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Runner's and Triathlete's Web Digest - October 7, 2005

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  • Ken Parker
    A FREE WEEKLY E-ZINE OF MULTISPORT RELATED ARTICLES. The Runner s and Triathlete s Web Digest is a weekly e-zine dealing with the sports of running and
    Message 1 of 1 , Oct 7, 2005
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      The Runner's and Triathlete's Web Digest is a weekly e-zine dealing with the sports of running and triathlon and general fitness and
      health issues. The opinions expressed in the articles referenced by the Digest are the opinions of the writers and not necessarily
      those of the Runner's Web. To comment on any stories in the Digest visit our Forum at:
      The Original Runner's and Triathlete's Web was founded in January of 1997 and is not in any way associated with the two UK "Runner's
      Web" copycat sites or the Runner's Web Book Store in the USA.

      Visit the Runner's Web at http://www.runnersweb.com/running.html The site is updated multiple times daily. Check out our daily news,
      features, polls, trivia, bulletin boards and more. General questions should be posted to one of our forums available from our


      1. Runner's Web Online Store:
      Through a partnership with HDO Sports, the Runner's and Triathlete's Web has opened an online store. Check it out for your shopping
      Gear up to go back to school. Free shipping on orders over $100! Leading edge sports products for runners and triathletes. Great
      products for athletes from athletes - support the RunnersWeb.com community and gear up this Fall!

      2. Road Runner Sports, the world's largest running store at:

      3. Toronto Waterfront Marathon. September 24, 2006.

      4. Sof Sole Offer:
      A free pair of our technical socks ($9.99 value) with the purchase of any Sof Sole insole.

      5. The Toronto Marathon, October 16, 2005.

      Shopping on the internet?
      Check out the Summer Specials at our online store (in partnership with HDO Sport).

      This newsletter has been composed using Outlook set to "Text" format. The Digest is sent via an email list at
      If you experience any delays in receiving your copy of the Digest, please advise us at:
      You can receive the digest in three ways:
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      3. By accessing the YahooGroups.com web site on demand.
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      (me) prior to being released to the group. If you have any questions regarding the options available for receiving this digest,
      please do NOT email the list, rather email me directly at
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      Microsoft(r) Alerts on RunnersWeb.com Inc.
      RunnersWeb.com Inc. now offers Microsoft(r) Alerts! This service lets you receive important messages through your MSN(r) Messenger
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      your preferences during the easy setup process. Sign up at:

      Race Directors:
      Advertise your event on the Runner's Web. Over 1.8 MILLION visits in 2004!
      68% increase in visitors in first 6 months of 2005!
      Averaged 8,500 visitors for September 2005!

      For more information:
      For text ads check out our AdBrite partnership at:
      You can also list your events for free in our Interactive Calendars and on our Marathons, Races and Triathlons pages.

      THIS WEEK:

      The Runner's Web is a member of Running USA, The National Professional Organization for the Running Industry. Visit their web site

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      We have 1,424 subscribers as of publication time. Forward the Runner's Web Digest to a friend and suggest that they subscribe at:
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      * Sports Nutrition by Sheila Kealey.
      Sheila is one of Ottawa's top multisport athletes and a member of the OAC Racing Team and X-C Ottawa. She has a Masters in Public
      Health and works in the field of nutritional epidemiology as a Research Associate with the University of California, San Diego. Her
      column index is available at:

      * Carmichael Training Systems
      Carmichael Training Systems was founded in 1999 by Chris Carmichael.
      From the beginning, the mission of the company has been to improve the lives of individuals we work with through the application of
      proper and effective fitness and competitive training techniques. Whether your focus is recreational, advanced, or you are a
      professional racer, the coaching methodology employed by CTS will make you a better athlete. Check the latest monthly column from
      CTS at:

      * Running Research News
      Note: Owen Anderson has had to discontinue his weekly column on the Runner's Web die to his increases commitments on his web site
      which has recently been re-launched. He has agreed to carry on with his Question and Answer feature and to allow us to publish his
      weekly column from his Newsletter.

