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Runner's and Triathlete's Web Digest - February 3, 2006

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  • Ken Parker
    A FREE WEEKLY E-ZINE OF MULTISPORT RELATED ARTICLES. The Runner s and Triathlete s Web Digest is a weekly e-zine dealing with the sports of running and
    Message 1 of 1 , Feb 3, 2006
      The Runner's and Triathlete's Web Digest is a weekly e-zine dealing with the sports of running and triathlon and general fitness and
      health issues. The opinions expressed in the articles referenced by the Digest are the opinions of the writers and not necessarily
      those of the Runner's Web. To comment on any stories in the Digest visit our Forum at:
      The Original Runner's and Triathlete's Web was founded in January of 1997 and is not in any way associated with the two UK "Runner's
      Web" copycat sites or the Runner's Web Book Store in the USA.

      Visit the Runner's Web at http://www.runnersweb.com The site is updated multiple times daily. Check out our daily news, features,
      polls, trivia, bulletin boards and more. General questions should be posted to one of our forums available from our FrontPage.


      1. Runner's Web Online Store:
      Through a partnership with HDO Sports, the Runner's and Triathlete's Web has opened an online store. Check it out for your shopping

      2. RunnersWebCoach
      Through a partnership with HDO Training, the Runner's And Triathlete's Web now offers Interactive Training.

      3. Road Runner Sports, the world's largest running store at:

      4. National Capital Race Weekend - Ottawa, ON May 26 - 28, 2006

      5. Toronto Waterfront Marathon. September 24, 2006.

      6. The Toronto Marathon, October 15, 2006

      7. LifeSport by Lance Watson - Professional Coaching
      Lance Watson has been coaching triathlon and distance running since 1987. Over the years, Lance has coached some of the most
      successful athletes in the sport of triathlon and duathlon. A Human Kinetics graduate (sport psychology minor), Lance has had the
      opportunity to work with and be mentored by numerous world-class swim, bike, run and triathlon coaches and liaise with many top
      sport professionals (scientists, psychologists, nutritionists, therapists, etc.)
      Lance has coached at the 2000 Olympics, 2002 Commonwealth Games and 2003 Pan American Games. He has been head coach at several
      national-team events and coached at various Ironman, ITU World Cup and world championship events. As well, he was an award recipient
      as "Triathlon Canada Elite Coach Of The Year" four consecutive years from 2000-2003. He was the 2004 Olympic Team Head Coach

      The Runner's Web is a member of Running USA, The National Professional Organization for the Running Industry.

      This newsletter has been composed using Outlook set to "Text" format. The Digest is sent via an email list at
      If you experience any delays in receiving your copy of the Digest, please advise us at:
      You can receive the digest in three ways:
      1. Immediately, via email,
      2. Daily, in an email summary, and
      3. By accessing the YahooGroups.com web site on demand.
      The mail list has been set to not allow attachments out of concerns for viruses.
      Also, all messages must be approved by the monitor (me) prior to being released to the group. If you have any questions regarding
      the options available for receiving this digest,
      please do NOT email the list, rather email me directly at
      **[ Some e-mail clients may split the URL address into two lines. If you have trouble connecting to a link, be sure that you paste
      the entire address into your browser, so that it ends in ".html" or another appropriate suffix ].
      Note: An increasing number of media sites require free registration. If you wish to sign up for free access to sources for our
      articles without using your main email address we suggest the use of a mail alias program such as http://www.emailias.com.

      Check out our RSS auto-feeds page for automated news updates:

      What Is RSS?
      RSS (Rich Site Summary) is a feed of headlines that will automatically update and display in an RSS News Reader. RSS feeds are an
      increasingly popular method of distributing simplified web content to users through XML. When you see a little orange XML button,
      you know you can subscribe to RSS feeds.
      How to Get Started
      First you will need to download an RSS Reader. These are usually free to download, just search for "RSS Reader". Some readers will
      be able to pick up the feed just by clicking the link. If not, just ignore the code on the page and copy the link location/URL into
      the feed URL field on your news reader. You should start receiving new feeds immediately. You will receive new stories when our web
      site is updated.
      Get our Syndicated headlines for you site.
      Add the Runner's Web News feed to your site through a simple JavaScript.
      Check out OnTri.com's implementation at:
      The Runner's and Triathlete's Web Digest is now available through an RSS feed for myYahoo at:
      [Long URL]
      The Digest is also available through other RSS Readers on request.

      If anyone is looking for a web mail provider, you might wish to consider Google's GMail. Currently you can get GMail by invitation
      only from a current user. My stock of "invites" has been replenished. If you are interested in getting FREE GMail account, contact
      me at: mailto:kparker@....

      Microsoft(r) Alerts on RunnersWeb.com Inc.
      RunnersWeb.com Inc. now offers Microsoft(r) Alerts! This service lets you receive important messages through your MSN(r) Messenger
      or Windows(r) Messenger, your e-mail, or your mobile device. You can choose how and when you receive these messages by specifying
      your preferences during the easy setup process. Sign up at:

      Race Directors:
      Advertise your event on the Runner's Web.
      Year Session Total Session Daily Pageviews Total Pageviews Daily Hits Total Hits
      2005 2,749,670 7,753.35 14,652,389 40,143.53 45,586,536 124,894.62
      2004 1,786,510 4,881.17 9,564,629 26,132.87 34,204,661 93,455.36
      % Increase 54% 59% 53% 54% 33% 34%

      For more information:
      For text ads check out our AdBrite partnership at:
      You can also list your events for free in our Interactive Calendars and on our Marathons, Races and Triathlons pages.

      THIS WEEK:

      Up until April 1st (April Fool's Day!) you can get a FREE subscription to Geezer Jock Magazine.
      Check it out at:

      If you feel you have something to say (related to triathlon or running) that is worthy of a Guest Column on the Runner's Web, email
      us at:
      mailto:webmaster@... or leave your comments in one of our Forums at:
      http://www.runnersweb.com/running/forum.html or from our FrontPage.

      We have 1,554 subscribers as of publication time. Forward the Runner's Web Digest to a friend and suggest that they subscribe at:
      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/RunnersWeb/join .


