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  • Ken Parker
    A FREE WEEKLY E-ZINE OF MULTISPORT RELATED ARTICLES. The Runner s and Triathlete s Web Digest is a weekly e-zine dealing with the sports of running and
    Message 1 of 1 , May 6 6:07 AM
      The Runner's and Triathlete's Web Digest is a weekly e-zine dealing with the sports of running and triathlon and general fitness and
      health issues. The opinions expressed in the articles referenced by the Digest are the opinions of the writers and not necessarily
      those of the Runner's Web. To comment on any stories in the Digest visit our Forum at:
      The Original Runner's and Triathlete's Web was founded in January of 1997 and is not in any way associated with the two UK "Runner's
      Web" copycat sites or the Runner's Web Book Store in the USA.

      Visit the Runner's Web at http://www.runnersweb.com The site is updated multiple times daily. Check out our daily news, features,
      polls, trivia, bulletin boards and more. General questions should be posted to one of our forums available from our FrontPage.


      1. RunnersWeb5K.com Race for Women
      Women's only racing returns to Ottawa June 24th with a 5K race along the Rockcliffe Parkway from the Aviation Museum.

      2. Runner's Web Online Store:
      Through a partnership with HDO Sports, the Runner's and Triathlete's Web has opened an online store. Check it out for your shopping

      3. RunnersWebCoach
      Through a partnership with HDO Training, the Runner's And Triathlete's Web now offers Interactive Training.

      4 Road Runner Sports, the world's largest running store at:

      5. National Capital Race Weekend - Ottawa, ON May 26 - 28, 2006

      6. Toronto Waterfront Marathon. September 24, 2006.

      7. The Toronto Marathon, October 15, 2006

      8. LifeSport by Lance Watson - Professional Coaching
      Lance Watson has been coaching triathlon and distance running since 1987. Over the years, Lance has coached some of the most
      successful athletes in the sport of triathlon and duathlon. A Human Kinetics graduate (sport psychology minor), Lance has had the
      opportunity to work with and be mentored by numerous world-class swim, bike, run and triathlon coaches and liaise with many top
      sport professionals (scientists, psychologists, nutritionists, therapists, etc.)
      Lance has coached at the 2000 Olympics, 2002 Commonwealth Games and 2003 Pan American Games. He has been head coach at several
      national-team events and coached at various Ironman, ITU World Cup and world championship events. As well, he was an award recipient
      as "Triathlon Canada Elite Coach Of The Year" four consecutive years from 2000-2003. He was the 2004 Olympic Team Head Coach

      The Runner's Web is a member of Running USA, The National Professional Organization for the Running Industry.

      This newsletter has been composed using Outlook set to "Text" format. The Digest is sent via an email list at
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      articles without using your main email address we suggest the use of a mail alias program such as http://www.emailias.com.

      Check out our RSS auto-feeds page for automated news updates:

      What Is RSS?
      RSS (Rich Site Summary) is a feed of headlines that will automatically update and display in an RSS News Reader. RSS feeds are an
      increasingly popular method of distributing simplified web content to users through XML. When you see a little orange XML button,
      you know you can subscribe to RSS feeds.
      How to Get Started
      First you will need to download an RSS Reader. These are usually free to download, just search for "RSS Reader". Some readers will
      be able to pick up the feed just by clicking the link. If not, just ignore the code on the page and copy the link location/URL into
      the feed URL field on your news reader. You should start receiving new feeds immediately. You will receive new stories when our web
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      Check out OnTri.com's implementation at:
      The Runner's and Triathlete's Web Digest is now available through an RSS feed for myYahoo at:
      [Long URL]
      The Digest is also available through other RSS Readers on request.

      If anyone is looking for a web mail provider, you might wish to consider Google's GMail. Currently you can get GMail by invitation
      only from a current user. My stock of "invites" has been replenished. If you are interested in getting FREE GMail account, contact
      me at: mailto:kparker@... .

      Microsoft(r) Alerts on RunnersWeb.com Inc.
      RunnersWeb.com Inc. now offers Microsoft(r) Alerts! This service lets you receive important messages through your MSN(r) Messenger
      or Windows(r) Messenger, your e-mail, or your mobile device. You can choose how and when you receive these messages by specifying
      your preferences during the easy setup process. Sign up at:

      Race Directors:
      Advertise your event on the Runner's Web.
      Year Session Total Session Daily Pageviews Total Pageviews Daily Hits Total Hits

      2005 2,749,670 7,753.35 14,652,389 40,143.53 45,586,536 124,894.62
      2004 1,786,510 4,881.17 9,564,629 26,132.87 34,204,661 93, 455.36
      % Increase 54% 59% 53% 54% 33% 34%

      For more information:
      For text ads check out our AdBrite partnership at:
      You can also list your events for free in our Interactive Calendars and on our Marathons, Races and Triathlons pages.

      THIS WEEK:
      Get the Runner's Web News Feed via email. Sign up at:

      Andy O'Rourke of Dundas, ON who identified the photo as Ingrid Kristiansen, Norway, has won our May Pegasus Quiz and receives a copy
      of Pegasus RunLog Software.

      Beginning April 30th and lasting through Mother's Day (5/11), adidas is offering 15% off women's products! Choose from a wide range
      of both apparel and footwear for performance, plus adidas Originals for style! Customers should use AFFILMD06 at check out.

      The Ottawa Race Weekend, Canada's largest running event, announced its first national charity partnership in 32 years with the
      Canadian Athletes Now Fund.
      The Canadian Athletes Now Fund is a not for profit organization that raises direct financial support for Canadian athletes so they
      can compete on the world stage. Since 1997, the Fund has raised over 4 million dollars and supported over 500 able bodied and
      paralympic athletes.
      This is a fabulous opportunity to support our Canadian athletes when they need the support the most. It takes tremendous dedication
      and training to be the best in the world and it also takes financial support.
      The Canadian Athletes Now Fund provides direct financial support to our Canadian athletes. Athletes allocate the funds they receive
      for equipment needs, coaching, training opportunities and proper nutrition.
      The Canadian Athletes Now Fund is looking for 2008 passionate and proud Canadians to run, walk or skate for our Canadian athletes
      during the Ottawa Race Weekend. When you join the Canadian Athletes Now Fund team you will find out which athlete your efforts will
      be supporting plus donations of $25 or more will receive a tax receipt.
      FREE Technical Running Shirt for all Canadian Athletes Now Fund Team members!
      To Donate or for more information visit: www.canadianathletesnow.ca
      or Call us at:1-866-YES-2008 .

      WIN a Trip for 2 to Scotiabank TORONTO WATERFRONT MARATHON
      Flat, fast and festive!
      Exciting, cosmopolitan, international, but right next door! "Experience middle earth and marathon heaven all in one trip to
      Toronto!" Join RW Hero Ed Whitlock, John "The Penguin" Bingham, and 10,000+ runners from 30 countries and 40+ states.

