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Runner's and Triathlete's Web Digest - November 4, 2005

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  • Ken Parker
    A FREE WEEKLY E-ZINE OF MULTISPORT RELATED ARTICLES. The Runner s and Triathlete s Web Digest is a weekly e-zine dealing with the sports of running and
    Message 1 of 1 , Nov 4, 2005
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      The Runner's and Triathlete's Web Digest is a weekly e-zine dealing with the sports of running and triathlon and general fitness and
      health issues. The opinions expressed in the articles referenced by the Digest are the opinions of the writers and not necessarily
      those of the Runner's Web. To comment on any stories in the Digest visit our Forum at:
      The Original Runner's and Triathlete's Web was founded in January of 1997 and is not in any way associated with the two UK "Runner's
      Web" copycat sites or the Runner's Web Book Store in the USA.

      Visit the Runner's Web at http://www.runnersweb.com/running.html The site is updated multiple times daily. Check out our daily news,
      features, polls, trivia, bulletin boards and more. General questions should be posted to one of our forums available from our


      1. Runner's Web Online Store:
      Through a partnership with HDO Sports, the Runner's and Triathlete's Web has opened an online store. Check it out for your shopping
      Gear up to go back to school. Free shipping on orders over $100! Leading edge sports products for runners and triathletes. Great
      products for athletes from athletes - support the RunnersWeb.com community and gear up this Fall!

      2. Road Runner Sports, the world's largest running store at:

      3. Toronto Waterfront Marathon. September 24, 2006.

      4. Sof Sole Offer:
      A free pair of our technical socks ($9.99 value) with the purchase of any Sof Sole insole.

      5. The Toronto Marathon, October 15, 2006

      Shopping on the internet?
      Check out the Summer Specials at our online store (in partnership with HDO Sport).

      This newsletter has been composed using Outlook set to "Text" format. The Digest is sent via an email list at
      If you experience any delays in receiving your copy of the Digest, please advise us at:
      You can receive the digest in three ways:
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      2. Daily, in an email summary, and
      3. By accessing the YahooGroups.com web site on demand.
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      (me) prior to being released to the group. If you have any questions regarding the options available for receiving this digest,
      please do NOT email the list, rather email me directly at
      **[ Some e-mail clients may split the URL address into two lines. If you have trouble connecting to a link, be sure that you paste
      the entire address into your browser, so that it ends in ".html" or another appropriate suffix ].
      Note: An increasing number of media sites require free registration. If you wish to sign up for free access to sources for our
      articles without using your main email address we suggest the use of a mail alias program such as

      Check out our RSS auto-feeds page for automated news updates:

      What Is RSS?
      RSS (Rich Site Summary) is a feed of headlines that will automatically update and display in an RSS News Reader. RSS feeds are an
      increasingly popular method of distributing simplified web content to users through XML. When you see a little orange XML button,
      you know you can subscribe to RSS feeds.
      How to Get Started
      First you will need to download an RSS Reader. These are usually free to download, just search for "RSS Reader". Some readers will
      be able to pick up the feed just by clicking the link. If not, just ignore the code on the page and copy the link location/URL into
      the feed URL field on your news reader. You should start receiving new feeds immediately. You will receive new stories when our web
      site is updated.
      Get our Syndicated headlines for you site.
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      Check out OnTri.com's implementation at:
      The Runner's and Triathlete's Web Digest is now available through an RSS feed for myYahoo at:
      [Long URL]
      The Digest is also available through other RSS Readers on request.

      If anyone is looking for a web mail provider, you might wish to consider Google's GMail. Currently you can get GMail by invitation
      only from a current user. My stock of "invites" has been replenished. If you are interested in getting FREE GMail account, contact
      me at:

      Microsoft(r) Alerts on RunnersWeb.com Inc.
      RunnersWeb.com Inc. now offers Microsoft(r) Alerts! This service lets you receive important messages through your MSN(r) Messenger
      or Windows(r) Messenger, your e-mail, or your mobile device. You can choose how and when you receive these messages by specifying
      your preferences during the easy setup process. Sign up at:

      Race Directors:
      Advertise your event on the Runner's Web. Over 1.8 MILLION visits in 2004!
      68% increase in visitors in first 6 months of 2005!
      Averaged 8,500 visitors for September 2005!

      For more information:
      For text ads check out our AdBrite partnership at:
      You can also list your events for free in our Interactive Calendars and on our Marathons, Races and Triathlons pages.

      THIS WEEK:
      Vote for the Runner's Web in the Run the Planet "Favourite Website" contest

      If you feel you have something to say that is worthy of a Guest Column on the Runner's Web, email us at
      mailto:webmaster@... or leave your comments in one of our Forums at:
      http://www.runnersweb.com/running/forum.html or from our FrontPage.

      We have 1,460 subscribers as of publication time. Forward the Runner's Web Digest to a friend and suggest that they subscribe at:
      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/RunnersWeb/join .


      * Sports Nutrition by Sheila Kealey.
      Sheila is one of Ottawa's top multisport athletes and a member of the OAC Racing Team and X-C Ottawa. She has a Masters in Public
      Health and works in the field of nutritional epidemiology as a Research Associate with the University of California, San Diego. Her
      column index is available at:

      * Carmichael Training Systems
      Carmichael Training Systems was founded in 1999 by Chris Carmichael.
      From the beginning, the mission of the company has been to improve the lives of individuals we work with through the application of
      proper and effective fitness and competitive training techniques. Whether your focus is recreational, advanced, or you are a
      professional racer, the coaching methodology employed by CTS will make you a better athlete. Check the latest monthly column from
      CTS at:

      * Running Research News
      Note: Owen Anderson has had to discontinue his weekly column on the Runner's Web die to his increases commitments on his web site
      which has recently been re-launched. He has agreed to carry on with his Question and Answer feature and to allow us to publish his
      weekly column from his Newsletter.