      * Sports Nutrition by Sheila Kealey.
      Sheila is one of Ottawa's top multisport athletes and a member of the OAC Racing Team and X-C Ottawa. She has a Masters in Public
      Health and works in the field of nutritional epidemiology as a Research Associate with the University of California, San Diego. Her
      column index is available at:

      * Carmichael Training Systems
      Carmichael Training Systems was founded in 1999 by Chris Carmichael.
      From the beginning, the mission of the company has been to improve the lives of individuals we work with through the application of
      proper and effective fitness and competitive training techniques. Whether your focus is recreational, advanced, or you are a
      professional racer, the coaching methodology employed by CTS will make you a better athlete. Check the latest monthly column from
      CTS at:

      * Peak Performance Online
      Peak Performance is a subscription-only newsletter for athletes, featuring the latest research from the sports science world. We
      cover the whole range of sports, from running and rowing to cycling and swimming, and each issue is packed full of exclusive
      information for anyone who's serious about sport. It's published 16 times a year, including four special reports, by Electric Word
      plc. Peak Performance is not available in the shops - only our subscribers are able to access the valuable information we publish.
      Check out our article archive from Peak Performance Online at:

      * Peak Running Performance
      Peak Running Is The Nation's Most Advanced Running Newsletter. Rated as the #1 Running Publication by Road Runner Sports (Worlds
      Largest Running Store) , Peak Running caters to the serious / dedicated runner. Delivering world class running advice are some of
      running's most recognizable athletes including Dr. Joe Vigil (US Olympic Coach),
      Scott Tinley (2 Time Ironman Champ) Steve Scott (3 Time Olympian) and many more. This bi-monthly newsletter has been around for over
      13 years, and in the past two it has been awarded the "Golden Shoe Award" in recognition of it's outstanding achievements.
      Check out the Peak Running article index at:
      http://www.runnersweb.com/running/PRP_index.html .

      * WatsonLifeSport
      Lance Watson is "Just The Winningest Coach in Triathlon". He has been coaching triathlon and distance running since 1987. Over the
      years, Lance has coached some of the most successful athletes in the sport of triathlon and duathlon.
      Check out the Lance Watson Online Article Index at:

      Running Research News:
      RRN's free, weekly, training update provides subscribers with the most-current, practical, scientifically based information about
      training, sports nutrition, injury prevention, and injury rehabilitation. The purpose of this weekly e-zine is to improve
      subscribers' training quality and to help them train in an injury-free manner.
      Running Research News also publishes a complete, 12-page, electronic newsletter 10 times a year (one-year subscriptions are $35); to
      learn more about Running Research News, please see the Online Article Index and "About Running Research News" sections below or go
      to RRNews.com.
      Check out the article index at:

      We have NO personal postings this week:


      1. Multisport by Lance Watson: Creating a Positive Training Environment
      2. Multisport: Using Lactate Testing to Determine your Anaerobic Threshold (AT)
      3. Multisport: Stress Response and Running Performance
      4. Dr. Gabe Mirkin's Fitness and Health E-Zine
      5. From Runner's World
      6. NISMAT Exercise Physiology Corner: Cardiac Issues for Athletes
      7. Joe Henderson's Running Commentary - Honor Students
      8. Student of the Sport: Red blood cell primer
      9. Flavonoids reduce exercise-induced oxidative stress
      10. EPO drugs threaten testing regime
      11. Grouchiness Happens. Walk It Off
      12. Research shows brain’s ability to overcome pain and thirst
      13. Dave Scott's Tip of the Month—Base Training
      14. Pacific Elite Fitness Triathlete Newsletter - This Week’s Article: Torque Them Cranks Part I
      15. Wellness
      16. Nutrition: Diet May Drive Data on Beer, Wine and Health
      17. Understanding Pace Exertion
      18. The heart of the matter
      19. For Some, There Is Such a Thing as Too Thin
      20. Tip-Top Fuelling For The Winter
      21. Eddy Merckx profile: The Greatest Cyclist In History
      22. NISMAT Exercise Physiology Corner: A Primer on Maximum Oxygen Consumption
      23. Weight Training for the Endurance Athlete
      24. Fit facts: Reduce hip injuries
      25. Digest Briefs

      "Do you support Women's Only races?"

      You can access the poll from our FrontPage (http://www.runnersweb.com) as well
      as checking the results of previous polls.
      Post your views in our Forum at:
      [Free Registration Required]

      "What is your favourite post-race activity?"

      Answers Votes Percent
      1. Massage 26 21%
      2. Ice bath 8 6%
      3. Swimming 8 6%
      4. Walking 21 17%
      5. Drinking a beer 24 19%
      6. Chilling out 23 18%
      7. Other 16 13%
      Total Votes: 126

      FIVE STAR SITE OF THE WEEK: BC Endurance Trainings.
      BC Endurance Trainings are workout programs for recreational runners and triathletes. Thousand of endurance athletes have enjoyed
      injury-free training and great racing performances by participating in BC Endurance Trainings.
      Brian Clarke is the program director. He ran competitively at the University of Oregon under legendary track coach, Bill Bowerman;
      he has written two outstanding books on the training process; and he teaches the principles of adaptive training through his School
      of Endurance Training.
      This site is the on-line version of Clarke’s school. Whether you want to increase basic fitness or master the game of endurance
      athletics, you can learn the tenets of adaptive training at this site.
      Check out the site at:

      Send us your suggestions for our Five Star site. Please check our list of previous Five Star Sites available from the Five Star
      Window under the link "Previous Five Star Sites" as we do not wish to repeat a site unless it has undergone a major redesign.

      Our Photo Slideshow is updated on a random basis. Check it out from our FrontPage.

      BOOK OF THE WEEK: 5K and 10K Training.
      About the Book:
      Make your workouts count with the breakthrough system that synchronizes your energy levels with training effort. Instead of fighting
      your body to finish a workout just because it’s written on the calendar, choose the most effective workouts from 5K and 10K Training
      based on your body’s capacity to perform at any given time.
      Effort-based training maximizes training adaptation by matching the goal of each workout with its optimal training level: hard when
      energy and recovery are high and easy when stress or recovery is low. Effort-based training also gives you the most control over the
      training process, allowing you to stay injury free while actually increasing the energy you have available for workouts. Sample
      programs contain a variety of schedules and detailed workouts for developing five race-specific abilities.
      Run stronger and faster with more energy by using the proven system in 5K and 10K Training. With customized programs to choose from
      and accompanying training logs to record and evaluate your progress, this unique system is the fastest way to reach your training
      About the Author:
      Brian Clarke has conducted training programs for Hawaii’s runners, joggers, and walkers since 1979. Along with the Brian Clarke
      School of Running, he is also the director of Island Triathlon Training, which has prepared recreational athletes for Hawaii’s major
      triathlons since the early 1980s.
      Clarke has advised some of Hawaii’s top runners, but his specialty is training recreational athletes at the beginner and
      intermediate levels. He has also served as a fitness consultant to various organizations, including the U.S. military in the Pacific
      and the American Association of Retired Persons (AARP) in Hawaii. Clarke ran a 4:06 mile in 1965 under the legendary University of
      Oregon track coach Bill Bowerman. In his early 60s, Clarke continues to train and race competitively. He may be reached through his
      Web site, www.bcendurancetrainings.com, or by E-mailing mailto:brian@.... He and his wife, Nancy Heck, reside
      in Honolulu.
      Table of Contents
      Chapter 1. Understanding Effort and Energy
      Chapter 2. Structuring Racing Effort
      Chapter 3. Practicing the Five Racing Abilities
      Chapter 4. Scheduling Workout Effort
      Chapter 5. Balancing Effort and Fatigue
      Chapter 6. Programming Your Training
      Chapter 7. Designing Workouts to Build Ability
      Chapter 8. Tailoring 5K & 10K Programs
      Chapter 9. Tracking Your Progress
      Words of Praise
      "Brian Clarke takes complex training systems and makes them easy to understand. His many tables and charts will guide you to your
      best training paces and recovery efforts, and guarantee that you find your personal best training program."
      Amby Burfoot
      Executive Editor, Runner’s World magazine
      Winner, 1968 Boston Marathon
      Buy the book from Human Kinetics at:


      1. Multisport by Lance Watson: Creating a Positive Training Environment:
      When training in a group setting, always be positive and encouraging. Go ahead and express your enthusiasm for the workout ahead,
      point out the wonderful fall colours, the crisp cool air or explain to the group why this is your favorite workout. There is a lot
      to be learnt through positive expression; one thing being extra fitness gains! If you've ever run while listening to music you know
      a bit about this. One minute you may be jogging along thinking about how heavy your legs feel or how long your workday was and then
      suddenly your favorite song starts playing. Halfway through the song you realize you're into a great rhythm and running feels good
      again. This positive effect could mean that you end up training at the correct pace or that you run the full distance that you
      intended to before you began to feel a bit off. We all have our own music built right into us and these songs are our thoughts.
      Positive thoughts are as motivating as your favorite song, so be a meaningful training partner and share these positive thoughts and
      feelings and let others "tune in" to your positivity. Not only will this reinforce a positive mindset for you but also increase the
      enjoyment of the workout for the people around you.
      More...from the Runner's Web at:

      2. Multisport: Using Lactate Testing to Determine your Anaerobic Threshold (AT):
      By P. Mauro (Head Triathlon Coach at www.trainingsmartonline.com)
      The building blocks for an optimal performance are many and must be constructed in a proper sequence and must recognize that each
      individual is different. However, the cornerstone for this building is precise physiological training. That is the main reason an
      athlete spends so much time in the water, on the bike, on the track or the road, in the weight room or wherever training is best
      Ask yourself; do you know if all those miles/hours of training are paying off?
      But what is appropriate physiological training? It is not volume or else those who put in the most hours/miles would be the winners.
      It is not intensity or else those who pushed themselves the hardest would be the winners. It is not someone's favorite workout or
      else everyone would be copying the magic workout or training pace. It turns out that each individual has his or her own way of
      adapting and any smart training plan must recognize this. This is a fact of life. Each has to find his or her own way to the proper
      balance of the energy systems and peak conditioning on the day that counts, race day.
      With proper protocols, a lactate tester enables the coach to measure both the aerobic and anaerobic conditioning of each athlete.
      Information about both is necessary for the coach to optimize the conditioning of each athlete: whether they are a 50 metre
      freestyle swimmer (about 22 seconds plus per race) or in an Ironman triathlon (over 8 hours per race). With information on each
      energy system the coach can plan, control and monitor the training of athletes with a precision not available before. The lactate
      tester provides the important information that enables the coach to individualize the intensity of each athlete's workout and
      control their training so they reach performance objectives.
      No over-training and no surprises come race day.
      Quite simply, true lactate testing is the gold standard and ultimate form of testing available. It removes the guesswork and
      estimation that all the other testing methods use and is based solely on the data that your body provides. For example, “anaerobic
      threshold” prediction tests, “max heart-rate tests” and heart-rate formulas are all based on guesswork and mathematics and as such
      give very sketchy results. For example, after being lactate tested and comparing the results with those from a heart-rate formula or
      anaerobic threshold prediction test, it’s not uncommon for some athletes to realize that they’ve been training as much as twenty
      beats per minute out of their optimal range! Suddenly the athlete can see why they were prone to over-training, underperformance and
      constant disappointment. Almost always, the athlete improves dramatically following lactate testing, as for many this is the first
      time that they get accurate data that allows their true athletic potential to be realized.
      More...from the Runner's Web at:

      3. Multisport: Stress Response and Running Performance :
      Stress, in relation to health, is any stimulus that affects your body’s normal set point. This set point is called homeostasis and
      is the process of maintaining a constant internal environment through a complex integration of biochemical processes. Thanks to
      endocrinologist Hans Seyle, we know that your body responds to stress with one general response (1).
      • When encountering a new stressor (e.g., lack of sleep, new exercise, traffic) your body experiences a form of shock. In response
      to the shock, your body reacts with a predictable chain of events (e.g., soreness, fatigue) in an attempt to stimulate rest and thus
      rejuvenation-based cellular actions.
      • If the stressor is removed, you are able to adapt to the stressor resulting in supercompensation. In training, supercompensation
      is often called the training affect. An example of this phenomenon could be the recovery from muscle soreness felt after a long run.
      You do not do another long run for several days, the soreness disappears, and you try a long run again. This time you do not become
      sore. Your body used the time in between long runs to “supercompensate” by improving the biochemical and biomechanical pathways
      required for running long. If the new stress is not removed allowing supercompensation, then a process called maladaption occurs. In
      training, maladaption appears as reduced performance and excessive fatigue (i.e., overtraining syndrome).
      • If the symptoms of maladaption (fatigue, frequent illness, frequent or chronic injury, high blood lipids, high levels of the
      biochemical markers of inflammation, poor glucose tolerance, high blood pressure, etc.) are not noted, and their causes fixed
      (stressors removed), they ultimately lead to tremendous injury (e.g., prolonged illness, major injury) or eventually to death.
      More...from the Runner's Web at:

      4. Dr. Gabe Mirkin's Fitness and Health E-Zine:
      * Intervals to Improve Endurance
      Most coaches and researchers are convinced that you have to do a series of short bursts of very fast speed training to
      improve long-term endurance, but they do not know why. The most offered explanation is that muscle fatigue caused by many hours of
      cycling is associated with a reduction in muscle fibers' ability to contract with force. Now a study from France shows that short
      bursts of very fast cycling improve endurance for cycling competitions that take many hours, because the stronger you are, the less
      of your maximal effort is needed to get the same pressure on the pedals (Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, January 2005.)

