryan, Slow down! But
he would have none of that, I could tell. He wanted to catch the next American. There was no holding him back.
As he crossed the finish line in third place we hugged and shouted. He had done it! Later, after things settled down, I asked him
what went through his mind when I yelled that he was trailing by more than two minutes starting the run. After all, he could have
easily given up and resigned himself to being an also ran that day. The coach had said 90 seconds was all he had in him. I just
knew I could do it, he said.
That day was one of the finest examples of mental toughness I had ever seen in an athlete I coached. Ryan went on to be a tremendous
Ironman-distance triathlete after the Olympics. And I never again questioned his mental toughness.
Copyright: 2007 by Joe Friel Posted with permission
Joe Friel is the founder and President of Ultrafit. He can be reached with questions on this topic at mailto:jfriel@....
13. PACE-Study - German Sport University Cologne:
We examined age-related changes in endurance performance of marathon and half-marathon finishers. A total of 405515 running times
were separated into groups based on age, sex, and distance. After exclusion of repetitive running times, 300757 runners were
analyzed by ANOVA (factors: age, sex). For each age group (six decades, 2079 years), mean running times for all finishers, as well
as top-ten performers, were assessed. As expected, age and sex had significant influence on running times. Female running times were
about 10% (marathon) and 13% (half-marathon) above the corresponding times of their age-matched peers. The main finding is that in
our sample of trained subjects significant
age-related losses in endurance performance did not occur before the age of 50 years. Mean marathon and half-marathon times were
virtually identical for the age groups from 2049 years. Moreover, age-related performance decreases (p < 0.01) of the
5069-year-old subjects were only in the range of 2.64.4% per decade. These results suggest that the majority of older athletes are
able to maintain a high degree of physical plasticity. The hypothesis that lifestyle factors have considerably stronger influences
on functional capacity than the factor age is also supported by these findings from physically active and fit elderly.
An internet questionnaire pertaining to lifestyle and training habits of anyone who enjoys running. We also give the opportunity to
compare participants running times against 400.000 other results. More...
14. 10 Mistakes to Avoid on Marathon Race Day:
by Sean Coster
Any runner can easily fall prey to these ten mistakes commonly made by marathoners. Learn how to avoid these pitfalls that can
derail your plans for a great race.
Here are ten mistakes commonly made by marathoners:
1. Consuming anything for your pre-race breakfast you haven't consumed before a long run.
2. Trusting that the marathon's pace group leaders will run the appropriate pace. Keep track of your actual splits and know your
pace for your goal time.
3. Wearing any clothing in the race that you haven't worn on a run of at least 13 miles.
4. Starting without double knotting your shoelaces.
5. Slowing down or stopping with a running partner. Despite the fact that you may have trained with them and you would like to
accompany and aid them, if they drop out of the race your own event will be compromised.
6. Not making reservations for your pre race dinner. If traveling to a marathon, find a safe dining option close to your
accommodations for which you can make a reservation. If you are forced to wait to eat until 9pm the night before your race, you'll
probably regret it the next day.
7. Engaging in your tourism of the marathon city in the day's before the marathon. Put your feet up, read, rest and fuel up for your
big day. Leave the sightseeing to the days after the marathon, even if this means doing so on a couple of well used wheels.
8. Not having an exit strategy. Eventually you may need to drop out of a marathon. Be prepared and take money for cab fare and have
the numbers of those you will need to contact.
9. Taking your sweatpants off more than 5 minutes before the start of your race. Rarely is a marathon started in conditions warm
enough to allow leg muscles to be properly activated without some warm up and insulation.
10. Driving yourself to the start. Who wants another issue to contend with on race day? Find some means of easily arriving at the
starting line one hour before your race without having to drive yourself.
Long may you run,
From Competitor Magazine at:
15. Fitness with Chris Carmichael:
Q: If you spin at little or no resistance at high speed, do you gain the same benefits as you would spinning with resistance at a
lower speed? Are you burning the same amount of calories?
A: Not all pedal strokes are created equal. Spinning with little or no resistance at a high speed is not the same as riding with
more resistance at a lower speed. Both methodologies are part of a comprehensive training program for cycling, but they accomplish
different goals. Pedaling at a high cadence with little resistance, you are training your neuromuscular system; the pattern and
speed of muscle contractions. Pedaling at a higher resistance, you are training muscle fiber recruitment and force production. In
other words, they are basically two different workouts.