      Running Research News is a monthly newsletter which keeps sports-active people up-to-date on the latest information about training,
      sports nutrition, and sports medicine. RRN publishes practical, timely new material which improves workouts, prevents injuries, and
      heightens overall fitness. Check our archive columns from Running Research News at:
      Send in your training related questions for Owen to answer to
      Check out the questions and answers from the Q and A Index page at:

      * Peak Performance Online
      "Peak Performance is a subscription-only newsletter for athletes, featuring the latest research from the sports science world. We
      cover the whole range of sports, from running and rowing to cycling and swimming, and each issue is packed full of exclusive
      information for anyone who's serious about sport. It's published 16 times a year, including four special reports, by Electric Word
      plc. Peak Performance is not available in the shops - only our subscribers are able to access the valuable information we publish.
      Check out our latest article from Peak Performance Online at:

      * Peak Running Performance
      Peak Running Is The Nation's Most Advanced Running Newsletter. Rated as the #1 Running Publication by Road Runner Sports (Worlds
      Largest Running Store) , Peak Running caters to the serious / dedicated runner. Delivering world class running advice are some of
      running's most recognizable athletes including Dr. Joe Vigil (US Olympic Coach), Scott Tinley (2 Time Ironman Champ) Steve Scott (3
      Time Olympian) and many more. This bi-monthly newsletter has been around for over 13 years, and in the past two it has been awarded
      the "Golden Shoe Award" in recognition of it's outstanding achievements.
      Check out the Peak Running article index at:
      http://www.runnersweb.com/running/PRP_index.html .

      * WatsonLifeSport
      Lance Watson is "Just The Winningest Coach in Triathlon". He has been coaching triathlon and distance running since 1987. Over the
      years, Lance has coached some of the most successful athletes in the sport of triathlon and duathlon.
      Check out the Lance Watson Online Article Index at:


      We have NO personal postings this week.


      1. Sports Medicine: New Theories on the cause of Muscle Cramps and Side Stitches
      2. Multisport: Using Pain to your Advantage
      3. Science of Sport: Your Future As An Athlete
      4. Carbohydrate Loading
      5. Off-Season Priorities - Strength, Technique, Cadence and Stride
      Smart athletes are taking a significant break from training to recharge for next year. What else can an athlete do during the next
      few months to improve next year's performance?
      6. Marathon Training Program
      Evaluating Your Race Performance.
      7. An Apple a Day for Health? Mars Recommends Two Bars of Chocolate
      8. Nutrient Sinks: Scenarios Leading to Reduced Nutrient Absorption
      9. From Runner's World
      10. But Will It Stop Cancer?
      11. Strong bones are a key part of a healthy body
      12. Stress Fractures
      Explanation, Treatment and Prevention.
      13. Leaner is better
      14. Off Season Training Canadian Style
      15. Health checkup: Medicines and exercise
      16. Cycling Cadence
      17. Nutrition for Training: Refueling on the Bike
      18. Energy bars, drinks and gels
      19. Scientists look to DNA for nutrition advice
      20. Electrolytes 101
      21. Iron deficiency in runners
      22. Waist-Hip Ratio a Better Heart Measure Than BMI?
      International study finds ratio spots three times more of those at risk.
      23. Science of Sport: Any Limits To Running World Records?
      24. New treatments for old injuries
      25. Digest Briefs

      "Olympic team selection in athletics and the triathlon should be based on:
      - One competition (Trials),
      - Best result over multiple competitions,
      - Average result over multiple competitions,
      - Ranking over the previous year."

      You can access the poll from our FrontPage as well as checking the results of previous polls.
      Post your views in our Forum at:
      [Free Registration Required]

      Last week's poll was: "What is your preference for race "goodies"?"

      The results at publication time were:
      Answers Votes Percent
      1. Long sleeve shirt 17 22%
      2. T-shirt 5 6%
      3. Gloves 1 1%
      4. Cap 2 3%
      5. Finisher medal 19 24%
      6. Lower entry fee 34 44%
      Total Votes: 78

      FIVE STAR SITE OF THE WEEK: Ironman China.

      Send us your suggestions for our Five Star site. Please check our list of previous Five Star Sites available from the Five Star
      Window under the link "Previous Five Star Sites" as we do not wish to repeat a site unless it has undergone a major redesign.

      Our Photo Slideshow is updated on a random basis. Check it out from our FrontPage.

      Get into the best shape of your life
      Reviewed by Lonna Ramirez of Active.com:
      "We've all heard of core training and flexibility for improving athletic performance, but where do you go to understand how this
      applies to endurance training and fitness?
      Endurofit's new DVD, The Next Level: Strength Training for Endurance Athletes answers the question with an easy-to-follow,
      three-phase program that will truly take your training to the next level. Jeb Stewart and Reece Haettich claim they'll whip you into
      the best shape of your life.
      As a fair warning, this isn't the next Jane Fonda exercise flavor-of-the-month, nor is it for the faint of heart. It's a program for
      those serious about getting into the best shape of their lives and motivated to do what it takes.
      User friendly
      Great thing about this program is that exercises are not equipment-intensive. Many of the exercises can be done using free weights,
      a stability ball and resistance bands. Reece and Jeb also take you outside for a series of exercises such as running high steps,
      power skipping, squats and sprints. They even incorporate two ball-tossing exercises for strengthening your back and shoulders --
      these guys come up with some great moves that work multiple muscles and really pack a punch.
      They perform all the exercises while giving you important tips to ensure you have proper form. You'll know exactly what muscles
      you're working and the specific things to focus on so you'll perform the exercises correctly. As you watch the DVD, you'll feel like
      they're your personal coaches walking you through the program.
      There's an information card for each of the phases, listing the exercises and the number of sets and reps, intensity, frequency and
      holds for each of them. Although there are numerous exercises, the combination of the easy-to-follow DVD and information cards help
      keep you on track. In addition, you'll see several of the exercises in all three phases, and they'll quickly become old favorites.
      It only takes a few repetitions of these stretches and exercises to realize why they were chosen. You really feel the affected
      muscles -- whether the great feeling of a deep stretch or sweet burn in a working muscle, they've selected intense moves. And
      because you aren't depending on a machine, these exercises require you to develop balance and stability using core muscles --
      crucial in all sports.
      exercises such as the supine leg curl, arm curls and frog kicks all use the stability ball so you're working multiple muscles and
      developing balance in order to complete the moves properly."
      More...from Active.com at:
      More on the DVD from Endurofit.com at:

      Previous Books of the Week:
      From Human Kinetics,
      From Amazon
      More running and triathlon books from Associates Shop