      Running Research News is a monthly newsletter which keeps sports-active people up-to-date on the latest information about training,
      sports nutrition, and sports medicine. RRN publishes practical, timely new material which improves workouts, prevents injuries, and
      heightens overall fitness. Check our archive columns from Running Research News at:
      Send in your training related questions for Owen to answer to
      Check out the questions and answers from the Q and A Index page at:

      * Peak Performance Online
      "Peak Performance is a subscription-only newsletter for athletes, featuring the latest research from the sports science world. We
      cover the whole range of sports, from running and rowing to cycling and swimming, and each issue is packed full of exclusive
      information for anyone who's serious about sport. It's published 16 times a year, including four special reports, by Electric Word
      plc. Peak Performance is not available in the shops - only our subscribers are able to access the valuable information we publish
      Check out our latest article from Peak Performance Online at:

      * Peak Running Performance
      Peak Running Performance Is The Number 1 Technical Running Newsletter In America! Check out their article index at:
      http://www.runnersweb.com/running/PRP_index.html .

      * WatsonLifeSport
      Lance Watson is "Just The Winningest Coach in Triathlon". He has been coaching triathlon and distance running since 1987. Over the
      years, Lance has coached some of the most successful athletes in the sport of triathlon and duathlon.
      Check out the Lance Watson Online Article Index at:


      We have TWO personal postings this week.

      First Posting:
      "I am new to this group and wanted to introduce myself.
      My name is Dave and I live in the San Francisco Bay area. I began running after I had a heart attack and by-pass surgery three years
      ago....running has changed my life and I LOVE it!!! I hope to talk with or maybe meet others who love running and maybe even find
      someone else who is a running heart surgery survivor.
      GOD bless and happy trails,

      Second Posting:
      FROM: mailto:randykenepp@...
      DATE: Tue, 4 Oct 2005 17:03:09 -0700 (PDT)
      SUBJECT: marathon training
      Hi everyone, I just completed my very first marathon and finished 4:58.11. I am very proud of my 1st one. I would like some
      information about increasing my pace time at a slow level. I would ultimately like to finish with an 8 min mile pace. I am 40 yrs.


      1. Don't be a winter world champion
      How to periodize training to build fitness.
      2. Science of Sport: Stroke Your Way to a Faster 1500 Meter Swim
      3. Serious Riders, Your Bicycle Seat May Affect Your Love Life
      4. Joe Henderson's Running Commentary - Pure Sport
      5. Sportsmedicine: Active Rehabilitation - The final hurdle to a complete recovery
      6. All Athletes: Time for a Transition by Dirk Friel
      7. From Runner's World
      8. Majority of Americans Becoming Overweight or Obese
      Thirty-year survey showed nine out of 10 men packed on excess pounds.
      9. Multisport: Flexibility - The Stepchild of Sports Training
      10. Science of Sport: What I Learned About Training From Uncle Bud
      11. Running Form: How Should You Run?
      12. Sport spotlight: Trail running
      13. Exercising with diabetes
      14. The DNA Diet
      Are you wasting valuable munch time on food you don't need? A cutting-edge gene test may tell you exactly what your body requires to
      stay healthy, grow stronger, and recover faster.
      15. Bump in the Road
      Learning to Live with Being Injured.
      16. Success: It's all in your imagination
      17. The enigma of phosphorus by Frank Horwill
      "Warning: excessive consumption of this drink may damage your bones"
      18. Resistance Training in Cold Weather
      19. Gaining The Winter Running Edge
      20. Are Heart Rate Monitors Worth The Bother?
      21. Study results call athletes less moral
      22. Sudden Death and Exercise
      23. The Good Heart
      Diet and exercise are not the whole secret to cardiovascular health. Mounting evidence suggests that your psychological outlook is
      just as important.
      24. Aging and Exercise
      25. Digest Briefs

      "Should there be an age restriction for the marathon?"