      Get the Runner's Web button for the Google Toolbar 4 for Internet Explorer at:
      This button will give you one-click access to the Runner's Web and the down-arrow will list the most recent of our RSS feeds.
      If you do not have Google Toolbar 4 you can get it from Google at:
      To download the Runner's Web Store button click on:
      To download the Runner's Web Coach button click on:
      To download the OAC Racing Team button click on:

      We are running a weekly quiz - starting Monday, March 20th - with the weekly winner getting FREE entry into the RunnersWeb5K.com
      Race for Women which will be held in Ottawa on June 24, 2006. Check it out at: http://www.runnersweb5K.com.
      Sub 18:00 5K women runners should contact me for FREE entry into the race.

      If you feel you have something to say (related to triathlon or running) that is worthy of a Guest Column on the Runner's Web, email
      us at:
      mailto:webmaster@... or leave your comments in one of our Forums at:
      http://www.runnersweb.com/running/forum.html or from our FrontPage.

      We have 1,690 subscribers as of publication time. Forward the Runner's Web Digest to a friend and suggest that they subscribe
      at: http://groups.yahoo.com/group/RunnersWeb/join .


      * Sports Nutrition by Sheila Kealey.
      Sheila is one of Ottawa's top multisport athletes and a member of the OAC Racing Team and X-C Ottawa. She has a Masters in Public
      Health and works in the field of nutritional epidemiology as a Research Associate with the University of California, San Diego. Her
      column index is available at:

      * Carmichael Training Systems
      Carmichael Training Systems was founded in 1999 by Chris Carmichael.
      From the beginning, the mission of the company has been to improve the lives of individuals we work with through the application of
      proper and effective fitness and competitive training techniques. Whether your focus is recreational, advanced, or you are a
      professional racer, the coaching methodology employed by CTS will make you a better athlete. Check the latest monthly column from
      CTS at:

      * Peak Performance Online
      Peak Performance is a subscription-only newsletter for athletes, featuring the latest research from the sports science world. We
      cover the whole range of sports, from running and rowing to cycling and swimming, and each issue is packed full of exclusive
      information for anyone who's serious about sport. It's published 16 times a year, including four special reports, by Electric Word
      plc. Peak Performance is not available in the shops - only our subscribers are able to access the valuable information we publish.
      Check out our article archive from Peak Performance Online at:

      * Peak Running Performance
      Peak Running Is The Nation's Most Advanced Running Newsletter. Rated as the #1 Running Publication by Road Runner Sports (Worlds
      Largest Running Store) , Peak Running caters to the serious / dedicated runner. Delivering world class running advice are some of
      running's most recognizable athletes including Dr. Joe Vigil (US Olympic Coach),
      Scott Tinley (2 Time Ironman Champ) Steve Scott (3 Time Olympian) and many more. This bi-monthly newsletter has been around for over

      13 years, and in the past two it has been awarded the "Golden Shoe Award" in recognition of it's outstanding achievements.
      Check out the Peak Running article index at:
      http://www.runnersweb.com/running/PRP_index.html .

      * WatsonLifeSport
      Lance Watson is "Just The Winningest Coach in Triathlon". He has been coaching triathlon and distance running since 1987. Over the
      years, Lance has coached some of the most successful athletes in the sport of triathlon and duathlon.
      Check out the Lance Watson Online Article Index at:

      Running Research News:
      RRN's free, weekly, training update provides subscribers with the most-current, practical, scientifically based information about
      training, sports nutrition, injury prevention, and injury rehabilitation. The purpose of this weekly e-zine is to improve
      subscribers' training quality and to help them train in an injury-free manner.
      Running Research News also publishes a complete, 12-page, electronic newsletter 10 times a year (one-year subscriptions are $35); to
      learn more about Running Research News, please see the Online Article Index and "About Running Research News" sections below or go
      to RRNews.com.
      Check out the article index at:

      We have NO personal postings this week.


      1. Multisport by Lance Watson: The Taper
      2. Dr. Gabe Mirkin's Fitness and Health E-Zine
      3. Multisport: Runners Stitch
      Exercise Related Transient Abdominal Pain - "Runner's Stitch" .
      4. Dynamic Duo - Running in Pregnancy
      5. Joe Henderson's Running Commentary - Talkathons
      6. The ABCs of Heart Rate Monitors
      7. With effort, it's possible to improve distance-running times
      8. My 2006 Boston Experience
      9. Long Road Back
      Depressed? No way. She was a supercharged ultrarunner. She raced hundreds of miles on the toughest courses, and won. Then one day
      Lisa Smith-Batchen woke up and couldn't run a step.
      10. SRM and PowerTap: How Accurate are They?
      11. The Athlete's Kitchen
      12. Ontario's Favourite Races
      13. From Runner's World
      14. Turn on the Power
      Energy System Specific Training.
      15. Muscle Cramps: Don't Cramp Your Style
      Muscle cramps can ruin a run. Here's how to sidestep them for good.
      16. Superfoods with oomph
      Fortify your diet with these natural, tasty star performers.
      17. Research Shows Anticipating Pain Hurts
      Researchers using brain scans to unravel the biology of dread have an explanation: For some people, anticipating pain is truly as
      bad as experiencing it.
      18. Easing race-day anxiety
      19. The Complete Electrolyte Story
      20. M2 Fuel-burning Efficiency---Food for Thought
      21. The Facts about Menstruation and Running
      22. New Rules of Stretching
      Use this myth-busting plan for breakthroughs in flexibility, performance and injury prevention.
      23. Caffeine: Yes or no?
      24. Eleven major marathon mistakes
      25. Digest Briefs

      "What attracts you to a road race or triathlon?"

      You can access the poll from our FrontPage ( http://www.runnersweb.com) as well
      as checking the results of previous polls.
      Post your views in our Forum at:
      [Free Registration Required]

      "Deena Kastor set a new American record of 2 hours 19 minutes 36 in winning the recent London Marathon. She was assisted by two male
      pacers one of which was her training partner despite the fact that the race was supposed to be a "women's race". Should pacers be
      Results at publication time:
      Answers Votes Percent
      1. No 56 70%
      2. Yes 22 28%
      3. No opinion 2 3%
      Total Votes: 80