      1. Sports Medicine: New Theories on the cause of Muscle Cramps and Side Stitches:
      Fighting Muscle Cramps
      Researchers from the University of Cape Town, South Africa, are leading the assault into understanding the erratic, painful and
      involuntary muscle contractions they refer to as exercise associated muscle cramps. Research has shown that up to 67% of endurance
      athletes experience muscle cramps at some time.(1)
      Muscle cramps have been attributed to electrolyte abnormalities (particularly sodium and potassium), metabolic abnormalities,
      dehydration and even environmental factors such as exposure to heat and cold. In a recent analysis of each of these theories,
      however, the evidence against each was questioned.(2) For example, it has been demonstrated that muscle cramps are not related to
      abnormal concentrations of sodium, potassium, magnesium, calcium or any electrolyte in the blood.(3) Furthermore, heat or cold
      exposure are more likely to be secondary, not primary, causes of cramps.
      This has led researchers to develop a new theory to explain cramps. An understanding of this new theory, however, requires a crash
      course in basic muscle physiology. Within the muscle there are two structures that assist in muscle control. When activated, the
      first structure - called the muscle spindle - causes the muscle to contract when being overstretched to avoid damage.
      The second structure - the golgi tendon organ - when activated, causes the muscle to relax when being put under too much tension.
      When the muscle is fatigued it seems the activity of the structure which contracts the muscle increases, causing the muscle to
      contract more forcefully, while the activity of the structure which causes the muscle to relax decreases, allowing the more forceful
      contraction to occur. The net effect is that the muscle is overstimulated, which leads to an erratic involuntary contraction - a
      cramp. In addition, muscles which span two joints, like the calves, are particularly susceptible to cramps. Apparently, since they
      can be placed in a very shortened state (relaxed) but still contract, the relaxing sensors can easily become overwhelmed by the
      contracting sensors.
      More...from the Runner's Web at:

      2. Multisport: Using Pain to your Advantage:
      If bike racing is all about who can suffer the most then certainly asking your body to work beyond the point of comfort in order to
      stay with a lead group becomes a requirement. Like inanimate pistons of a car motor your legs must continue moving up and down
      pushing the pedals while your mind ignores the cry of your muscles to stop. Despite your heart pounding and moving up into your
      throat, your mind has to ignore its pleas and continue sending signals to keep working at that same level of effort. The mind is the
      key component to this and critical to any success you'll achieve. You can follow a training plan perfectly and prepare your body
      well, but if your mind hasn't been trained to manage the pain, failure is too much a possibility. This is simply about mental
      toughness. If you too easily give in to the pain and stop or want some strategies to use when you need to refuse to quit, read on.
      As cyclists we all know the feelings that occur inside our bodies as the pace goes from moderate to more intense. When the workload
      becomes painful and the body wants to stop, we start searching within ourselves for the moment when we will give in. Some days we
      can stick it out a little longer than others, but eventually we reach the point where we make the decision to pull off and slow
      down. It feels good physically, but inside we know we need to be stronger and somehow should be able to hold on longer before easing
      More...from the Runner's Web at:

      3. Science of Sport: Your Future As An Athlete:
      By Owen Anderson, Ph. D. (Copyright C 2004-2005)
      For an athlete, it is important to be able to peer into the future in a perceptive way. A bit of foreknowing can help with
      goal-setting, the creation of an optimal long-term training plan, and even the selection of an appropriate coach.
      As a young man, I "dropped out" of the first college I attended, "dropping in" to a life of driving taxis, painting houses, working
      on construction, and playing drums in a blues band.
      When my group dissolved after an Earth-Day concert at the University of Rhode Island, I suddenly found myself unable to go through a
      round of rehearsals with a new band and unwilling to return to a life of servile sweating with a shovel in my hands. Impulsively, I
      applied to the University of Rhode Island. Impulsively, the university accepted me.
      A meeting was set up with the Dean of Men, at which I was to declare a major and plan two-and-one-half years of study at the lovely
      Kingston campus. On the morning of our get-together, I nervously rode the bus down from Providence, aware that I was as likely to
      blurt out "Astronomy" or "Zoology" as my new-found major - or anything in between. I had no idea what I really wanted to study - and
      no logical framework with which to make such a fateful decision.
      Fortunately, the Dean had been called away for an emergency, and I was told to return in two hours. The administrative building in
      which the Dean's office was housed stood at the edge of campus, next to a forest, and I impetuously walked into the woods, noting
      within myself a strange feeling that it would not be such a bad thing to get totally lost.
      I thrashed through the scrub for about 30 minutes and suddenly found myself in a small clearing, at the center of which was a tiny,
      temporary pond, the kind of puddle which holds water for just a few days after the first warm days of early spring.
      More...from the Runner's Web at:

      4. Carbohydrate Loading:
      'Carbohydrate loading' is probably one of the most misunderstood terms in sports nutrition. People commonly think anyone involved in
      sport needs to 'carb up' and the way to do this is to eat 'flat out' in the days leading up to an event. Read on to get the facts on
      carbohydrate loading.
      What is carbohydrate loading?
      Carbohydrate loading is a strategy involving changes to training and nutrition that can maximise muscle glycogen (carbohydrate)
      stores prior to endurance competition. The technique was originally developed in the late 1960's and typically involved a 3-4 day
      'depletion phase' and a 3-4 day 'loading phase'. Ongoing research has allowed the method to be refined so that modern day
      carbohydrate loading is now more manageable for athletes.
      Does carbohydrate loading improve performance?
      Muscle glycogen levels are normally in the range of 100-120 mmol/kg ww (wet weight). Carbohydrate loading enables muscle glycogen
      levels to be increased to around 150-200 mmol/kg ww. This extra supply of carbohydrate has been demonstrated to improve endurance
      exercise by allowing athletes to exercise at their optimal pace for a longer time. It is estimated that carbohydrate loading can
      improve performance over a set distance by 2-3%.
      More...from Training Smart Online at:

      5. Off-Season Priorities - Strength, Technique, Cadence and Stride:
      Smart athletes are taking a significant break from training to recharge for next year. What else can an athlete do during the next
      few months to improve next year's performance?
      This time of year, most triathletes are winding their seasons down. For the most part, racing has ended, and the smart athletes are
      taking a significant break from training to recharge for next year. What else can an athlete do during the next few months to
      improve next year's performance?
      After the transition period (two to four weeks of very light, completely unstructured training), our top priorities should be
      increasing muscular strength, improving technique in all three sports, and maintaining basic endurance.
      Strength Training
      Developing greater muscular strength during the off-season should be a priority for almost every triathlete. Incorporating strength
      training will improve efficiency in all three sports, improve workout recovery, and reduce the frequency and severity of injuries.
      Improve Technique
      To perform better next year, most athletes need to make a significant change in technique. Despite what many athletes believe,
      simply training more than you did this year isn't really the key to success next year. Many athletes, even advanced ones, should
      significantly alter technique to perform more efficiently. Right now, early in the off-season, is the optimal time to undertake
      changes to technique.
      More...from Beginner Triathlete at:

      6. Marathon Training Program:
      Evaluating Your Race Performance.
      The marathon is an intriguing event because so many factors come into play in determining how well you will do and how much
      discomfort you might experience. Did you come face to face with the infamous "wall"? In the days and weeks when the marathon is
      finally behind you, you may wish to consider the things you did correctly along with errors you may have made in your training and
      Below is a list of evaluation questions to reflect upon when contemplating what you may do differently the next time you train for,
      and run a marathon. If necessary, modify and adjust your program to address these issues. Also included below are sections of this
      site where related information appears. Good luck with your upcoming marathons!
      Did you train intelligently and make it to the starting line rested and healthy?
      Did you avoid injury throughout your training?
      Did you listen to the feedback your body was communicating to you and make minor adjustments to your training schedule to avoid
      fatigue or injury, thus becoming stronger?
      More...from Marathon Training at:

      7. An Apple a Day for Health? Mars Recommends Two Bars of Chocolate:
      Treat, or trick?
      After more than a decade of effort and a year of anticipation, Mars Inc. is finally rolling into stores with what it says is a
      healthy new sweet: a line of chocolate bars and chocolate-covered almonds.
      In the Magazine: Eat Chocolate, Live Longer? (October 10, 2004) The new confections, called CocoaVia, are produced at a factory here
      and serve as the centerpiece of a corporate quest to transform chocolate into a healthy indulgence. Here, chocolate is everywhere: a
      sweet and full aroma wafts from the conveyer belt; a machine drizzles milk chocolate onto dark-coated clusters in zigzag fashion;
      bars wade through a shallow river of liquid chocolate.
      But it is the glob of granola, rice and flavanol-filled cocoa powder at the heart of the bar made here - injected with a burst of
      liquid-canola plant sterols - that distinguishes CocoaVia from the company's M&M's, Snickers and Dove bars. Flavanols are naturally
      occurring chemicals in cocoa that have antioxidant qualities; sterols are plant-based chemicals found in a variety of foods.
      Flavanols are what set Mars on a scientific search: if it could show that they helped improve blood flow and lower blood pressure,
      then foods with them could potentially help prevent heart disease.
      In developing CocoaVia, Mars decided to add another major additive, plant sterols, which ultimately allowed it to make the claim
      that CocoaVia is good for hearts and arteries. And that is one reason Mars is placing them in the health food aisles - near
      nutrition bars rather than candy - of retailers like Wal-Mart and Target.
      Indeed, CocoaVia packages even encourage consumers to eat two servings a day to achieve the "maximum benefit."
      Only time will tell whether consumers will fall for CocoaVia; early signs suggest it may take a while.
      But the tale of how Mars endeavored for years to find the right formula illustrates the trials and tribulations of a company that
      set out with good intentions but now feels itself under siege as competitors swarm to take advantage of its discoveries.
      "Heart disease is the No. 1 killer in the world, and chocolate is the No. 1 favorite ingredient in the world," said Jim Cass, Mars's
      vice president of marketing. "When you put those two giant macro trends together, we know this is a big idea."
      More...from the NY Times at:

      8. Nutrient Sinks: Scenarios Leading to Reduced Nutrient Absorption:
      People tend to look at nutrients independently when they consider their nutrition needs. We're concerned about our bones, so we look
      at how much calcium we're consuming. We're worried about anemia, so we find sources of iron. What we rarely consider, however, is
      how different minerals and other micronutrients interact with each other when they're present in the same meal, and how that can
      impact what compounds make it into our bodies.
      Many different minerals and other nutrients interact in ways that affect their availability or absorption in the body. Some
      minerals even compete with each other. Calcium and iron are two minerals that are very important to the active individual. Since
      the absorption of these minerals is affected by the other foods we eat and drink on a regular basis, it is important to take a look
      at some of these complex interrelationships.
      We have been hearing for years how ingesting more calcium may help to prevent osteoporosis or fragile bones as we age. Active
      individuals need to be aware of their calcium intake since we lose more in sweat and use more for muscle contractions than the
      average adult. There is new evidence that suggests the key it is not only the availability of calcium in our bodies, but also the
      interaction between calcium and phosphorus. The amount of calcium in our bones is very carefully regulated by hormones and
      increasing calcium intake does not fool these hormones into building more bone any more than delivering an extra load of bricks will
      make a construction crew build a larger building.
      The high intake of phosphorus found in protein-rich foods such as meat, poultry, fish, eggs, nuts, and legumes as well as carbonated
      beverages, may be contributing to much of our bone loss. Although its exact role is far from clear, scientists believe that diets in
      which phosphorus and calcium intake are roughly equal (1:1 ratio) help keep calcium in the body, while diets in which the two are
      unbalanced are thought to harm calcium balance. Unfortunately, the typical Western diet is imbalanced in these two minerals. Most
      people consume roughly two to four times more phosphorus than calcium. For example, meat and poultry contain 10 to 20 times as much
      phosphorus as calcium, and carbonated sodas have as much as 500 mg of phosphorus, and no calcium, per serving.
      More...from Road Cycling at:

      9. From Runner's World:
      * Coach's Corner
      Head for the track. Running against the clock and attempting to match present goals forces you to concentrate. Learning to adjust to
      the track's rhythm--running turns, for example--also helps, as do fartlek sessions and other forms of speedwork done elsewhere. -Hal
      * Injury Prevention
      "Stress can increase fatigue and muscle tension. You don't breathe as deeply when you're stressed, which increases the effort of
      running. Athletes under stress, according to studies, get sick and injured at a higher rate than lower-stressed athletes." -Jeffrey
      Martin, Ph.D., Wayne State University (MI) sports psychology professor and former World Cup marathoner
      * Performance Nutrition
      Choose the right popcorn. Low-fat microwave popcorn has two-thirds fewer calories than the regular variety. Best-tasting in our book
      is Pop-Secret 94% Fat Free. Half a bag gives you just 110 calories and 2 grams of fat.
      * Expert's Advice:
      During a marathon pin your race number on your shorts so you can fiddle all you want with your upper-body apparel. When you put your
      number on your shorts, you can add or subtract layers as needed to adjust to changing conditions.
      --Greg Crowther, a 2:22-marathoner with a Ph.D. in physiology and biophysics
      * Marathon Menu:
      Before, during and after the race, your task should be to eat and drink liberally. The marathon is a long race, and you need
      sustenance to get through it. The right amount and balance of carbohydrates and fluids will be vital to your performance and