When it comes to calories burned per minute, you can achieve equal numbers using either method. However, you'll be able to sustain
the effort longer using a high-cadence, lower resistance technique compared to a low-cadence, high-resistance one. This is related
to the way muscles fatigue. When you place a higher load on your legs (greater resistance), they will fatigue quickly and you may
only be able to maintain the necessary intensity for a few minutes. In contrast, high-cadence, lower-resistance cycling requires
less muscular force per pedal stroke, which helps to keep fatigue at bay. That's not to say that pedaling with a high cadence isn't
tiring or strenuous. It is, but more of the stress is on your aerobic system. This is why you'll see your heart rate and breathing
rate increase more dramatically with high cadence cycling
More...from Outside Online at:
16. Yoga Is More Than Just Showing Up, but That Does Help:
AFTER taking just a handful of yoga classes, Lisa Lew didnt know the plow from the plank and wasnt overly impressed with the
age-old discipline. Still, she decided to tag along with a co-worker for the first day of a promotion at Levitate Yoga, a Manhattan
studio, where students had committed to 21 consecutive days of yoga.
Ms. Lew, a 36-year-old administrator for an investment bank, sweated and stretched through three weeks of poses all for a
promotional price of $120. She fought aches and soreness, got stronger, and afterward she felt reborn: she lost waistline inches,
but also shed stress and her tendency to overreact.
After reaping the benefits of a daily practice, she now heads to Levitate four times a week. It brings a lot of peacefulness to
me, Ms. Lew said.
As a way of creating loyal regulars out of monthly drop-ins, studio owners recently have pushed the self-serving idea that yoga is
not to be done lightly, casually or sporadically. They have stopped short of telling erratic classgoers to give it up, but their
message is loud and clear: committing to a regular practice is the only way to progress in life and on the mat.
More...from the NY Times at:
17. This Week in Running:
10 Years Ago- The 64th edition of the Around Cape Ann (MA/USA) 25K was won by James Garcia (USA)
in 1:26:58. Kim Marie Goff (USA) was a narrow victor over Gillian Horovitz (ENG)
by 1:38:43 to 1:38:56. Horovitz finished this race 18 times between 1980 and 2002,
winning eleven times over a span of 21 years.
20 Years Ago- Douglas Wakiihuri (KEN) won the IAAF World Championships (ITA) Marathon in 2:11:48.
Ahmed Salah (DJI) was 2nd in 2:12:30 while Gelindo Bordin (ITA) was 3rd in 2:12:40.
Stephen Moneghetti (AUS) and Hugh Jones (ENG) were 4th and 5th in 2:12:49 and 2:12:54
respectively. The same day's 5000m was a rather tactical race, won by Said Aouita
(MAR) in 13:26.44 with Domingos Castro (POR) and Jack Buckner (ENG) taking the silver
and bronze medals (13:27.59 and 13:27.74).
30 Years Ago- Miruts Yifter (ETH) won the 5000m at the World Cup (GER) with a 13:13.82. He outkicked
Marty Liquori (USA) and David Fitzsimmons (AUS) who ran 13:15.06 and 13:17.42 respectively.
Grete Waitz (NOR) won the women's 3000m in 8:43.5 with Lyudmila Bragina (RUS) 2nd in
8:46.3 and Jan Merrill (USA) 3rd in 8:46.6.
40 Years Ago- Ron Wallingford (CAN) won the Saint Hyacinthe (PQ/CAN) Marathon in 2:33:05 ahead of Ron
Gaff (USA) who finished in 2:38:10. Johnny A Kelley (the elder), who won the Boston Marathon
in 1935 and 1945, was 6th in 2:50:11. He would turn age 60 three days later.
50 Years Ago- John J Kelley (the younger) won the 24th edition of the Around Cape Ann (MA/USA) 25K
with a time of 1:24:59. Also on the same day, Vladimir Kuts (UKR) won the Soviet 5000m title
in 13:48.6, defeating Pyotr Bolotnikov (MDA) who ran 13:58.0.
60 Years Ago- Alain Mimoun (FRA) won the French 10,000m title in 31:21.0.
From The Analytical Distance Runner, the newsletter for the Association of Road Racing Statisticians with a
focus on races, 3000m and longer, including road, track, and cross-country events.