      FIVE STAR SITE OF THE WEEK: Ayesha Rollinson, Triathlete.
      "I grew up in Midland Ontario on what I now affectionately call the Funny Farm. My parents made sure they exposed us to as much as
      they could when I was young. I competed in chess tournaments, I took Jazz lessons, I cooked by my mom's side (ok, I mostly measured
      ingredients and licked the bowl), I went to nature camps.but it was the sports that I loved. The competitive sports. I loved the
      feeling of winning. I loved setting tangible goals and reaching them. I loved the unbiased result of timed sports.
      Sport is the frame if my life is a picture. It has always been there and it has held everything together. From age 8 until 12 I swam
      competitively, then I decided to run with a competitive track team from 12 until 16. At the age of 16 I was recruited by the
      national triathlon team coach at the time and turned my focus to triathlon. I competed seriously for 4 years, once winning the
      Junior National Triathlon title and racing on the national team at 3 World Championships.
      Once I started studying Engineering at University I could not continue to excel at the sport of triathlon with the time I had
      available to train. Instead I decided that swimming with the U of T Varsity Team was more manageable. This turned out to be a good
      decision for many reasons. First, I excelled under Byron MacDonald and Linda Keiffer. I came away from my 4 years having qualified
      for and medaling at CIAUs. Second, the sport of triathlon became draft legal, which meant to be a top competitor you had to be a top
      Upon graduating, I took 2 years to get back into the sport at a local and national level, winning a provincial age group title in
      the process. I signed on with Adam Johnston and the Endurance Lab at the beginning of 2004 and that is when I hit the ITU circuit in
      full force. Working with a team - including coaches, doctors, a sport psychiatrist, a nutritionist, triathlon Canada - on every
      facet of my race I have been able to move up from being globally 'unranked' to being in the top 75 in the world in 2 short years. In
      2005 I raced to 2 ITU podium placements and was named to the World Championships National Team."
      Visit her website at:

      Send us your suggestions for our Five Star site. Please check our list of previous Five Star Sites available from the Five Star
      Window under the link "Previous Five Star Sites" as we do not wish to repeat a site unless it has undergone a major redesign.

      Our Photo Slideshow is updated on a random basis. Check it out from our FrontPage.

      BOOK OF THE WEEK: Lore of Running.
      Now revised, expanded and updated, Lore of Running gives you incomparable detail on physiology, training, racing, injuries,
      world-class athletes, and races.
      Author Tim Noakes blends the expertise of a physician and research scientist with the passion of a dedicated runner to answer the
      most pressing questions for those who are serious about the sport:
      . How your body systems respond to training, the effects of different training methods, how to detect and avoid overtraining, and
      genetic versus trainable potential
      . How to train for the 10K up through ultramarathon with detailed programs from Noakes and several leading running experts
      . How to prevent and treat injuries, increase your strength and flexibility, and use proper nutrition for weight control and maximum
      Buy the book from Human Kinetics at:


      1. Multisport by Lance Watson: The Taper :

      You've put in the hard work and there's a race coming up. What will you do to prepare your mind and muscles to step up on the day
      and give you the performance you are looking for? One of the tricks of tapering is to allow yourself to freshen up without losing
      feel or focus in getting ready for your big event.
      For an Olympic distance triathlon with a moderate level of importance it is typical to work hard up until one week before the race,
      followed by an easy day on Monday, some moderate work Tuesday-Wednesday-Thursday, and then have a very light Friday and Saturday
      prior to racing on Sunday. Workload in the week of the race includes specific range of motion and threshold-maintenance type sets
      that open up the arteries and remind you of what the effort and pace feels like. If you haven't raced since last season it is likely
      that your body has forgotten the feeling of racing and pushing its max. Short, high intensity sets will reduce the "shock" factor
      that your body might feel once the race gets under way but keep in mind you should not finish any set feeling completely empty or
      fatigued. You may start to feel like you have increased energy due to a lower volume of work however be aware and keep in mind that
      this is the time to rest and not push your limits. Push you limits during the race and save up for it.
      To taper for an Olympic distance race with a high level of importance you should start to unload two weeks out. Week No. 1 has
      high-intensity sets intermixed with more rest to maximize threshold boost and work on anaerobic capacity. There is no endurance
      work. That means no long easy runs, rides or swims. Week No. 2 starts with two days almost completely off (perhaps a light swim),
      followed by three very light days including small amounts of work at race pace (realistic race pace, not "dream race pace"), another
      easy day on Friday, and some race-specific tune-up work on Saturday before the big race on Sunday.
      More...from the Runner's Web at:

      2. Dr. Gabe Mirkin's Fitness and Health E-Zine:
      * Rests Between Intervals Should Not Be Too Short
      Athletes train by "stressing and recovering". On one day, they take a hard workout which damages their muscles, on the next day,
      they feel sore and take easy workouts, and when the soreness goes away, take a hard workout again. They also break down individual
      workouts into intervals of stress and recovery. After warming up, they increase the intensity of the workout until they feel burning
      in their muscles, become short of breath, or exceed a certain heart rate. Then they slow down and when they have recovered
      partially, they increase their intensity again. They repeat these stress and recovery intervals until their muscles start to stiffen
      and they are then stop the workout. A report from The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health in Morgantown, West
      Virginia shows that the shorter the rest during an interval, the longer it takes to recover (Medicine & Science in Sports &
      Exercise, August 2005).
      If you are a regular exerciser, you probably have already noticed this in your own body. Runners may take an interval workout of
      running ten quarter-miles averaging 65 seconds each, with a 110-yard jog lasting three minutes between each hard run. If they
      shorten their recoveries to two minutes, they tire earlier, their muscles feel sorer afterwards, and it takes them longer to
      recover. The same applies to weightlifters. A weightlifter may do four sets of ten repetitions of lifting a 150-pound weight,
      resting for three minutes between each set. If he shortens his interval rest to one minute, he may not be able to finish his
      workout, feels far more soreness during the workout and will be sore for many days after that workout.
      Athletes learn their ideal interval rest durations through trial and error. They may want to rest until their pulses drops enough
      for them to feel comfortable, or for them to be able to slow breathing rate down towards normal, or wait until their muscles lose
      soreness and they feel fresh. They do not wait for complete recovery of resting heart or breathing rate, or complete recovery from
      muscle soreness. Runners and cyclists often use heart rate monitors or a clock to determine when they will do their next interval.
      Weight lifters usually wait for their bodies to "feel" recovered. You can use whatever yardstick for recovery you like, but if it
      takes you longer than two days to recover from an interval workout, you are probably exercising too intensely, doing too many
      repetitions, or not taking a long enough interval rest.
      From Dr. Gabe Mirkin at: http://www.drmirkin.com