      Muscles are made up of millions of individual fibers. Each fiber is a single muscular thread that functions independently.
      When you contract a muscle, you contract only a
      small percentage of these fibers at the same time. As each muscle fiber fatigues, you lose the ability to contract that fiber.
      When enough of these fibers stop contracting efficiently, you lose strength and your muscles feel tired. However, stronger fibers
      take longer to fatigue because they are being worked at a lower percentage of their capacity. So stronger muscles can be exercised
      for longer periods of time.
      Making each muscle fiber stronger and bigger allows it to exert force for a longer period of time and therefore, increases
      endurance. The only way to make a muscle stronger is to exercise that muscle against progressively greater resistance, and that
      applies to each muscle fiber also. It is impossible to put great pressure on a muscle for a long time. When you do all-out fast
      bursts for a short time, you exert so much pressure that you have to back off after several seconds or a minute. All-out sprints
      for a short period followed by resting and then repeating the sprint is called interval training. It makes the entire muscle
      stronger and delays fatigue.
      Athletes in all sports use long and short intervals. Short intervals take less than 30 seconds and because you do not build
      up significant amounts of lactic acid in that time, you can do hundreds of repeats in a single workout. Long intervals take two to
      three minutes and are very damaging to your muscles. Because you feel burning in your muscles and become very short of breath for a
      longer time, you can do only a few of these in a single workout. So athletes in all sports that require endurance do both long and
      short intervals to help them exercise longer.
      From: http://www.drmirkin.com

      5. From Runner's World:
      * Words That Inspire:
      "I don't know anything about luck. I've never banked on it, and I'm afraid of people who do. Luck to me is something else: hard
      work--and realizing what is opportunity and what isn't."
      -Lucille Ball, actress/comedian
      * Editor's Advice:
      "Keep a positive attitude. You'll need it often because every runner has bad days and occasional injuries. Staying positive will
      help you overcome obstacles and continue running."
      -Jane Hahn, RW features editor
      * Training Talk:
      "Finding the balance between being too intense for too long or not intense enough for too short a time is the key to a successful
      training program."
      - From "No need for Speed" by John Bingham
      * Coach's Corner
      Hit the Pool: "Need a break from the roads? By adding cross-training activities to your schedule, you can cut back on your running
      miles while maintaining--or even improving--your fitness. Pool running is about as low-impact as it can get and is a great
      cross-training workout." - Jeff Galloway
      * Injury Prevention
      Squats: This venerable exercise strengthens the glutes, quadriceps, hamstrings and lower back. When these three muscle groups are
      strong, you're better able to withstand the impact of each footfall, and you improve your ability to lift and drive the legs forward
      with each stride.
      Stand with your legs shoulder-width apart and rest a weighted lifting bar across your shoulders behind your head. Holding the bar
      with both hands while keeping your back straight, slowly bend your knees. Squat down to a point where you can also stand back up, as
      if you were going to sit in a chair but stood up the moment you touched the seat. Keep your feet flat on the floor during the entire
      exercise. Squats can also be done with dumbbells in each hand (held over the shoulder), or on a squat machine.
      * Performance Nutrition
      Vitamin C: Your body needs this antioxidant to make collagen, an adhesive-like protein found in your bones, connective tissues, and
      blood vessels. When you're injured, collagen is the substance that glues the injured area back together. Women need 75 milligrams of
      vitamin C each day, and men need 90 milligrams. If you eat a diet rich in berries, cantaloupe, oranges, and other fruit, you'll
      easily meet this requirement.
      * Words That Inspire:
      "Don't quit, dammit!"
      - Marty Liquori to Kip Keino during their 1972 race at Villanova when Keino backed off on the last lap
      Editor's Advice:
      "Climb Every Mountain: When you're climbing up a hill, try to maintain the same level of effort and breathing rate that you use on
      flat ground. Don't worry if you're slowing down as you go up, just reduce your stride length. As the grade gets steeper, shorten
      your stride even more, all the while maintaining steady effort and breathing."
      - Katie Herrell, RW associate producer
      * Training Talk:
      "Running, of course, teaches us to move on. There is always another day, another workout, another mile, another race. But more
      important, it teaches us to listen to ourselves and believe in ourselves."
      - From The Runner's Guide to the Meaning of Life, by Amby Burfoot

      6. NISMAT Exercise Physiology Corner: Cardiac Issues for Athletes:
      Introduction: Issues with Cardiovascular Screening of Athletes
      There is a low incidence of cardiovascular problems in athletes. However, any untoward event in this population is disconcerting as
      athletes are considered to be the healthiest segment of our society. Sudden death of popular or famous athletes, especially in team
      sports that have a large fan following, assume a high public profile and arouse intense interest. It is always a great personal
      tragedy, but news about these events tends to be disproportionate to their actual impact on public health.
      Athletic deaths nationally are difficult to tabulate because of the large number of athletes involved. In addition to the estimated
      4.5 million school and college athletes, there are a large number of recreational athletes. Only a very small proportion of
      participants in organized sports in the US are at risk for death. Estimates range form 1:100,000 to 1:300,000 among high school
      athletes. For older athletes these range from 1:15,000 among joggers to 1:50,000 among marathon runners.
      Moral, ethical and sometimes legal considerations compel and justify organizations and society as a whole to think of ways to screen
      athletes. However current recommendations for screening have to take into account the low prevalence of cardiovascular abnormalities
      and that sudden cardiac death is an infrequent event in this population. A complete, honest, careful personal and family history
      with a physical examination designed to identify high risk individuals is therefore recommended as the best available and practical
      These recommendations also limit the role of non-invasive diagnostic tests, which may be more effective for detecting certain
      diseases. An important part of the problem is the potential for false positive results in a population with a low prevalence of
      detectable disease. A false positive result can cause emotional and financial burdens for individuals, teams and institutions with
      the requirement for additional testing. Borderline tests cannot be completely resolved in some athletes until they stop competing
      for some time. False negative results occur often as the disease may not be evident or completely expressed with non diagnostic
      findings at the time of the test. Studies done with systematic screening of athletes with non-invasive testing only detected a few
      potential lethal abnormalities. These tests are therefore not warranted given the overall cost/benefit ratio.
      Screening of athletes should not give a false sense of security to doctors, athletes or the general public. The standard
      recommendations of History & Physical cannot reliably identify many lethal cardiovascular abnormalities. Indeed, the addition of
      non-invasive tests may not identify all the abnormal people as detailed above. It is therefore unrealistic to assume that screening
      can reliably identify all asymptomatic athletes at high risk.
      More...from NISMAT at:

      7. Joe Henderson's Running Commentary - Honor Students:
      Here we go again. I face a new class of new runners, and we're mostly strangers to each other.
      The college-age students see me only as a little guy old enough to be their grandfather. Once again I have prove to them that my
      class is worth getting up for twice a week.
      By one measure I always fail with a one-quarter of these kids. They are the dropouts who decide that my training is too tough, too
      easy or too early for them. They miss the surprises that running, and I as a teacher, might have held for them.
      That fallout rate probably betters the national average. I doubt if three in every four people who resolve to start running in the
      new year will last past January.
      Once again I await some surprises. In five years of teaching these classes at the University of Oregon, I haven't yet learned how to
      predict who will catch fire as a runner, then burn the brightest through this term and beyond.
      My "honor students" themselves don't yet know who they are. They could be among the slowest runners in class.
      My all-time honor student is a woman named Max. Each term begins with a one-mile test, and Max's time there was one of the slowest
      She called herself a "bad runner," but I wouldn't hear of it. "The only bad runners are those who don't try or give up," I told her.