The ARRS has a website at http://www.arrs.net.
18. Milling Around - Go With The Grain:
Mix up your carbs and add nutrients to your diet with tasty pasta alternatives.
For many runners, carbs have long meant one thing: pasta. Fueling up the night before a long run or big race with anything but
spaghetti would be as unthinkable as heading out the door without a watch. But just as occasionally letting go of time and pace
takes the pressure off performance, choosing different grains for your carbohydrate fix can improve your overall health while still
supplying the energy you need.
"Every grain has a different profile of vitamins and minerals," says Tara Gidus, R.D., a sports nutritionist and spokesperson for
the American Dietetic Association in Orlando, Florida. "Having a variety of them day to day ensures that you are getting a mix of
nutrients as well as an assortment of great tastes." Switching out penne for quinoa can also help you incorporate more whole grains
into your diet. Half of a runner's eight to 15 daily servings of grain should come from whole sources, which have been shown to
lower your long-term risk for cancer and heart disease.
More...from Runner's World at:
19. Sports Bras - Why sighs matter:
Since a womans measured bra size differs significantly depending on whether she is breathing in or out at the time, respiratory
state should be standardised during bra size measurements. The more accurate resultant bra fitting would reduce exercise-induced
breast discomfort and related symptoms, according to Australian researchers.
A correct-fitting bra is imperative to good health, the researchers point out, with ill-fitting bras reported to contribute to
numerous musculoskeletal problems in sportswomen, including neural symptoms in the arms, pain in the breasts, neck and back and
exercise-induced breast discomfort.
With many different bra-sizing methods in use, it is not surprising that as many as seven out of 10 women particularly those with
large breasts have been reported to wear the wrong size bra. The aim of this study was to look at the effects of respiratory state
and measurement method on bra size calculation.
More...from Peak Performance Online at:
20 Digest Briefs:
* Finger length may indicate athletic ability
High levels of the male hormone, testosterone, cause the fourth finger of unborn children to grow more than the second. This
explains why men usually have proportionately longer fourth fingers than women do. Scientists can use the length of the fourth
finger to tell which women were exposed to higher levels of testosterone before they were born. Researchers at the University of
Central Lancashire in Preston, England showed that women whose fourth finger is much longer than their second were faster cross
country runners in races of one to four miles (American Journal of Human Biology, May-June 2007).
The finger length was measured from the bottom crease where the finger joins the hand to the tip of the finger. Men are typically
bigger and stronger than women, and have larger muscles and bones, because of their higher testosterone levels. Testosterone helps
people to recover faster from hard workouts, so they can do more work and become better athletes. Women exposed to higher levels of
testosterone in utero have higher ratios of their fourth to second fingers and often are better athletes.
Read more from this blogger at Fitness & Health with Dr. Gabe Mirkin: http://drmirkin.blogspot.com/
* Stretching Secrets Exposed
To listen to Brad Walker and Christopher Guerriero discuss little known stretching secrets that will revolutionize the way you think
about stretching and flexibility, click on the link
* New research suggests that up to 90 percent of marathon runners become injured during their pre-marathon training, and that 50 to
65 percent of cross-country runners are hurt during a typical cross-country season. To get the new DVD from Running Research News
on the 10-minute workout which stops running injuries in their tracks, please go to
THIS WEEK'S FEATURED EVENTS:
*Please verify event dates with the event websites*
Check the Runner's Web FrontPage for links to the race sites.
Friday, September 7, 2007:
Weltklasse Zürich - Switzerland
September 8, 2007:
Alta Peruvian Lodge Downhill Dash 8K - Alta, UT
Brockville Half Marathon - ON
Television - CBC
Zurich Golden League - 2:00 p.m.
September 9, 2007:
Banco Popular Chicago Half Marathon - Chicago, IL
Gloucester Half-Marathon & 5K - Ottawa, ON
London Duathlon - London, England
Marathon Oasis de Montréal - Montreal, QC
June 21, 2008
Emilie's Run - The Emilie Mondor Memorial 5K race for Women
For more complete race listings check out our Upcoming Races, and Calendars.
Check the Runner's Web on Sunday and Monday for race reports on these events at:
For Triathlon Coverage check out The Sports Network at:
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