      3. Multisport: Runners Stitch:
      By Jenn Turner, BPHE (hon), DC, ARTR, CPTN- CPT, CCSS(C) (resident) - April 10/06
      Exercise Related Transient Abdominal Pain - "Runner's Stitch"
      Runner's stitch, or runner's cramp, is an injury that nearly every runner has experienced in the midst of or after a training
      session. Although this pain affects approximately 60% of competitive runners (2) and also other athletes (4), there has not been
      much scientific research conducted on this topic. The anatomic mechanism of the stitch is poorly understood. However, there are
      several anecdotal-only suggestions regarding stitches available on the Internet and in running/athletic magazines. More scientific
      testing in this area is needed as it affects a large number of athletes.
      84% of the athletes, who reported the presence of a stitch while exercising, said it negatively affected their performance. Most of
      these athletes simply reduced the intensity of their exercise while a few of these athletes had to stop exercising altogether in
      order for the stitch to cease (5). In a competitive environment, neither of these options is desirable.
      The scientific name for Runner's Stitch is Exercise Related Transient Abdominal Pain (ETAP.) It is a pain that occurs in the
      thoracic cage when running. Usually runners describe this pain as sharp or stabbing usually at one side, and up under the ribcage.
      Research has shown that the pain most often affects the right side and is more frequent and severe in younger athletes (2).
      Unfortunately, according to the research (5), runners suffered the stitch more frequently than all other types of athletes. ETAP was
      also found to occur commonly in horseback riders. Duathletes are also susceptible to this injury with the transition from run to
      bike and back to run again.
      More...from the Runner's Web at:

      4. Dynamic Duo - Running in Pregnancy:
      By Elaine Cooper
      First published in Australian Runner and Athlete magazine - March/April 1997.
      Pregnancy, what does this word conjure up in the mind of the uninitiated, female runner? The obvious answer is that it's part of the
      process of creating another little athlete. Yes, but what about the actual process, the nitty gritty of those amazing nine months.
      What is it like through the eyes, or indeed feet, of a runner? Friends, family and complete strangers will ply you with graphic
      details and advice even before that 'pink ring of confidence' has dried in your pregnancy test kit. You begin to contemplate nine
      months of nausea, piles and a declining max V02, followed by another year of 'crawling legless' out of a mire of nappies,
      breast-feeding, sleepless nights and exhaustion, trying to rebuild a runner from the ruins.
      Its at about this stage that you start to seek out other women runners who have trodden the path before you. Unfortunately,
      individuals vary. Some will depress you with tales of morning sickness and discomfort that brought their progression to a lumbering
      halt in about the sixth month. Others will stretch your boundaries of belief with accounts of marathons, cross-training and of how
      they didn't look pregnant until their tenth month.
      Ingrid Kristiansen is one such immortal. She carried on her usual regime of 200 km per week and couldn't work out why she was a
      little off par until she found she was pregnant in her fifth month. If that doesn't make you feel inferior, she also managed to run
      a PB marathon (2:27) around five months later, despite dropping her running back.
      Frustrated by a plethora of confusing and often, contradictory information, the runner seeks out the experts hoping for illumination
      and a handy set of rules. The pregnant runner soon begins to realise that there isn't a lot of research being done in this area,
      especially on subjects who have a reached a fairly high level of pre-pregnancy training.
      More...from Running Writing at:

      5. Joe Henderson's Running Commentary - Talkathons:
      Two of the best reasons to run have little to do with staying in shape or with training to race. These attractions are thinking and
      They aren't opposites but companions. Team running lets you talk freely with friends, while solo running allows a heart-to-heart
      talk with yourself. Both opportunities are scarce in a world long on loud noises and short on calm voices.
      Running alone with my thoughts is my choice most days. This hour a day is all mine -- time away from the phone, radio and computer
      that share my office, time to clear away the mental clutter so the good thoughts can bubble up. I don't carry pen and pad, but
      usually come back from run with ideas begging to be captured on paper.
      George Sheehan, one of the sport's all-time great writers, said he did his best "writing" away from his desk -- while running. He
      treasured the solitary times "when I've been able to withdraw from the world and be inside myself. Such moments can open doors
      impervious to force or guile."
      Talk with runners fills the rest of my day, so I feel little need to run with them. If I worked outside the sport, I'd want to talk
      my way into a partnership or group.
      Something in the act of running -- the rhythm, the sweat, the common purpose, the stripping of outer roles and inner restraints --
      loosens up one set of muscles above all others: those that operate the jaws. Listen in on two or more runners talking, and you'll
      never again believe that long-distance runners are a lonely breed.
      Dr. Sheehan balanced aloneness with togetherness. He once wrote that talking on the run "frees me from the polysyllabic jargon of my
      profession, removes me from the kind of talk which aims at concealing rather than revealing what is in my heart... For me no time
      passes faster than when running with a companion. An hour of conversation on the run is one of the quickest and most satisfying
      hours ever spent."
      Two of the best reasons for running, according to St. George, are contemplation and conversation. His third reason: competition,
      which he defined not as competing against others but joining them to bring out better work than we could ever do alone.
      A race is as different from a daily run as a private chat is from a public lecture. Conversing is easy, as taking a casual run is.
      Speaking before a group is as hard -- and as fearsome -- as racing, but the audience brings out the speaker's best words just as a
      race crowd brings out the best runs.
      I've always enjoyed talking casually with almost anyone about almost anything. But the prospect of speaking in public used to
      tongue-tie me with fear. I went through college hiding behind the tallest student in class to avoid being called on to comment.
      Soon after graduation I was forced to take the stage at running events and later was doing it voluntarily. Now I look forward to
      facing friendly crowds. The butterflies in my belly are now an expected and accepted part of the warm-up, as they are before any
      Even George Sheehan, perhaps the most skilled speaker this sport has known, paced and stewed before his lectures. Once onstage he
      spoke calmly and beautifully.
      More...from Joe Henderson at:

      6. The ABCs of Heart Rate Monitors:
      by Beverly Whelan
      The size of a regular sports watch, a Heart Rate Monitor is a digital unit that displays your pulse. The pulse's signal is
      transmitted wirelessly from a chest strap that accurately records the pulse from your heart vibrations. Most chest straps are so
      comfortable and feel so natural that it's easy to forget you're even wearing one.
      The features of Heart Rate Monitors vary widely; the most basic ones simply record and display current heart rate, as others come
      with speed and distance devices and measure caloric expenditure. While those extra features are useful for certain types of
      training, the most valuable feature is the heart rate measuring itself.
      Resting Heart Rate
      Before exercising with a Heart Rate Monitor, you need to know a few guideline numbers. First, you need to find your Resting Heart
      Rate. This should be measured within the first few minutes of waking up. Just put on your chest strap and watch, and they will
      automatically display a base heart rate number. Resting heart rate is normally between 60 and 72 bpm (beats per minute).
      Variance in your Resting Heart Rate indicates a change in physiological state. It increases just before you get sick, as well as
      when you are deficient of certain nutrients. For instance, anemia (low blood iron) increases a need for oxygen circulation by the
      blood, and so increases the heart rate. It is wise to measure your heart rate every morning, in order to prevent or quickly cure
      illnesses and deficiencies.
      More...from Runner's Web Coach at:

      7. With effort, it's possible to improve distance-running times:
      One question often heard from runners who have become racers is, "How do I run faster?"
      The usual reply is, "Train faster."
      Sounds easy enough, but how do we do it?
      With top runners clocking five-minute miles or less for the marathon distance of 26.2-miles, and shorter distances being covered
      well under that pace, what is their secret?
      The top runners cover more ground in the same time as most of us do. This is done through a longer stride. Some of the top runners
      cover nearly 6 feet in each stride they take.
      At 5-minute-per-mile pace, most top runners take 90 strides, or 180 steps. That pace means they are covering 1,056 feet per minute,
      or 5.8 feet per stride and this helps explain why they are so fast.
      Most of us cannot cover that much ground because our natural stride length is far from that of an elite runner, and increasing your
      stride length is very limited.
      It is possible though, to increase our cadence, the natural rhythm, or turnover of our legs.
      First, determine how many strides you are taking per minute by counting your steps for a half-minute, then doubling it to give you
      your base cadence.
      More...from the Sheboygan Press at:

      8. My 2006 Boston Experience:
      By Clint Verran
      6:35 AM
      I woke up five minutes before my alarm on Monday, April 17th, Patriot's Day in Boston. I took a hot shower and started filling my 8
      fluid bottles with Powerade Advance. Halfway through filling my bottles, Brian Sell knocks on my door.5 minutes early. He was ready
      to go. He helped me finish off filling my last couple of bottles, then we set off for the Copley Plaza Hotel, across the street.
      At the Copley Plaza, we place our fluid bottles on tables marked for each 5K elite fluid station. Before we knew what hit us, our
      coach Kevin Hanson has a 6 page course map with the current temperature and wind conditions for each stage of the race. "He's been
      up all night" I think to myself.
      7:10 AM
      Brian and I head back to the John Hancock Convention Center for breakfast. I eat a medium sized plate of plain pasta (no sauce), a
      banana, a large banana-nut muffin, and 2 pieces of bacon. I wash it all down with some Gatorade Endurance and a cup of coffee. Time
      to head back up to my room.
      7:45 AM
      In my room, I double check the bag I'm taking to the start. Singlet with bib numbers, check. Racing flats with chip, check. Fresh
      socks, Vaseline, hat, gloves, cell phone.check! I grab up everything I think I need and head down to the second floor, where John
      Hancock race officials are staging the elite runners. The officials actually check MY bag to make sure I've got my bib number and
      chip. While they check, they tell tales of professional runners arriving at the start in Hopkinton with 2 left shoes. What a
      surprise that would be!
      8:45 AM
      Our Hancock escorts take us down through the Convention Center lobby through a tunnel of volunteers clapping and cheering. The buzz
      was definitely in the air. And the race start was still over 3 hours away. Brian and I piled into the 3rd of three coach-style buses
      with about two dozen other athletes, coaches, agents, and race-volunteers. At exactly 9AM our bus leaves for Hopkinton.
      As with 2002, I was amazed at how long the trip to Hopkinton is. This is despite a police escort! Keith Hanson was on the bus with
      us and commented, "This is how the President travels." I said, "Yeah, or a funeral procession!"
      More...from RunGuru.com at:

      9. Long Road Back:
      Depressed? No way. She was a supercharged ultrarunner. She raced hundreds of miles on the toughest courses, and won. Then one day
      Lisa Smith-Batchen woke up and couldn't run a step.
      Lisa Smith-Batchen didn't even know why she was behind the wheel that afternoon in early 2005, until she saw the long plunge to the
      rocky canyon floor beneath Teton Pass and it suddenly made sense. She hates heights, but for once the view didn't frighten her. It
      felt restful. It felt-responsible.
      "Everyone will be better off without me," she told herself. All the misery her husband, Jay, had gone through because of her. All
      the terror her 5-year-old son, Joshua, had endured because of the mistake she'd made. All the chaos that 20-month-old Annabella had
      been through. All because of her.
      She hadn't planned to drive off the bridge when she set out this afternoon. Or had she? Was it a coincidence that after months of
      barely being able to drag herself around the house, she had this overpowering urge to get behind the wheel and go? Maybe she just
      refused to admit, even to herself, the real reason she was backing the van away from her home in Driggs, Idaho, and heading east
      toward Jackson Hole, Wyoming.
      "There's no other way you'll escape this pain," she told herself, which would have surprised anyone who knew her, because pain was
      her fame; she'd made such a specialty out of mastering pain that she looked forward to it in a race, the way a power lifter looks
      forward to the feel of steel. But a lot about Lisa had changed; her friends wouldn't have recognized her as the same freckled blond
      beauty with the chiseled midriff who'd dazzled on the cover of Winning magazine a few years before, or who-just six months
      earlier-had glowed at the completion of the first, and only, "Badwater Grand Slam."
      To accomplish that, she'd run four major 100-mile races and the Badwater Ultramarathon, which stretches 135 miles across Death
      Valley in the blistering heat of summer: 535 miles and 80,000-plus feet of elevation, the equivalent of 20 trail marathons in just
      10 weeks. At one point during her adventure she had to red-eye directly from a finish line in Vermont to a starting line in
      California. But when she had crossed the fifth and final finish line, Lisa looked as fresh and beautiful as the day she'd started,
      beaming that apple-cheeked grin that attracts every eye in every room she enters.
      More...from MSN at:

      10. SRM and PowerTap: How Accurate are They?
      By Dr. Stephen Cheung, Ph.D.
      Most of us have been inundated with the beauty of power as the purest and best training variable to monitor. Before jumping on
      the power bandwagon however, it's important to understand just how accurate and reliable these units are. Fortunately, the Aussie
      sports scientists have done exactly that.
      Power to the People
      It is no secret that the use of power monitors have revolutionized training in cycling, providing quantifiable data that advances
      and complements heart rate monitoring. The problem however, even for the most well-heeled amongst us, is justifying the huge
      financial outlay. Being a science geek, I'm not here today to sell you on the merits of power training (see our recent articles on
      why Santa should bring you a power monitor and also on the power output of T-Mobile pros during a stage race), but suffice to say
      that power monitors can be a vital cog in maximizing your training.
      Accuracy and Reliability Defined
      What DOES interest me, however, is whether these tools are accurate and reliable, which is by far the most important parameter in
      monitoring tools. Accuracy refers to whether the tool is actually measuring what it claims to be measuring. In this case, is the
      readout of 200 W on the monitor actually 200 W, or is it 210 W in reality? Reliability refers to the repeatability of measurement.
      If an identical power (e.g., 200 W) is recorded on this interval, will the same power output read 200 W again the next interval? The
      next day?
      In many senses, reliability is the more important of the two parameters when talking about the utility of a tool, whether it be a
      power monitor or a bathroom scale for measuring body weight. That's because, the vast majority of the time, the important thing is
      not to compare your values with anybody else, but to track your individual response over time. To further the bathroom scale
      analogy, it is more important that my weight reads the same when I weigh myself twice in a row, and not as important whether my
      "real" weight is 64 or 65 kg.
      What the Aussies do for Fun
      Thank goodness for us that the sport scientists at the Australian Institute for Sport have a lot of toys on their hands, along with
      the time to play with them. In a 2004 scientific article in the well-respected journal Medicine and Science in Sport and Exercise,
      Gardner et al. (1) systematically tested the accuracy and reliability of two of the dominant power monitors on the market - SRM and
      More...from Pez Cycling at:

      11. The Athlete's Kitchen:
      Copyright: Nancy Clark, March 2006
      Sports Nutrition Tidbits
      If you are eager to learn more about how to best fuel your body for top performance, you might enjoy muscling through three pounds
      and 557 pages of Sports Nutrition: A Practice Manual for Professionals. The new fourth edition of this in-depth resource was
      recently released by SCAN, the sports nutrition practice group of the American Dietetic Association. (It is available at
      www.eatright.org. Click on Shop Online.)
      Although this resource book is written primarily for sports dietitians, strength coaches, athletic trainers and other health
      professionals who influence an athlete's eating practices, serious runners might also like to feast on this hard-core (but well
      written and relatively easy to read) book that will answer all sports nutrition questions from A to Z, including alcohol, carbs,
      calories, fats, fluids, protein, vegetarian, diet, weight gain, zinc-plus more! To give you a taste of the information in the book,
      here are a few sports nutrition nuggets that might be of interest.
      . The average 150-pound runner has only 1,000 to 2,000 calories of stored carbohydrates (glycogen), but over 80,000 to 120,000
      calories of stored fat. Most of the fat is deposited in adipose tissue under the skin, but a little bit is also stored directly in
      the muscles and is an important source of fuel, especially during long runs.
      . Don't try to eat a fat-free diet! The recommended intake for athletes is about 0.5 grams fat/lb. body weight/day. This equates to
      60 to 80 grams per day of dietary fat for runners who weigh 120 to 160 pounds. That's 15 to 20 teaspoons of butter! Preferably, the
      fat comes from healthful sources: nuts, peanut butter, olive and canola oil, and avocado.
      . While some fat is good, excess calories of fat are fattening. Your body easily stores excess dietary fat as body fat. That's why
      you want to carefully carbo-load on pasta and breads, not fat-load on Alfredo sauce, butter, cheese or chips.
      . Your body stores carbohydrates in the muscles in the form of glycogen (1,200 to 1,600 calories) and also in the liver (300 to 400
      cals); this feeds into the bloodstream (100 cals) and fuels your brain. During hard training that depletes your muscle glycogen and
      you enhance your body's ability to store even more glycogen; this enhances your ability to run for longer before "hitting the wall."
      . Runners should eat at least 2 grams carb/lb. body weight per day. That's a minimum of 240 gm carb (about 1,000 calories) per day
      for a 120 lb. woman and equates to 10 pieces of fruit or 5 cups of cooked pasta. Runners in hard training actually should eat 4 to 5
      gm carb per pound body weight. No Atkins diet here!
      . Adult runners require about 0.5 to 0.75 gram protein per pound (1.2 to 1.7 g pro/kg). Scientific evidence suggests if you eat more
      than 0.8 gm pro/lb. (1.8 gm pro/kg), you'll burn the excess protein for energy. In other words, eating a very high protein diet does
      not result in greater muscle gain, even with intense resistance training. To bulk up, eat more overall calories so you'll have
      abundant energy to do the hard work needed to build muscles.
      . Because eating before exercise can enhance performance. Research suggests you should target: 0.5 gram carb/lb body weight 1 hour
      pre-exercise; 1.0 gram carb/lb 2 hours pre-exercise; 1.5 gram carb/lb 3 hours pre-exercise; 2.0 gram carb/lb 4 hours pre-exercise.
      This means if you weigh 150 pounds, you need about 75 grams carbohydrates-about 300 calories-of carb one hour pre-run, and 1,200
      calories four hours out. This tends to be far more than most runners consume. Experiment to learn how much your body can tolerate,
      and try to build up to this target if you currently eat less than this.
      . Consuming carbs during endurance runs can delay fatigue by 30 to 60 minutes. Target about 1 gram carb per minute of
      running-equivalent to 240 calories of carbs per hour if you weigh about 150 pounds. That's about 1 quart of Powerade per hour.
      . Consuming carbs as soon as tolerable after a hard run enhances muscle glycogen replacement because-
      1) the blood flow to the muscles is faster immediately after exercise, so carbs can get carried to the muscles faster;
      2) the muscles are better able to take up the carbs because of increased sensitivity to insulin, the hormone that helps
      transport carbs into muscles. Plan to have banana, fruit yogurt, fruit smoothie, and/or fig bars readily available.
      . Both liquid and solid carbs refuel the muscles equally well, so take your choice: chocolate milk or a pasta dinner.
      . While many runners believe "thinner is better," don't try to get your body fat below five percent (men) or 12 percent (women).
      Each runner has a fat percentage and body weight at which he or she performs best. Hence, you should listen to your body, and take
      note of how you feel and perform, as opposed to force your body to achieve a self-selected number.
      . Warning: Body fat measurements-even under research conditions-can be plus or minus three to four percent. If you are told your
      body fat is 16 percent, it might be 13 percent or 19 percent. Just having a different person measure your body fat can significantly
      alter the measurement. Use body fat measurements only as a guide and give yourself a body fat range.
      . At rest, your body burns approximately 0.45 calorie per pound per hour. If you weigh 150 pounds, you burn about 70 calories per
      hour of bed rest, or about 1,700 calories during 24 hours of doing nothing except staying alive. Doing moderate exercise, such as
      brisk walking at a pace of 15 minutes per mile, you burn about 375 calories per hour. Running at a pace of 5.5 minutes per mile you
      burn about 1,200 calories per hour.
      Clearly, the harder you exercise, the more you can eat! But take heed: hard workouts followed by naps reduce your daily calorie
      needs. Runners who turn into post-exercise couch potatoes commonly reward themselves with too much food and fail to attain their
      desired weight goals.
      Sports dietitian Nancy Clark, MS, RD teaches runners and other active people how to eat to support their hard training. She has a
      private practice at Healthworks (617-383-6100) in Chestnut Hill, MA. Her books, Sports Nutrition Guidebook ($23), Food Guide for
      Marathoners: Tips for Everyday Champions ($20) and Cyclist's Food Guide ($20) are available via www.nancyclarkrd.com or PO Box
      650124, Newton MA 02465.
      Phone: (617) 795-1875 Fax: (617) 795-1876