      Max kept trying. She eventually ran a marathon at a faster pace than her original time for a single mile.
      I can't yet guess who will become honor students in my new class. But I can name them from the last one completed.
      Their names are Leif, Takehiro and Jenna. They won the class prizes, based not on speed but on attendance and improvement.
      More...from Joe Henderson at:

      8. Student of the Sport: Red blood cell primer:
      Today we welcome Cameron Chestnut to Inside Triathlon Interactive as a guest writer. Cameron is a medical school student and a
      triathlete, and with the five minutes of spare time he has each week he ties the two together through writing. In regular
      installment he'll be sharing his insights; today we start with an overview of red blood cells. There will be a quiz. --ed.
      Red blood cells (RBCs), or "shorties" as I like to call them, are our little oxygen-carrying buddies, and they hold a special place
      in every endurance athlete's heart. A major part of our training is intended to simply increase RBC count, allowing us to carry more
      oxygen to our working muscles.
      Endurance training increases RBC count by putting higher oxygen demands on our body, and other situations that put our body into
      oxygen stress, such as high altitude, can elicit a similar response. Not only do we create more RBCs as a reaction to the decreased
      partial pressure of oxygen at altitude, but the biochemical nature of our RBCs also changes.
      At altitude, our RBCs express more of a compound called 2,3 BPG which decreases the affinity of hemoglobin for oxygen. Hemoglobin is
      the oxygen carrying protein of RBCs, and it seems counterintuitive that our RBCs would decrease their affinity for what little
      oxygen there is at altitude when there is an increased demand to carry it. In reality, this apparent conundrum actually allows the
      hemoglobin of the RBCs to unload their oxygen more easily once it reaches myoglobin, the oxygen binding protein of muscle.
      Since there is less oxygen to carry, our bodies create more RBCs, thus more opportunities for the oxygen to hitch a ride. It also
      puts more of its unloading mediator, 2,3 BPG, on those RBCs to make sure the oxygen gets off at the right stop.
      Once you have created those extra RBCs the hard way, through training or as an altitude response, these wonderful little guys have a
      shelf life of about four months. That's right, the benefits of increasing your RBC count can persist long enough to get in some
      quality racing and training. If that doesn't get you excited, you're reading the wrong section.
      More...from InsideTri at:

      9. Flavonoids reduce exercise-induced oxidative stress:
      Sports drinks rich in antioxidants could reduce exercise-induced oxidative stress (EIOS), reports new research.
      High intensity exercise can bring on oxidative stress, where free radicals attack tissue and increase ageing. Oxidative stress has
      been linked to an increased risk of various diseases including cancer, Alzheimer's, and cardiovascular disease.
      The researchers, from San Antonio Catholic University in Spain, showed that a drink containing black grape, raspberry and red
      currant concentrates reduced protein oxidation by 23 per cent. Similar tests for a placebo crossover showed protein oxidation
      increased by 12 per cent.
      The controlled experiment measured blood markers or oxidative stress: followed the effects of oxidative stress for thirty sportsmen
      before and after high intensity exercise.
      The concentration of some markers was not affected by the antioxidant supplements, while levels of creatine kinase (CK) and lipid
      oxidation (TBARS) was less in the supplemented test than placebo.
      “The results observed in the decrease of the levels of carbonyl groups (as markers of protein oxidation in the cyclists when they
      consume the polyphenol drink, indicate a decrease in the oxidative damage induced by physical activity in spite of the total
      antioxidant state in the plasma remaining the same,” wrote the researchers in Clinical Nutrition (published on-line 19 January 2006,
      doi: 10.1016/j.clnu.2005.11.007).
      The antioxidant drink was supplied by Hero-Spain and contained black grape, raspberry and red currant concentrates. Vitamin C (20 mg
      per litre) was contained in both the drink and the placebo.
      More...from NUTRAIngredients.com at:

      10. EPO drugs threaten testing regime:
      Drug tester calls for development of smarter EPO tests
      Hormone use and abuse in sport and development conference
      Many of the performance-enhancing drugs used in sport are analogues of natural hormones found in the body. What do these hormones
      do? How do they affect athletes, and how can you detect them? How do they affect normal young adults? What happens to a young adult
      when the balance of hormones goes wrong? How does nutrition affect physical performance?
      Some of the world’s top researchers will meet to discuss these topics just before the Turin Olympics. The Hormones, Nutrition and
      Physical Performance conference, will take place in Turin, from the 28-31 January 2006.
      The Hormones, Nutrition and Physical Performance conference takes place in Torino from 28-31 Jan, immediately before the Winter
      Olympics. The conference has two main strands, how children develop into healthy young adults, and how hormones affect sport and
      performance (including drug abuse).
      More...from Innovations-Report at:

      11. Grouchiness Happens. Walk It Off:
      Your loyal Moving Crew correspondent has reported on many studies showing that exercise helps relieve symptoms of depression. We
      also know that people who are not clinically depressed but have periodic lapses into grouchy, scowly, stress-addled, short-tempered
      gloom -- which is to say, you, me and most of our earthly cohabitants -- report feeling better after working out.
      A new study demonstrates, for the first time, that a single session of moderate-intensity exercise improves important mood markers
      of depression. This was after, essentially, one 30-minute walk.
      The study was done on people with major depressive disorder, a serious clinical condition. But the researchers believe that the
      single-session mood-lift also applies to those of us who just feel lousy.
      The study, published in the December issue of the journal Medicine & Science in Sport & Exercise, compared the effect of 30 minutes
      of quiet rest to the effect of 30 minutes of treadmill walking at 60 to 70 percent of maximum heart rate. (Using the common formula
      for measuring heart rate max -- 220 minus one's age -- this would be 108 to 126 beats per minute for a 40-year-old.) The 40
      participants -- 15 men and 25 women, aged 18 to 55 -- were split evenly between the two groups.
      Although both groups reported reductions in negative feelings such as tension, depression and anger, only the exercise group
      reported improvements in positive markers -- specifically in "vigor" and "well-being." Researchers surveyed all subjects in both
      groups at five minutes before treatment and again at five, 30 and 60 minutes afterward. The effects of exercise were most profound
      five and 30 minutes after exercise.
      More...from the Washington Post at:

      12. Research shows brain’s ability to overcome pain and thirst:
      Researchers at Melbourne's Howard Florey Institute have discovered how the brain prioritises pain and thirst in order to survive - a
      mechanism that helps elite athletes to ‘push through the pain barrier’.
      The Florey’s Dr Michael Farrell and colleagues discovered that pain sensitivity is enhanced when people are thirsty.
      The scientists also found that a part of the brain is uniquely activated when pain and thirst are experienced together, suggesting
      these regions may act as an integrative centre that has a special role in modifying pain senses.
      Dr Farrell used PET (Positron Emission Tomography) scans to examine changes in brain activity. The 10 individuals participating in
      the study were given saline injections to stimulate mild thirst and thumb pressure to induce mild pain. Although the level of thumb
      pressure remained constant throughout the tests, as people became thirstier, they felt more pain.
      Dr Farrell said the regions of the brain (the pregenual cingulate cortex and ventral orbitofrontal cortex) activated together during
      thirst and pain acted like a priority switch.
      “Depending on internal demands being placed on the body, the brain needs to decide which demand is more important to respond to in
      order to survive,” he said.
      “Many elite athletes have an ability to balance their priority switch longer than most people so they can push through normal
      thresholds of pain and thirst whilst competing.”
      “But when the internal demands become extreme and the body’s physiology is too perturbed, the brain will tell the body ‘enough is
      enough,’” Dr Farrell said.
      The brain’s ability to overcome pain and thirst is witnessed in a soon-to-be released IMAX film: Wired to Win: Surviving the Tour De
      France. This film shows how the human brain allows elite athletes to compete and push themselves to a limit beyond our imagination.
      The Howard Florey Institute, with the generous support of IMAX, is holding a free special screening of the new IMAX movie, Wired to
      Win at 6:30pm on 28 February. This event is open to the public, but seats are strictly limited. Contact Sanam Sharma on email
      wiredtowin@... or phone (03) 8344 1642 to secure your ticket.
      This research paper, “Unique, common and interacting cortical correlates of thirst and pain” was prepared by Michael J. Farrell
      (Howard Florey Institute), Gary F. Egan (Howard Florey Institute), Frank Zamarripa (Research Imaging Center, San Antonio, Texas),
      Robert Shade (South West Foundation for Biomedical Research, San Antonio, Texas), John Blair-West (University of Melbourne), Peter
      Fox (Research Imaging Center, San Antonio, Texas), and Derek A. Denton (University of Melbourne). It was published today in
      Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.
      The Howard Florey Institute is Australia’s leading brain research centre. Its scientists undertake clinical and applied research
      that can be developed into treatments to combat brain disorders, and new medical practices. Their discoveries will improve the lives
      of those directly, and indirectly, affected by brain and mind disorders in Australia, and around the world. The Florey’s research
      areas cover a variety of brain and mind disorders including Parkinson’s disease, stroke, motor neuron disease, addiction, epilepsy,
      multiple sclerosis, muscular dystrophy, autism and dementia.
      For more information contact:
      Merrin Rafferty
      Public Relations and Development Manager
      Howard Florey Institute
      Ph: (03) 8344 1658
      Email: mailto:m.rafferty@...
      Howard Florey Institute's website: http://www.hfi.unimelb.edu.au/

      13. Dave Scott's Tip of the Month—Base Training:
      Your high priority races during the competitive season will determine your late spring-summer training variables. However, during
      the winter and early spring, the basic training fundamentals apply to all athletes whether you are preparing for a sprint or an
      Ironman (and every distance in between).
      First, recognize that in our sport, the word “sprint” does not define the true meaning of sprinting. A sprint triathlon which can
      require a shortened effort between 50 minutes to 2 hours is still an endurance event. No one can sprint and maintain “sprint” speed
      for even 20% of a “sprint” triathlon. With that said, everyone must prepare initially to increase their endurance.
      Endurance or base building training does not mean long, slow distance. Integrating a mixture of training variables during the early
      pre-season will set the proper foundation for the rest of the year.
      So what are the key elements for your base-building period?
      1) The body will experience an increase in oxidative enzymes, in capillary density, in enzyme content and in mitochondrial
      2) The body will conserve muscle glycogen; have higher resting stores of glycerin and a ‘conservation’ of blood sugar.
      3) At higher intensities the body will produce lower levels of lactic acid and be able to resynthesize lactate at a faster
      4) Your body and brain will selectively recruit a larger cross section of muscle to enhance your performance.
      So what does this all mean in common language? During the base building period the aerobic “plumbing” and muscle recruitment is
      By developing a solid base, the end result is the triathlete is able to swim, bike and run more economically.
      So the question that underlines these factors lies in the specificity of training. What are the key components of training during
      the Preseason? How frequently should you train these variables? And at what intensity should you complete these sessions?
      Specifics of training
      The following suggestions are training sessions that you may consider during the Preseason:
      1) 3-6 sessions/wk ( the number varies depending on your background and goals)
      2) Hills-hiking or running in your aerobic zone. Long steady (12-20 minutes, with a grade of 3-5% or shorter hills w/jog
      downhill. Progression-Increase hill length time 5-8% per week for 6-9 weeks (maximum hill climb=24-36 minutes)
      3) Long run-increase total time 5-10% per week. This long day could be split with two increasing days per week at 5-10% total
      4) Pickups of 10 to 25 seconds for 8 to 20 minutes. Progression example: wk1-6x10 seconds, wk 8=(8x25 seconds)3x. Allow rest
      interval (RI) to recover in aerobic zone.
      1) 3-7 sessions/wk
      2) Hills-70% in lower gear (LG) (aerobic), standing in a bigger gear-increase time out of the saddle w/ a goal of 30 minutes.
      Progression-increase hill climb from 15 seconds to 45 seconds.
      3) Long day-increase time at 10% per week, 70% in LG.
      4) Pickups (similar to run) Progression: start at 6-10 x 15 seconds at 9 weeks to complete (6-10 x 40 seconds)3x.
      1) Include 70% free, 30% other strokes
      2) Integrate 8-12x25 of breast pulling/session
      3) Kicking and swimming with fins-200-600 yards/meters /workout
      4) Longer set (longer day) Increase aerobic set. Progression:
      a. competitor athletes-1800-2400
      b. fitness athletes-800-2000
      c. developing athlete-500-1500
      5) Pickups 15 yards to 25 yards. Progression:
      a. 20x25 (competitor)
      b. 16x25 (fitness)
      c. 12x15 (developing)
      The order of the sessions should allow a one to two-day recovery or easier days between your hill and long sessions.
      After 8 to 16 weeks, depending upon your fitness prior to the preseason, you will be ready to focus your training on your specific
      weaknesses and race calendar. We’ll touch on that next month.