      10. But Will It Stop Cancer?
      Bernyce Edwards's daughter was 42 in 1997 when she died of breast cancer. It was just 69 days from diagnosis to death. And through
      her shock and grief, Ms. Edwards had a terrible worry: what if she got breast cancer, too?
      "That's my biggest fear," she said.
      So, to protect herself, she has taken up exercise.
      And not just any exercise. This 73-year-old woman has turned into an exercise zealot.
      She walks, she runs, she leaves her house in Bellingham, Wash., as early as 5 a.m. and spends an hour every day, rain or shine,
      putting in the miles on the trails and around a lake.
      But will her efforts help? Medical researchers agree that, at the very least, regular exercise can make people feel better and feel
      better about themselves.
      There is less agreement on whether it can also prevent cancer. But for two types, the evidence is promising: breast cancer and
      cancer of the colon. Other cancers have not been studied, or the studies that have been done have yielded little evidence that
      exercise can help.
      Even for breast and colon cancer, further confirmation is needed.
      Researchers who are enthusiastic about a cancer-exercise connection also caution against too much enthusiasm.
      Exercise is like a seat belt, says Dr. Anne McTiernan of the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle, a co-author of
      "Breast Fitness: An Optimal Exercise and Health Plan for Reducing Your Risk of Breast Cancer."
      "It's not a guarantee, but it can reduce your risk," Dr. McTiernan said. "The negative side is when a person says, 'The reason I got
      cancer is that I didn't exercise.' That's the problem."
      More...from the NY Times at:

      11. Strong bones are a key part of a healthy body:
      Taking care of your body's bones is a little like maintaining a vehicle. While it's imperative to keep the engine tuned and running
      smoothly, if the fenders are rusted out and the chassis is shot, you might as well just park it. Without a sturdy frame - your
      body's or your car's - you're probably not going anywhere very far or very fast.
      "Osteoporosis and thinning bones is a major but underappreciated public health problem," says Miriam Nelson, professor of nutrition
      at the Friedman School of Nutrition Science at Boston's Tufts University and author of "Strong Women, Strong Bones." "One in two
      women and one in five men will be affected by osteoporosis as they go into old age. We need to take this seriously because bones
      crumble, people fall apart."
      According to the U.S. Surgeon General's osteoporosis report last year, our skeletons begin to deteriorate long before they break.
      Some 34 million Americans are living with a condition called osteopenia or thinning bones as calcium slowly but steadily drains from
      their bones. It's short of osteoporosis, but it still puts bones at risk of fracture.
      More...from the Union-Tribune at:

      12. Stress Fractures:
      Explanation, Treatment and Prevention.
      Broken bones or traumatic fractures, while often suffered by football players or downhill skiers, are rare among runners. Many
      runners, however, may suffer stress fractures as their training changes and intensifies.
      Like the vast majority of running maladies-tendinitis, fasciitis, and shin splints-stress fractures are overuse injuries. Like
      muscle, bone breaks down and builds up in response to the stresses of running. Stress fractures are caused by an increase in
      training that occurs more quickly than the body's ability to build up, or remodel the bone. Keeping to the widely accepted 10
      percent per week rule when increasing mileage may help prevent many stress fractures.
      Some runners, however, are predisposed to develop this injury. Sixty percent of athletes who sustain a stress fracture have had one
      previously. Some factors that cause predisposition to stress fractures can not be changed: low bone remodeling rate, extremes of
      body type, skeletal alignment, and being female. Women sustain the majority of stress fractures in athletics. Nutritional deficits,
      low estrogen levels, and inadequate calorie intake increase the risks. The well documented "female triad" of disordered eating,
      amenorrhea, and osteoporosis can occur in athletes as young as high school age. It is imperative to identify these athletes because
      this bone density loss may be irreversible. Nutritional and, in some cases, psychological consultation is required.
      Some factors are extrinsic and readily changeable, including improper training, inappropriate footwear, and running on irregular
      surfaces. Some factors, such as leg length variations, muscle strength and flexibility imbalances, and lower extremity biomechanical
      faults, may require correction by a physician, physical therapist, or sports medicine professional.
      More...from Running Times at:

      13. Leaner is better:
      According to the National Institutes for Health, more than a third of American women and nearly a quarter of men are on some kind of
      weight-loss diet at any given time. Among runners the figure is perhaps a little lower, but probably not by much.
      The most popular means of pursuing weight loss are branded diet programs such as the South Beach diet and Weight Watchers. The
      various popular diets seem quite different on the surface, each claiming its own special reason for being more effective than the
      others, but beneath the surface they are all essentially the same thing: low-calories diets.
      I believe that weight loss is not a worthy goal for most runners to pursue. Nor is dieting (severe calorie restriction) the best way
      to pursue the proper substitute for the goal of weight loss, which is optimizing body composition. Research has shown that our
      health is affected not so much by how much we weigh, but rather by how lean we are -- that is, by the ratio of fat-free mass to fat
      mass in our bodies (commonly measured as body fat percentage).
      Men and women who have a high body fat percentage tend to be unhealthy, regardless of whether they're heavy or light. By contrast,
      individuals who have a low body fat percentage tend to be healthy, again regardless of whether they are heavy or light.
      The healthiest men and women have good muscle tone and just enough body fat to perform the functions that body fat is responsible
      for (e.g. supplying energy).
      More...from Active.com at:

      14. Off Season Training Canadian Style:
      Canadian triathletes have a history of success in triathlon. From Olympic distance to Ironman and Xterra, Canadians can be found on
      the podium at races around the world. Observers have often wondered how a country with long cold and dark winters could produce such
      successful athletes. While there is probably something to be said for the uniqueness of athletes such as Olympic Champion Simon
      Whitfield and double Ironman Champion Tom Evans, having a significant off-season, with forced changes of focus due to the weather,
      can have a positive affect on an athlete's progression year to year. While many top athletes do travel to training camps in warmer
      locations for part of the winter, there are some proven off season training patterns that they share including cross training,
      prehabilitation strength training and sport focus phases.
      Original Cross Trainers
      In many ways triathletes are the original cross trainers. Spreading the training load over three sports is one of the most appealing
      aspects of triathlon, and has a number of positive effects such as reducing the occurrence of overuse injuries as compared to single
      sport athletes, increasing enjoyment of exercise by reducing boredom and providing a change from in-season training routine, and
      also promoting a more balanced whole body fitness.
      Canadian winters present an excellent opportunity to try some different forms of endurance training, and laying the foundation for a
      successful, injury free racing season. When the snow arrives in Penticton BC, Ironman Canada Champion Tom Evans hits the slopes. A
      significant part of Evans' winter training includes cross-country skiing and snow shoe running. The benefits of cross country
      skiing, skate-style in particular, include a tremendous cardiovascular workout, working similar muscular groups to cycling as well
      as incorporating the upper body into the workout. In addition, Evans' enjoys snow-shoe running as a way to build endurance in a low
      impact and fun format. With a winter of building endurance on the snow, when times comes to hit the roads again Evans' feels
      refreshed and fit and ready to tackle the season.
      More...from Competition Zone at:

      15. Health checkup: Medicines and exercise:
      (November 2, 2005) - Almost everyone who is recovering from an injury or surgery or is fighting a disease will take some form of
      medication. These may be prescription drugs or nonprescription drugs. Because part of the recovery may include physical therapy or
      independent exercise, it's important for you to know the effects of the medicines you are taking.
      Medication can influence your participation in physical activities. If you are undergoing rehabilitation from an injury or surgery,
      you should tell your physical therapist which medications you are taking. The types of drugs that can affect you may include those
      to control pain and inflammation, heart disease, blood pressure and cholesterol.
      Some pain medications can cause you to become groggy or confused, have difficulty breathing and even lose your balance. The same
      could occur with cardiac or blood pressure medications.
      Pills that reduce inflammation may have effects on your blood pressure and blood clotting. Fairly recently, a few anti-inflammatory
      medications were taken off the market because they caused heart attacks and strokes in some people. Decreased blood flow or
      increased clotting caused by some drugs could lead to more injuries and even heart attacks.
      More...from the Rochester Democrat and Chronicle at:

      16. Cycling Cadence:
      There is a great deal of confusion out there, especially among new triathletes, about the role cycling cadence plays in training and
      racing. What's the difference between high and low cadence? What cadence should I train at and why? What cadence is best for racing,
      to set up the run? Here is a simple and comprehensive explanation for triathletes of the physics, physiology, training and racing
      implications of cadence selection.
      The work required to move a bike down the road is measured in watts. To define it very simply, Watts = Force x Cadence, or how hard
      you press on the pedals multiplied by the number of times per minute you apply this force. Two cyclists, Bob and Bill, weigh the
      same, have identical bikes, identical aerodynamics and are riding next to each other at the same speed on a flat road. Because they
      are riding the same speed and we've controlled all the other variables, they are performing the same work, ie, riding at the same
      watts. However, Bob is mashing at 70rpm while Bill spins at 110 rpms. Bob's pedaling style dictates that he presses hard on the
      pedals with each stroke. But he does so less frequently than Bill, who is pushing lightly on the pedals but much more frequently.
      Low cadence cycling requires us to push harder on the pedals, but what does this mean at the level of our leg muscles? To generate
      that higher force contraction, your leg muscles must recruit more fast-twitch muscle fibers vs slow-twitch fibers.
      Slow-twitch fibers:
      . Primarily burn fat for fuel, an almost limitless supply of fuel for even the leanest athlete.
      . Very resistant to fatigue: they are built to go and go, all day.
      . Recover quickly when allowed to rest.
      Fast-twitch fibers:
      . Burn glycogen for fuel. This glycogen is stored within the muscles and is in relative short supply, about 2000 calories for a
      well-trained, well-fueled athlete.
      . Fatigue quickly, are NOT built to go all day.
      . Take a long time to recover before they can be used again.
      More...from TriFuel at:

      17. Nutrition for Training: Refueling on the Bike:
      Most athletes would agree that proper eating habits are important for their training and overall performance, as well as for keeping
      off extra pounds. However, many athletes, including cyclists, fail to realize just how crucial eating and drinking is during workout
      sessions. According to leading sport nutritionists, adequate refueling during a workout lasting for more than 60 minutes can
      significantly increase a cyclist's performance. It can prolong the duration of high quality training sessions, and importantly, it
      can prevent "bonking" and "hitting the wall."
      Glycogen (which is a storage form of carbohydrates in the liver and muscles) and fat serve as the primary sources of energy for
      virtually all endurance workouts. However, the body uses a varying proportion of either glycogen or fat, depending on the training
      intensity. For example, longer rides of moderate intensity require the body to use both carbohydrates and fat as sources of energy,
      with a greater proportion of energy being supplied by fat stores (i. e., "fat burning" workout). When the intensity of the workout
      increases, the body becomes less efficient in breaking down fat and the body is forced to switch back to utilizing a greater
      proportion of muscle glycogen for energy. While the human body contains fat stores that are capable of supplying as many as 80,000
      calories (a practically endless source of energy), muscle glycogen stores are capable of supplying significantly less energy (i. e.,
      approximately 1,400-1,800 calories). Therefore, regardless the intensity of the workout, every cyclist will eventually deplete his
      or her muscle glycogen unless refueling takes place.
      More...from Tulsa Wheelmen at:

      18. Energy bars, drinks and gels:
      The market is saturated with highly priced sports drinks and bars but, when it comes down to it, there really are only a few that
      meet the needs of triathletes. I'm carefully going to sidestep the issues of supplements as this will form part of a piece written
      by someone far more expert than me -- this is just about basic nutrition.
      In order to compete effectively we need to be both fuelled and watered. Our fuel comes from two primary sources; carbohydrates and
      fats. Your body can only hold enough carbohydrate fuel (in the form of glycogen) to keep you going for about 90 minutes but even the
      leanest athlete has enough fat stored to run several back-to-back marathons. The lesson to be learned here is two-fold:
      * for longer events you need to take on extra carbohydrate during the event
      * you should train your body to use fat as fuel
      In basic terms we get 4kcalories per gram of carbohydrate (or protein) but we can get 7kcal from alcohol and a whopping 9kcal from
      fat. It would seem that we would be better off eating a high-fat diet if we get more energy from it but the snag is that it is
      harder to burn off the fat because the body prefers to burn carbohydrates. There are many variations on the way that athletes should
      balance up their diets but the consensus seems to be 50-60% should be carbohydrate, 25-35% should be fats and 10-15% proteins. Oh,
      and despite the fact that alcohol seems a good energy source do remember that it has other, less beneficial effects!
      Protein is a very necessary part of our overall diet but can be ignored so far as getting energy out of it -- you don't start to
      break down proteins until everything else has gone and if you're that far into energy-debt you're probably dead anyway!
      More...from Triathletes-UK at:

      19. Scientists look to DNA for nutrition advice:
      As a registered dietitian, Ruth DeBusk has eaten a healthy diet for a long time. As a geneticist, she wondered if she could do
      So earlier this year, she had her DNA tested by a company that gives personalized nutrition advice based on genetics. The results
      indicated she needed more folate.
      So DeBusk doubled her minimum amount of folate, a B vitamin found in leafy greens and citrus.
      "I'm more diligent about being sure that I get it every day if possible, because it really matters," said DeBusk, who has a private
      practice in Tallahassee, Florida, and has written a book on nutrition and genetics.
      "I'll actually make an effort to drink a glass of orange juice or eat an extra big salad in the evening, being aware it hasn't been
      one of my better folate days."
      That's the way it's supposed to work in a field called nutritional genomics or nutrigenomics. The basic idea is this: There are
      genes that affect the risk of getting illnesses like heart disease, cancer, osteoporosis and diabetes, and the impact of those genes
      can be modified by what you eat. Everybody carries one version or another of each of those genes. So why not find out what gene
      versions you have and base dietary advice on that?
      "Every time we go to the supermarket we're using educated guesses about what we should eat and what we shouldn't eat," says Raymond
      Rodriguez, director of the National Center of Excellence for Nutritional Genomics at the University of California, Davis.
      In the future, more of that guesswork may be replaced with accurate, personal DNA-based dietary advice, which Rodriguez says is
      "rapidly emerging on the horizon."
      But that time isn't here yet, most experts say. Nutrigenomics is still in its infancy, with plenty to be learned, and it's not yet
      clear what role it may play in standard medical practice.
      Most of the research targets heart disease and cancer, and scientists may be ready to deliver personalized diet recommendations in
      those areas within five years, said Jose Ordovas, director of the nutrition and genomics laboratory at the U.S. Department of
      Agriculture Nutrition Research Center at Tufts University in Boston.
      "We have scientific evidence that the concept is right, that we can provide something along those lines in the future," Ordovas
      said. "We are not there yet."
      More...from CNN at:

      20. Electrolytes 101:
      So you're gearing up for another race. You've planned your workouts in minute detail, and you're sticking to your program like your
      life depends on it. All you need now is a performance-boosting nutrition strategy.
      Thankfully, it's not all mysterious. You already know you won't get far without replenishing the triumvirate of endurance nutrition:
      calories, fluids and electrolytes. The calorie part is easy -- fuel equals energy and energy equals performance.
      The same goes for fluids -- dehydration won't just slow you down, it's also dangerous. But what about electrolytes? You've been told
      you need them, and you may even know they help keep body chemistry in balance. But how critical are they to performance?
      Very. Electrolytes aren't just essential for optimal performance; they're critical for any kind of performance. The truth is, you
      should be just as concerned about replenishing them as you are with replacing lost fluid.
      What they are
      Electrolytes are minerals that, when dissolved in water, break into small, electrically charged particles called ions. Present
      wherever there's water in your body (think blood, cells and cell surroundings), electrolytes regulate your body's fluids, helping to
      maintain a healthy blood pH balance, and creating the electrical impulses essential to all aspects of physical activity -- from
      basic cell function to complex neuromuscular interactions needed for athletic performance.
      More...from Active Women at:

      21. Iron deficiency in runners:
      Heart rates and lactate thresholds are two factors that govern many training regimes. Training schedules will have specific phases
      dedicated to building aerobic bases. However, the primary determinant of each of these factors is often overlooked - the red blood
      Aerobic events are, by definition, dependent upon oxygen. During respiration, oxygen seeps through the thin walls of the alveoli in
      the lungs and into the blood. The oxygen binds to an iron compound called haemoglobin, which is contained within the red blood
      cells. It is released to another iron-containing protein compound, called myoglobin. This enables available fuel sources (such as
      glucose, glycogen or fat) to be broken down within the muscle and energy to be released.
      This is a system that works beautifully for as long as there is sufficient oxygen available in the blood. If there is not enough
      oxygen getting to the muscles, energy is released anaerobically (without oxygen). One of the by-products of this system of
      energy-release is the formation of lactic acid. The accumulation of lactic acid will eventually limit performance.
      For an athlete, the red blood cell count, the haemoglobin concentration and haematocrit (the percentage of red blood cells) are
      all-important. Many researchers have documented the high correlation between increased red cell count, with its consequent increased
      haemoglobin concentration and aerobic performance. It is important to note that the opposite of this is also true. Low red-cell
      counts and low haemoglobin concentrations have been correlated with poor performance.
      OK ... here comes the science.
      More...from Time Outdoors at:
      Part II:
      Dealing with iron Deficiency:
      [Free registration required]

      22. Waist-Hip Ratio a Better Heart Measure Than BMI?
      International study finds ratio spots three times more of those at risk.
      Checking a person's hip-to-waist ratio, not their body mass index (BMI), is the best obesity measure for assessing heart attack
      risk, according to an international study in this week's issue of The Lancet medical journal.
      Canadian researchers studied more than 27,000 people in 52 countries and concluded that using waist-to-hip ratio instead of BMI to
      measure obesity increases by three-fold the number of people considered to have a risk of heart attack.
      The researchers looked at BMI, waist-to-hip ratio, and hip measure in the study participants. Half of them had previously had a
      heart attack and the other half were age and gender-matched controls who had not had heart attacks.
      BMI, a ratio of weight to height, was only slightly higher in the heart attack patients, compared to those in the control group.
      However, heart attack patients had significantly higher waist-to-hip ratios than the controls, irrespective of other cardiovascular
      risk factors. This finding was consistent in women and men, in all age groups, and in all regions of the world.
      The study authors concluded that compared with BMI, waist-to-hip ratio is three times more effective in predicting heart attack
      More...from Health Scout at:

      23. Science of Sport: Any Limits To Running World Records?
      By Owen Anderson, Ph. D. (Copyright C 2004-2005)
      As you know, there has been a reduction in the frequency of world-record-breaking running performances in recent years. This
      drop-off has caused many exercise scientists to ask a basic question: "Are there limits to running world records?"
      Expressed in this manner, the query is of course silly. After all, it is obvious that there are limits to running world records. No
      one will ever run a mile in faster than 3:20, a marathon in less than 1:58. A better question would be: "What are the specific
      performance limits beyond which human runners can not possibly progress?"
      A number of different researchers have tackled this problem. A now-infamous study carried out by B. J. Whipp and S. A. Ward in the
      early 1990s looked at trends in world records over time and predicted that women marathon runners would run as fast as men in the
      year 1998, with a convergent time of 2:01.59. A key problem with this research was that it employed a simple linear regression model
      to forecast performances. Once a straight line is "fit" to the existing data (world-record running speeds as a function of time),
      there is of course a slope to the line and thus a continuous, upward movement in performances. In effect, there is no upper limit -
      runners will simply get faster and faster as the years roll by, according to the model.
      More...from the Runner's Web at:

      24. New treatments for old injuries:
      You know the routine. You're mid workout when suddenly you get that twinge on the outside of your knee or back of your thigh. Your
      gut says "stop" but your determination says "run through it." Moments later you find yourself at a dead halt. The pain has
      localized, your muscles have cramped, and bam, you're on the injured list.
      Athletes find themselves injured for a number of reasons -- overuse being chief among them, with approximately 50 percent of sports
      injuries stemming from overuse. And while it's best to prevent injury before it occurs, we all know it doesn't always happen that
      The good news is there are alternative treatments that, in many cases, are proving markedly more effective than traditional
      Beyond anti-inflammatory drugs
      What's changed? For decades, overuse injuries have been treated with anti-inflammatory methods. These include non-steroidal
      anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs such as Advil and Motrin), electric stimulation, steroid injections and ice therapy. However,
      research, including a 2000 study in The Physician and Sportsmedicine and a 2003 study in Clinics in Sports Medicine, indicates that
      most overuse conditions are not inflammatory in nature and that treating them as such may delay or prevent full recovery.
      More...from Active Women at:

      25. Digest Briefs:
      * Good at Many; Great at One
      At the end of each season I have my athletes start working on a race calendar for the next. This means setting goals and
      prioritizing races into three categories; A, B, or C. The A races are the races we structure our training for. These goal races
      coincide with the ??peaks ?? of our training, which slowly ramp in intensity as we approach these events. B races are training
      events that we rest for, but do not taper. These events can be similar to A events, but our training is not directed towards them;
      they are like a hard work out. C races are fun events that can occur any time in the season. We do not set any goals for C events
      and they can be very different than our A races.
      My most successful athletes choose one type of A event. Almost all our efforts are directed towards achieving results in these A
      races, so it is no mystery that they excel in their chosen sport. I have other athletes that enjoy racing several types of events
      throughout the season, or they enjoy trying new ones. This keeps their training interesting, new, and helps keep them motivated. It
      is also a way to find out what type of racing they enjoy the most. We try to structure their season so that the training we do for
      the first event type will compliment the next, but this is not always possible. Sometimes it requires a major shifting in gears and
      the sport we were previously training hard for must atrophy as we pursue a new goal.
      There is not right or wrong answer here, it is a personal decision. You have to consider why you train and compete and what your
      ultimate goal is. If you consider yourself a competitive athlete you may only have a window of so many years to achieve your best
      results. If this is the case it is best to focus on a single A event type and doggedly pursue it. It would be a mistake to try to be
      great at several different event types in a season. If you simply enjoy competition, camaraderie, and training then it is best to
      pursue what interests you and what you enjoy doing the most.
      By Matt Russ at the Sport Factory:

      * Running Times Shoe Guide:

      * How it Feels
      The Day After ...
      Running A Marathon
      DEENA KASTOR Long distance runner
      The 2004 Olympic bronze medalist won the Oct. 9 Chicago marathon, but her body shut down in the final miles, slowing her to a
      shuffle. "I went to bed at 11, got up at 5 a.m., and the walk to the bathroom was as ugly as the last miles. My glutes and hips were
      incredibly tender and tight, to the touch. My lower back and the balls of my feet were sore. It felt like all the muscles were still
      contracting, as if I were still running. I thought I'd feel better as the day went on, but it got worse. Sitting down, standing up.
      Each time felt like getting out of bed for the first time that morning."
      The New York City marathon begins on Sunday at 9:35 a.m.

      * Outdoor vs Treadmill Running
      The Aerobic demand for outdoor running at 5 m/s is 5% to 7% higher than that for treadmill running.
      From: Jones AM, Doust JH. A (1996). 1% treadmill grade most accurately reflects the energetic cost of outdoor running. J Sports Sci.
      14; 321-327

      * Fat Metabolism & Aerobic Intensity
      The total rate of fat oxidation during exercise is greatest at higher intensities that are below lactate threshold. For example,
      during exercise at 20% of VO2 max, approximately 60% of the energy would come from fat. By comparison, exercise at 50% of VO2 max,
      only about 40% of the energy would come from fat. Nonetheless, the absolute amount of fat metabolism is 33% higher during exercise
      at 50% VO2 max since the total energy expenditure is 250% greater than exercising at only 20% of VO2 max. The greatest absolute fat
      metabolism during exercise occurs at 50% of VO2 max in untrained subjects (body weight: 89 kg; VO2 max: 4.0 L/min; lactate
      threshold: 60% of VO2 max).

      * How to improve your VO2 max?
      Intensity: What is the optimal workout to make the largest gains in your VO2 max? There are two schools of thought. Some coaches
      believe that doing speedwork substantially faster than VO2 max pace jolts the body to increase maximal aerobic capacity. The other
      school of thought (to which I adhere) is that the greatest stimulus to improve your VO2 max is provided by running at an intensity
      that requires about 95 to 100 percent of your current VO2 max. For serious runners, the running speed at this intensity equates to
      about 3,000m to 5,000m race pace.
      Duration of intervals: You will improve VO2 max most rapidly by running repetitions of two to six minutes in duration (typically
      about 600m to 1600m), which can be done on the track, roads, trails or uphill. Shorter intervals are not as effective in providing
      this stimulus because you do not maintain the optimal intensity range long enough. The total amount of time accumulated at very
      close to your current maximal aerobic capacity is the key.
      Length of workout: Aim to do 4,000m to 8,000m of intervals per workout. If you run less than 4,000m of intervals, you will still
      provide a training stimulus, but your rate of improvement will be slower. If you try to run more than 8,000m of intervals at this
      intensity (good luck), you will likely be unable to maintain the appropriate pace for the entire workout and will require several
      days of recovery.
      Two-time Olympian Pete Pfitzinger is an exercise physiologist.

      * Glycogen and Performance
      Increased storage can double duration of exhaustive work
      Low or depleted glycogen stores
      limits exercise intensity
      decreases time to exhaustion
      increases rating of perceived exhaustion during physical activity (Nieman, et al., 1987)
      The average person stores enough glycogen to last them 12 to 14 hours or over 2 hours with sustained moderate intensity.
      Mean ingested daily is 400 grams
      To maintain an adequate supply a minimum of 100 grams of carbohydrates should be ingested daily (Sources)
      Glycogen synthesis after exercise
      Approximately 50% more glycogen can be stored if carbohydrates are consumed immediately following strenuous exercise as opposed to
      waiting 2 hours after exercise
      Suggested amount
      100 g of carbohydrates (400 Kcal) for the average 175 lb man (Friedman et al 1991).
      10 - 20% of total daily caloric intake of carbohydrates and quality proteins in approximately a 4:1 ratio
      Muscle glycogen synthesis is greater within 2 hours proceeding exercise (Friedman et al 1991) and greatest 45 minute post workout
      (Ivy JL 1988, Leven hagen DK 20<br/><br/>(Message over 64 KB, truncated)
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