      12. Ontario's Favourite Races:
      Favourite Races
      Over the past year, volunteer Bill Cook has been collating race quality forms and providing feedback to directors to improve their
      races. Completing quality forms at races contributes to improving those races.
      Additionally, quality forms give you the chance to support your favourite races. Bill has assembled the top ten races in Ontario.
      The Snow Flake Series in Orillia are the most popular races by far. Congratulations to Barry Dobson on running the most popular
      races in Ontario.
      The St. Joseph Island Cornfest and the Mad Dog Scramble in Toronto/Scarborough round out the top three races.
      1. Snowflake Series, Orillia (5 & 10km races), 56 votes / 3 races
      2. St. Joseph Island Cornfest 5 & 10km Run/Walk, 48 votes
      3. Mad Dog Scramble 8km, (Toronto/Scarborough), 29 votes
      4. Collingwood Half Marathon, 14 votes
      5. (Tie) Massey Marathon (and Half), (Massey), 12 votes
      5. (Tie) Ottawa National Capital Marathon, 12 votes
      6. Night Crawler 5 Miler, (Toronto), 10 votes
      7. Achilles (Peterborough) 5km, 7 votes
      8. Scotiabank Marathon (Toronto), 6 votes
      9. (Tie) Ganaraska 25 & 50km, 5 votes
      9. (Tie) Toronto Zoo 10km (Toronto), 5 votes
      Plus a special mention to " Run for the Toad " in Cambridge. There were six forms, plus 18 mail-in votes. I think this is one of the
      few races that people have written in to tell us about!
      Smaller town races seem to be the more popular than the big city events.

      13. From Runner's World:
      * Coach's Corner
      "Never underestimate the value of a good training partner, even if it's your dog. Training allies will get you out the door on
      those days when exercise might otherwise be reduced to a finger on the remote control button." -Runner's World Editors
      * Injury Prevention
      Ease side stitch pain:
      When a stitch strikes, concentrate on breathing from your belly with every exhale, then pull your abdomen and chest in on every
      inhale. After four full breaths, visualize the cramp and try to direct your breath to it, as if you were massaging it away.
      * Performance Nutrition
      The Brighter Your Veggies, The Better They Are For You!
      Many of the natural pigments in fruits and vegetables are potent antioxidants, so the more pigment a fruit or vegetable has, the
      more healthful it is to eat. Many berries are already naturally dense in pigment. So eat a variety of naturally brightly colored
      fruits and veggies every day for maximum antioxidant punch.
      A helping of herbs can add formidable flavor--and antioxidant powers--to any meal
      * Editor's Advice
      Go for the goal:
      "Use racing to keep you motivated. It's hard to keep on an exercise program if you don't have a significant goal in sight." -Traci
      Nicholas, RW marketing designer
      * Training Talk
      "At the track, Webb dives into each repetition, bursting off the line like a sprinter coming out of the blocks, leaning forward,
      pumping his legs in short, quick strides, and straightening up slowly after that." From SUB 4:00 by Chris Lear

      14. Turn on the Power:
      Energy System Specific Training.
      We usually talk of energy in vague terms. "I don't have a lot of energy today," or "You can feel the energy in the room." But what
      really is energy? Where do you get the energy to run? And how do you get more of it so you can run faster?
      As our high school biology teachers taught us, the energy to move our bodies comes from the chemical breakdown of a high-energy
      metabolic compound found in our muscles called adenosine triphosphate, or ATP. Simplistically speaking, running faster comes down to
      increasing the rate at which ATP is produced so it can be broken down to liberate energy for muscle contraction.
      Like many other animals, humans produce ATP through three biochemical pathways. The phosphagen system (also called the ATP-CP
      system) uses our muscles' store of creatine phosphate and their small store of ATP to anaerobically power short bursts of running.
      Anaerobic glycolysis, which occurs in the fluid-filled portion of cells, breaks down blood glucose and glycogen (the stored form of
      carbohydrate in your muscles and liver) to get ATP. Finally, the aerobic system, which includes the biology teacher's
      often-mentioned Krebs cycle and electron transport chain, uses blood glucose, glycogen, and fat to synthesize ATP aerobically in the
      mitochondria of cells.
      Despite the anaerobic nature of the phosphagen system and glycolysis, oxygen is still present. These two anaerobic systems simply do
      not use oxygen to produce ATP, since that is a much slower process. Which system you use for the primary production of ATP depends
      on how quickly you need it and how much of it you need. A sprinter, for instance, needs energy much more quickly than a distance
      runner and will thus rely on different systems. The production of ATP is never achieved by the exclusive use of only one energy
      system, but rather by the coordinated response of all energy systems contributing to different degrees.
      More...from Running Times Magazine at:

      15. Muscle Cramps: Don't Cramp Your Style:
      Muscle cramps can ruin a run. Here's how to sidestep them for good.
      At mile 18 of the Shamrock Marathon last March, Scott Young's right calf began to cramp. The sharp pain came and went for the last 8
      miles of the race. "The worst cramp nearly doubled me over just as I crossed the finish line, keeping me from finishing the race
      with my head up," says Young, 51, a social worker who lives in Virginia Beach, Va. Needless to say, Young's finish-line photo left
      something to be desired.
      His experience is common to runners. Muscle cramps are disabling, involuntary spasms that often occur during exercise or
      competition, most often in the large muscles of the lower leg. Although, be aware: They can hit anywhere.
      And once you've had these cramps, you never forget them. "Every time I go out for a long run now, the fear of cramping is always in
      the back of my mind," says Young.
      Muscle cramps are one of the most common medical complaints from athletes during endurance events, especially marathons and
      triathlons, according to Martin P. Schwellnus, M.D., professor of sports medicine at the University of Cape Town, in South Africa.
      No one really knows for sure what causes them, and there is ongoing debate on the subject. The theories are varied and range from
      excessive heat, dehydration, and the loss of electrolytes, to muscle fatigue, insufficient training, and poor stretching habits. The
      newest theories focus on the interaction between nerves and muscles.
      More...from Runner's World at:

      16. Superfoods with oomph:
      Fortify your diet with these natural, tasty star performers.
      grandma have been right about carrots making you see in the dark? Human beings have always sought the fountain of youth. At the very
      least, we want that elusive silver bullet that will keep us feeling bright-eyed and bushy-tailed well into old age.
      Could it be garlic? Broccoli?
      The hunt is on for superfoods: Foods with extra nutritional oomph, qualities that will supposedly combat all those vile trans fats
      and vicious free radicals that cause premature aging. (Free radicals are harmful molecules that are blamed for cancer, heart
      disease, even Alzheimer's.)
      The superfood movement began as research into functional foods went mainstream when celebrity authors Dr. Steven Pratt and Dr.
      Nicholas Perricone began popping up with books and appearances on Oprah and Good Morning America.
      According to Edmonton health food retailer Shelley Robertson of The Big Fresh, "We're now looking toward whole food as supplements,
      rather than vitamin supplements. Foods like acai (pronounced ah-sigh-ee) berries; in fact, most dehydrated berries (blueberries,
      cranberries) are extremely high in antioxidants, and are aggressive free-radical scavengers."
      Dale Wishewan, president and CEO of Booster Juice, is a huge fan of acai, and sells three different versions, all of which are going
      like hotcakes.
      "It's a terrific energy booster," says Mr. Wishewan, who sells it in his shops in Canada, the U.S. and the Middle East.
      "A natural sports drink, it has the potassium and sodium we need for recovery after strenuous activity. It's also extremely high in
      antioxidants. Acai, and matcha green tea, are both extremely popular with our customers."
      More...from Canada.com at:

      17. Research Shows Anticipating Pain Hurts:
      Researchers using brain scans to unravel the biology of dread have an explanation: For some people, anticipating pain is truly as
      bad as experiencing it.
      Anyone who's ever taken a preschooler to the doctor knows they often cry more before the shot than afterward. Now researchers using
      brain scans to unravel the biology of dread have an explanation: For some people, anticipating pain is truly as bad as experiencing
      How bad? Among people who volunteered to receive electric shocks, almost a third opted for a stronger zap if they could just get it
      over with, instead of having to wait.
      More importantly, the research found that how much attention the brain pays to expected pain determines whether someone is an
      ''extreme dreader'' -- suggesting that simple diversions could alleviate the misery.
      The research, published Friday in the journal Science, is part of a burgeoning new field called neuroeconomics that uses brain
      imaging to try to understand how people make choices. Until now, most of that work has focused on reward, the things people will do
      for positive outcomes.
      ''We were interested in the dark side of the equation,'' explained Dr. Gregory Berns of Emory University, who led the new study.
      ''Dread often makes us make bad decisions.''
      Standard economic theory says that people should postpone bad outcomes for as long as possible, because something might happen in
      the interim to change improve the outlook.
      In real life, the ''just get it over with'' reaction is more likely, said Berns, a professor of psychiatry and behavioral sciences.
      He offers a personal example: He usually pays credit card bills as soon as they arrive instead of waiting until they're due, even
      though ''it doesn't make any sense economically.''
      So Berns designed a study to trace dread inside the brain. He put 32 volunteers into an MRI machine while giving them a series of 96
      electric shocks to the foot. The shocks varied in intensity, from barely detectable to the pain of a needle jab.
      Participants were told one was coming, how strong it would be, and how long the wait for it would be, from 1 to 27 seconds.
      More...from the NY Times at:

      18. Easing race-day anxiety:
      You're at the start line -- palms sweating, pulse racing, stomach churning. You're in such a state -- untying and retying your
      shoes, jogging in place -- you're not sure you'll reach the first mile marker, much less the finish.
      "Butterflies," multiple trips to the port-o-potty, even forgetfulness (Where did I put that packet of Gu?) are all classic signs of
      race-day anxiety. And if you experience any of these symptoms, rest assured you're not alone.
      Everyone from Olympic athletes to weekend warriors experience hiccups in self-confidence, putting their performance at risk.
      But race-day nerves in themselves aren't bad. It's a matter of degree. A little nervous energy can elevate your body's adrenaline
      level, enhance your alertness and build your competitive edge. Too much, though, can ruin your results.
      So how do you stay in control? It comes down to mastering a few simple mental techniques, experts say.
      More...from Active.com at:

      19. The Complete Electrolyte Story:
      Reviewed and Updated by ERB member Neal Henderson MS, CSCS: Director of Sports Science at the Boulder Center for Sports Medicine
      Electrolytes, the mineral salts that conduct the electrical energy of the body, perform a cellular balancing act by allowing
      nutrients into the cell, while helping to remove waste products. Certain elements, sodium, chloride, magnesium, calcium and
      potassium, play a primary role in cellular respiration -- that of muscle contraction and nerve impulse transmission. It is at the
      cell membrane where these electrolytes conduct electrical currents similar to nerve impulses. Hydration is the medium which aids
      electrolyte transport and is crucial for both the health and performance of the cell. Your hydration state is mostly dependent upon
      water intake or loss thru sweat but is also heavily influenced by electrolyte status.
      Sweat: Endurance performance is compromised more by warmer temperatures than by cooler temperatures. Here's why: to control an
      excessive rise in body temperature, the blood flow to the skin increases in order to dissipate heat to the environment. This shift
      of blood to the skin will result in a lesser proportion of blood, and hence oxygen, being delivered to the working muscle. In some
      individuals the circulatory adjustments may not be adequate and the body temperature will rise rapidly, leading to hyperthermia
      (excessive body heat). Individual sweat rates vary, but those that sweat early, heavily, and cake with salt tend to be more prone to
      muscle cramps during exercise (Burke, 2001). Evaporation of sweat in a hot environment can purge as much as 3 liters an hour.
      Alberto Salazar reportedly lost an average of 3.7 liters per hour of sweat during the hot and humid 1984 Olympic Marathon in LA
      (Armstrong et al. 1986). About 99% of sweat is water, with a number of major electrolytes found in varying amounts. Since sweat is
      derived from the extracellular fluid (fluid outside the cell) the major electrolytes found are sodium and chloride. The
      concentration of salt in sweat is variable, but averages about 2.6 grams per liter of sweat loss. Potassium, magnesium, calcium,
      iron, copper, zinc, amino acids and some of the water-soluble vitamins can also be found in sweat.
      Too much water? Hyponatremia is defined as a decrease in sodium concentration in the blood, which can have adverse effects on muscle
      contraction and performance. One study observed 27% of participants following a three-day cycling stage race competition were
      hyponatremic. Symptoms of hyponatremia include headache, nausea, muscle cramping, fatigue, and possibly death. Although there may be
      many causes of hyponatremia, the most common one for athletes is overhydration. Athletes tend to superhydrate in the days leading up
      to a race without an appropriate increase in electrolytes. In some cases, superhydrating can produce hyponatremia prior to the race
      ever starting. However, drinking only water during a race can also causes hyponatremic conditions because the body requires
      electrolytes to effectively maintain hydration status. Hyponatremia, rare in events lasting less than 4 hours, has been shown in
      recent medical studies of slower marathon runners and ultra-distance triathletes to be at least as problematic and dangerous...if
      not more so...than dehydration.
      Sodium and Chloride: Sodium is one of the principle positive ions in the body's fluid and is found primarily outside the cell
      (extracellular). Chloride, another extracellular electrolyte, is a negative ion and works closely with sodium in the regulation of
      body-water balance and electrical impulses across the cell membrane. Consuming adequate amounts of sodium and chloride, more
      commonly known as table salt, is crucial to maintaining the volume and balance of fluids outside your b<br/><br/>(Message over 64 KB, truncated)
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