      14. Pacific Elite Fitness Triathlete Newsletter - This Week’s Article: Torque Them Cranks Part I
      Let’s talk simple physics. Think about sitting on your bike with both crank arms completely perpendicular to the ground. With both
      feet on the pedals, it is very difficult to produce any rotational movement. This is because your leverage, or the amount of torque
      your leg muscles are able to produce to move the pedals, is technically at zero. Torque is basically a product of the amount of
      force produced by your legs, and the distance of the force from the axis of rotation, in this case, the cranks. With the cranks at
      12 and 6 o’ clock, the distance between the force application of your leg muscles (in this case, the feet), and the axis of rotation
      (in this case, the crank) is zero, so the torque is zero. By beginning with the cranks rotated slightly forward, you would increase
      the distance of the force from the center of rotation, and gain the ability to produce torque.
      Now think about your actual pedaling revolution as you are riding the bicycle. Do you ever reach a point in the pedal stroke where
      the cranks are at 12 and 6 o’clock? Of course! Every time you rotate around, this position is achieved. Therefore every time you
      pedal around, you reach a point where, theoretically, you can produce zero torque - a veritable ‘weak link’ in the cycling cadence.
      Here’s the catch: the actual direction from which the force is produced can produce torque in this situation. That is, if a force is
      coming from a direction other than straight up or down through the pedal, torque is achievable with both crank arms perpendicular to
      the ground. This is the entire concept behind pushing the top foot forward and pulling the bottom foot back. It allows you to
      produce torque in a situation where it would otherwise be impossible.
      One of the best drills to practice this “push-pull” motion is by using unilateral, or one side only, pedaling. On a stationary bike,
      or on a slight outdoor grade where speed is not a problem, remove one foot from the pedal, and push forward, down, and pull back
      with the other foot. Your focus should be on a “circular” pedal motion, rather than straight up-and-down movement (i.e. not like
      pistons!). It should feel like you are scraping mud off the sole of your shoe at the bottom of the pedal stroke, and forcing your
      toes towards the front of your shoe at the top of the pedal stroke.
      Practice this in the off-season and base training periods, and you’ll remove those weak links from your pedaling revolution – giving
      you more torque when it matters! In Part II, you’ll learn how to adjust your actual foot angle to maximize force production.
      Until next time, train smart,
      Ben Greenfield
      Copyright 2006 Pacific Elite Fitness

      15. Wellness:
      The parameter of the wellness depends on the extent of goodness feeling in a person. The factor that plays a key role in wellness is
      the exercise and eating the right stuff. Whenever, there is a lack of either exercise or good food the feeling of wellness turns
      into sickness.
      To some extent we all know or have heard about the CICO dictum (Calories In, Calories Out), But in reality how many people follow
      it. For example you may feel completely
      detestable upon consuming a known toxic substance, where as the impact of having a dozen of Krispy Kreme donuts in a day may affect
      you at a much later stage and when this
      happens people tend to blame it on something else!
      This explains why the fattening of America took several generations, although experts only discovered it to be an epidemic in the
      last few years. For decades, though, the
      United Nations has been sounding the alarm bell for the growing underbelly of developed, and then the developing nations. Through
      its health arm, the World Health
      Organization (WHO), the world body has been equally concerned about the burgeoning malnutrition in underdeveloped countries.
      In a January 2005 report, WHO emphasized that one billion people--one sixth of the worlds population - live in extreme poverty,
      lacking the safe water, proper nutrition, basic health care and social services needed to survive. Almost 11 million children die
      each year, six million of them under five from preventable diseases."
      In January 18, 2005, WHO highlighted health in its year 2015 development blueprint (aka the Millennium Project). It likewise
      underscored the need for the world to "immediately
      and massively increase the investment in health programs." As if talking to America, the recent WHO report admonished that proven
      solutions are likely to turn the tide towards
      achieving health goals. It also added: We have the means to achieve those goals. We have the technology. What we need are the
      resources and the political will. We cannot
      wait any longer to do what we have promised to achieve in the coming decade."
      It is interesting to note that such notice of the world body rings a bell in the solutions recommended by both the American
      Institute of Food Technologists and the American
      Institute of Medicine towards combating the obesity epidemic in North America. Both are intervening to change its infrastructure
      policies towards food distribution and
      production. One speedy method is that U.S. can balance its subsidies towards farm products in a way that vegetables, fruits, and
      whole-wheat production are given their due
      importance in the food chain.
      This method will make these staples more affordable for the working people. And besides this the government can mandate Physical
      Education back in the school curriculum. The
      national advertising can focus on healthy eating rather than of fad snacking.
      In the present era around 20 percent of Americans are malnourished and obese. Non access to healthy foods is a major contributor for
      malnutrition in poor communities,
      affecting some 33 million Americans nationwide. These stats show us that wellness for at least 33 million Americans remain a dream.
      Proper nutrition and adequate exercise is
      the key for feeling good. Despite the Abs and the Carbs images portrayed on American television during sitcoms huge number of people
      are unwell. Or is there a truly stubborn
      virus involved, immune even to the Baywatch culture?
      Carl Densiel is the occupier of Wellness which is the premier resource for Wellness information.
      For more information go to:

      16. Nutrition: Diet May Drive Data on Beer, Wine and Health:
      Are wine drinkers healthier than beer drinkers?
      More Vital Signs Columns If that is the case, it may have less to do with their choice of drink than with what they eat with it.
      A new study found that shoppers who bought wine in supermarkets were much more likely to buy healthy foods like olives and low-fat
      cheese than were beer buyers, who were more partial to things like chips. The study, which was conducted in Denmark, appears online
      in the British journal BMJ.
      Studies have linked a moderate amount of alcohol use with better health, and this is especially true when it comes to wine, which
      has components that may help prevent cancer and cardiovascular disease. Still, it is possible that whatever health benefits wine
      drinkers enjoy actually result from overall better diets, some studies have suggested.
      The problem for researchers has been getting an accurate reading on people's diets in general and alcohol use in particular. Those
      being surveyed often understate their alcohol use and overstate their consumption of healthy foods.
      So for this study, the researchers tracked the sale of wine and beer over a six-month period at 98 supermarkets, then looked at what
      kinds of food the shoppers bought. In all, the study examined about three and a half million transactions.
      "We used information on what people buy, and presumably consume, rather than what they say they eat or drink," the researchers
      One author, Dr. Morten Gronbaek, said the researchers had expected to find differences in buying patterns, but not to the extent
      that they did.
      There are other reasons wine drinkers may be healthier than beer drinkers, the researchers said. Wine tends to be drunk with food,
      and in smaller amounts, they noted, possibly affecting how the body metabolizes it. And wine drinkers tend to be better educated and
      better off financially than beer drinkers — factors that would also help account for their better health.
      More...from the NY Times at:

      17. Understanding Pace Exertion:
      The hard-easy system is an effort-based training system. You can’t improve your running ability without exerting an effort.
      Moreover, you won’t improve unless you exert the right effort. Thus, an understanding of effort is the key to using the training
      process to your benefit.
      Absolutely every time you do a run, you exert an effort. That effort takes two forms: pace exertion and workout effort. These are
      two entirely different ideas, yet many runners fail to distinguish between them. Some runners claim, for instance, that a long
      workout at an easy pace makes the workout easy, too. But this is not necessarily true, because an easy pace is not the same as an
      easy workout.
      Rather than possibly being confused by such ambiguity, it would be better for us to use different words to distinguish between pace
      exertion and workout effort. In the following articles, therefore, an easy pace will be couched in terms of light exertion, which is
      distinctly different from an easy workout. To better understand exertion, take a look at Figure 1-1. What you see is a print-out of
      a heart rate curve that was recorded into the memory of my heart rate monitor. The upward-slanting curve measures the rate at which
      my heart was beating from minute to minute during the 40-minute workout.
      More...from BC Endurance Training at:

      18. The heart of the matter:
      When Cindy DeMarco had a heart attack, she was a fit 30-year-old training for the Marine Corps Marathon who had just received a
      perfect score on her military fitness test. Now 35, the FBI lawyer urges all women to recognize what statistically is their greatest
      health risk. "Before I had a heart attack, I thought it was a man's disease."
      Now she knows heart disease kills more women in the United States than any other disease, accounting for about 500,000 deaths
      annually. It cuts short the lives of more women each year than does breast cancer, osteoporosis, AIDS and domestic violence
      combined. In fact, more women than men die from heart disease.
      Women aren't the only ones underestimating the threat. In 1995, only two-thirds of physicians surveyed knew that heart disease was
      the primary killer of women, explaining why many physicians fail to teach women the warning signs and dangers of heart disease. Many
      emergency room workers also miss the signs and symptoms in women. That's what DeMarco discovered when she finally sought help
      She planned to sleep in on a Saturday morning in June 2000, but instead awoke with a start around 7 a.m. "I had a severe, crushing
      pain in my chest and pain in my upper back. I couldn't take a breath." She was dizzy, nauseous and in a cold sweat. She wondered if
      she had food poisoning. Later in the day, she felt tingling in her jaw and arm. After toughing it out for nearly 12 hours, DeMarco
      went to the emergency room.
      More...from Active.com at:

      19. For Some, There Is Such a Thing as Too Thin :
      LAST January, Wesley Johnson looked in the mirror and saw what had been staring back at him his entire life: skin and bones.
      At 5-foot-10 and a mere 133 pounds, Mr. Johnson, 26, a laboratory research assistant in Columbus, Ohio, was mortified by his
      inability to gain weight. His friends scoffed: We wish we had your problem! Others were skeptical: Why don't you just eat more?
      Mr. Johnson had tried to bulk up before. Eight years earlier, when he was a student at the University of Mississippi, he was
      inspired to work out by his roommate, a 6-foot-2, 245-pound bodybuilder. "My arms were twigs," Mr. Johnson lamented. He collected
      books on weight lifting for guidance, reading many half a dozen times, and he lifted for two hours six days a week.
      In two years he added 15 pounds of muscle. But then his weight gain stalled. He was bigger, but not big enough.
      Finally last year Mr. Johnson went online and found what he couldn't get from any Arnold Schwarzenegger fitness manual: advice from
      people who also had trouble gaining and keeping muscle. He learned from discussion groups and blogs to take rest days between
      workouts to give his muscles time to recuperate and grow. He began carrying a kitchen timer so he would remember to eat six or seven
      times a day.
      Some days he took in as many as 8,000 calories, snacking on pork chops, peanut butter, Little Debbie brownies and whey protein
      shakes. Within four months of starting his new regimen, Mr. Johnson gained a total of 41 pounds. He started a blog,
      www.olemissbuckeye.blogspot.com, to publicize his progress as well as two online discussion groups aimed at helping other skinny
      guys put on as much weight as he had.
      More...from the NY Times at:

      20. Tip-Top Fuelling For The Winter:
      Whether you’re heading off for the slopes or just tolerating the British winter it is important to eat a varied and balanced diet.
      Keeping an adequate intake of energy, protein, vitamins and minerals is vital to maintain the immune system and prevent illness.
      www.eis2win.co.uk offers some practical advice about keeping your diet on track through the cold winter months, to fuel your
      Ensuring a good carbohydrate intake prevents a reduced blood sugar and maintains muscle glycogen levels. This is important, because
      low blood sugar and muscle glycogen are shown to be related to increased immuno-suppression (i.e. your immune system would be
      suppressed and therefore would have more difficulty in fighting infection). Remember to refuel within an hour of training or coming
      off the slopes with a carbohydrate drink, cereal bars or sandwiches.
      Vitamins & Minerals
      It is wise to keep up a good intake of fruit and vegetables over the winter months, particularly because some may not contain as
      good a source of vitamins as they do during the summer months. Plenty of Vitamin C from fruit and vegetables can help to ward off
      winter colds and flu, so aim for 5-10 helpings a day.
      More...from the English Institute of Sports (EIS) at:

      21. Eddy Merckx profile: The Greatest Cyclist In History:
      Eddy Merckx (born Edouard Louis Joseph Merckx on June 17, 1945 in Meensel-Kiezegem, Belgium) is often considered the greatest
      cyclist of all-time. He's an icon of his sport equal to Muhammad Ali, Michael Jordan or Pelé.
      Nicknamed "The cannibal" for his unrelenting competitiveness, he is five-time champion of the two most important races in
      professional cycling, the Tour de France and the Giro d'Italia. He's one of only four cyclists to have won all three of the Grand
      Tours (Tour, Giro and Vuelta a España), and one of only two men to have won the Triple Crown of Cycling (Tour, Giro, and the World
      Cycling Championship) in the same year.
      In addition, he is one of only three riders (all Belgian) to have won all five “Monument” one-day Classic races at least once during
      his career, and won the season-long Super Prestige Pernod International competition a record seven consecutive times. Overall,
      Merckx entered 1582 road races in his 13 year professional career, and won 525 -- an astonishing winning rate of 35.5 percent He
      dominated single-day and stage races during his career, a rarity in recent cycling.
      More...from James Raia at:

      22. NISMAT Exercise Physiology Corner: A Primer on Maximum Oxygen Consumption:
      Maximum oxygen consumption, also referred to as VO2max is one of the oldest fitness indices established for the measure of human
      performance. The ability to consume oxygen ultimately determines any human's or animal's ability for maximal work output over
      periods lasting greater than one minute. The higher the number, the greater the potential work rate.
      Determinants of Maximal Oxygen Consumption
      In essence there are three major factors determining maximal oxygen consumption:
      * Cardiac output (the volume of blood pumped by the hea<br/><br/>(Message over 64 KB, truncated)
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