      You can access the poll from our FrontPage as well as checking the results of previous polls.
      Post your views in our Forum at:
      [Free Registration Required]

      Last week's poll was: "What is your favourite running workout?"

      The results at publication time were:
      Answers Votes Percent
      1. Drills 3 4%
      2. Fartlek 2 3%
      3. Hills 10 13%
      4. Intervals 23 30%
      5. Long run 27 36%
      6. Tempo 8 11%
      7. Time trial 3 4%
      Total Votes: 76

      FIVE STAR SITE OF THE WEEK: SteepleChic.com.
      This website provides a medium for a growing body of information, about steeplechase for girls and women, that has become too large
      for publication in the "Women's Steeplechase Report," an e-mailed newsletter produced by James E. Fields.
      The website, designed and administered by steeplechaser and 2004 University of Nebraska graduate Ann Gaffigan, also provides an
      archive for results and other steeple information previously published in the Steeple Report.
      The report and website audience includes athletes and their families, plus coaches, fans, journalists, meet directors, officials,
      and track statisticians. They currently reside in 52 nations.
      Check out the site at:

      Send us your suggestions for our Five Star site. Please check our list of previous Five Star Sites available from the Five Star
      Window under the link "Previous Five Star Sites" as we do not wish to repeat a site unless it has undergone a major redesign.

      Our Photo Slideshow is updated on a random basis. Check it out from our FrontPage.

      BOOK OF THE WEEK: Advanced Sports Nutrition.
      Athletes and coaches are continually seeking ways to maximize efforts in both training and performance. Advanced Sports Nutrition
      provides the best research- and results-based information and advice that athletes need to gain an edge physically.
      Far beyond the typical food pyramid formula, this comprehensive guide presents cutting-edge nutritional concepts tailored for
      application by athletes in any sport. World-renowned sports nutritionist Dr. Dan Benardot breaks down the chemistry of improved
      performance into winning principles that ensure an athlete’s key energy systems are properly stocked at all times:
      Time your meals, snacks, fluids, training, and performances to maintain that crucial energy balance throughout each day.
      Digest optimal ratios and quantities of energy nutrients, vitamins, and minerals for any sport.
      Consume the right amount of fluid and electrolytes to avoid dehydration and hyperhydration.
      Identify and maintain a body composition capable of maximal power output with minimal excess weight for specific sports.
      Understand the effects of travel, high altitude, and age on nutritional needs and performance.
      The best conditioning regimens and technical instruction are beneficial only if the body’s engine is properly fueled and ready to
      operate at peak efficiency. Use Advanced Sports Nutrition to ensure that your body is running on the highest-grade fuel every time
      you compete or train.
      About the Author
      Dan Benardot, PhD, RD, is an associate professor in the department of nutrition and department of kinesiology and health at Georgia
      State University and has been involved in sports nutrition research since 1981. He codirects the Laboratory for Elite Athlete
      Performance at GSU, which provides training and nutrition plans that help athletes in their pursuit of excellence.
      As the national team nutritionist and a founding member of the Athlete Wellness Program for USA Gymnastics, Benardot worked with the
      gold-medal-winning women’s gymnastics team at the 1996 Atlanta Olympic Games as well as the medal-winning USA marathoners at the
      2004 Olympics. He is a member of the USA Figure Skating Sports Medicine Society and has had his research funded by several
      organizations, including the United States Olympic Committee. Benardot has also worked with top athletes from a variety of team and
      individual sports.
      Benardot is a fellow of the American College of Sports Medicine and a member of the American Dietetic Association (ADA). He served
      as editor in chief of Sports Nutrition: A Guide for Professionals Working With Active People, Second Edition, and has earned
      numerous awards for outstanding service from the ADA. Born in Greece, Benardot gained his love for sport while growing up in the
      Lake Placid region of northern New York State. He now lives in Atlanta, Georgia, where he enjoys tennis, skiing, and photography.
      Buy the book from Human Kinetics at:

      Previous Books of the Week:
      From Human Kinetics,
      From Amazon
      More running and triathlon books from Associates Shop


      1. Don't be a winter world champion:
      How to periodize training to build fitness.
      Consider the periodization of your training year like building a great race car. Everyone wants the powerful engine, right? But the
      powerful engine is worthless if the car has lousy tires, poor suspension and unreliable brakes. Drive that and you're bound to
      Similarly, building your aerobic foundation is like investing in the tires, suspension and brakes: it's not as exciting as the
      high-horsepower engine, but it's just as important. The foundation miles will prepare your body for the intervals and speed work
      that you will do later. Your body will be more resistant to injury and better able to handle the "bumps and curves" that life gives
      you throughout your season. The better your foundation, the quicker your fitness will return after time off.
      The key focus of your early season foundation is simply accumulating aerobic miles. These long, slow, distance sessions stimulate
      your slow-twitch muscle fibers. Slow-twitch fibers use less oxygen than fast-twitch fibers, thus your economy improves since less
      muscle activity and less oxygen are needed to maintain a given pace. The effort for these foundation sessions should be easy; many
      complain that they're too easy, but you're actually accumulating more strength and aerobic capacity than you think. You should be
      able to easily hold a conversation at your foundation pace, and your heart rate should only be around 60 to 75 percent of maximum.
      More...from the Runner's Web at:

      2. Science of Sport: Stroke Your Way to a Faster 1500 Meter Swim:
      By Anna Sablick, CTS Expert Coach
      If I had a penny for every time I heard an aspiring triathlete say, “I’d do it, but I just can’t swim”; or a competitive triathlete
      say, “I’ll be fine if I can just get through the swim”, or “I hope it’s wetsuit legal!”, I would probably be retired on a beach in a
      Maui right now. Too many people are turned away from the sport of triathlon simply because they feel they’re hopeless without water
      wings. Others constantly struggle to “make up time” on the bike and run or a race because of a slow swim. What most people don’t
      realize is that swimming is probably the easiest of the three triathlon disciplines to improve.
      The central paradox of swimming is that the faster you get, the more difficult it becomes, due to an increase in resistance. To be a
      strong and efficient swimmer, you do not have to spend five hours in the pool at a time, do speed intervals day in and day out, or
      spend each paycheck on the next gear upgrade. Speed in the water largely comes down to technique. Once you have the technique
      nailed, it’s time to start working on endurance, pace, speed, and strategy. Nailing the technique first is crucial, because if you
      spend hours in the pool pushing yourself, but you’re swimming inefficiently (w/ poor form), it is unlikely that you will see
      dramatic improvements.
      It is important to note that many of the traditional techniques used in swimming (even those used 10-20 years ago) have changed. For
      instance, instead of using the traditionally taught S-Shape pull, a more simple and powerful pull is now recommended. In addition,
      sitting lower or deeper in the water with your head looking down at the bottom of the pool has proven more effective than riding
      high and looking forward. You may have heard this technique described as “swimming downhill”. Finally, the trunk or core plays a
      much larger role in generating power through the freestyle stroke than it once did. Picture Tiger Woods’ famous golf swing and use
      your hips to drive your body’s center from side to side. The biggest misconception of freestyle is that it is done on your stomach,
      hence the name: front crawl. Executed correctly, your body rotates from side to side along an axis that runs the length of your
      More...from the Runner's Web at:

      3. Serious Riders, Your Bicycle Seat May Affect Your Love Life :
      raft of new studies suggest that cyclists, particularly men, should be careful which bicycle seats they choose.
      The studies add to earlier evidence that traditional bicycle saddles, the kind with a narrow rear and pointy nose, play a role in
      sexual impotence.
      Some saddle designs are more damaging than others, scientists say. But even so-called ergonomic seats, to protect the sex organs,
      can be harmful, the research finds. The dozen or so studies, from peer-reviewed journals, are summarized in three articles in
      September's Journal of Sexual Medicine.
      In a bluntly worded editorial with the articles, Dr. Steven Schrader, a reproductive health expert who studies cycling at the
      National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, said he believed that it was no longer a question of "whether or not bicycle
      riding on a saddle causes erectile dysfunction."
      Instead, he said in an interview, "The question is, What are we going to do about it?"
      The studies, by researchers at Boston University and in Italy, found that the more a person rides, the greater the risk of impotence
      or loss of libido. And researchers in Austria have found that many mountain bikers experience saddle-related trauma that leads to
      small calcified masses inside the scrotum.
      More...from the NY Times at:

      4. Joe Henderson's Running Commentary - Pure Sport:
      You don't run cross-country for flat, fast courses accurate to the inch, or to set PRs that mean anything except for repeating a
      race on that same course. You don't run cross-country to have every step watched, as in a track stadium, or to mix with the masses,
      as on the roads. You don't run cross-country for the glory, since in U.S. schools it shares a season with King Football.
      You run cross-country for the purest of reasons. You run to test yourself against other runners on whatever surface and terrain
      nature provides -- on a course where no car can go and where your family and fans can catch glimpses of you only by running from
      point to point. You run with teammates in a race where everyone's result helps or hurts the team score.
      Cross-country tests your love of running and racing for their own sake, not for PRs you might set or attention you might grab. Once
      you've fallen for the fall sport, you never stop loving it.
      Almost two-thirds of my autumns have passed since I last ran a full cross-country season. My final race for Drake University was the
      worst. In the snowbound NCAA meet I trailed all but 10 of the finishers.
      The pain of that race, of failing the team and of ending a college career this way, soon eased. The fond memories of those seasons
      remain, and I eagerly refresh them each fall at my favorite running event of the year. It isn't a big-city marathon or a
      championship track meet in my hometown, but the Oregon State High School Cross-Country Championships.
      Marc Bloom wrote in his magazine, The Harrier, after an overcharged Olympics, "At least we've got the warm and cuddly cross-country
      season to make us feel better." He loves the running that high schoolers do in this season, since he has coached as well as written
      about them.
      More...from Joe Henderson at:

      5. Sportsmedicine: Active Rehabilitation - The final hurdle to a complete recovery:
      Last month, we reviewed an often over-looked component to successful soft tissue injury rehabilitation; "Scar Tissue Removal" and
      discussed its' effectiveness in speeding up the recovery process for soft tissue injuries like muscle and tendon pulls, and ligament
      strains. To review last month's issue, click here:
      If you were to follow the advice in last month's issue, your injury would have healed to about 80% of its' original capacity. You
      may even feel that your injury is fully recovered. Your treatment so far may have stopped the swelling and bleeding, it may have
      reduced the amount of scar tissue at the injury site and it may have even started to heal the soft tissues that were injured. But
      there is still one more important thing to do.
      The last 20% can be the most crucial to your complete recovery. If you've ever suffered from a sporting injury in the past, you'll
      know how annoying it is to think you're recovered, and then out-of-the-blue, you're injured again and back to where you started
      from. It can be one of the most frustrating and heart-breaking cycles an athlete, or anyone else for that matter, can go through.
      Active Rehabilitation
      Most people refer to this phase of the recovery process as the active rehabilitation phase, because during this phase you will be
      responsible for the rehabilitation process. You will be doing the exercises and activities required to speed up your full recovery.
      This phase of the injury rehabilitation process should only be implemented after the initial healing process has been completed. For
      more information, click here.
      More...from the Runner's Web at:

      6. All Athletes: Time for a Transition by Dirk Friel
      Autumn is the beginning of the transition phase of training for most endurance athletes in North America. Although many tend to not
      take a rest period after a season of racing, those who do are well rewarded.
      A complete rest period is essential for proper development as an athlete as fitness does not improve continuously. You must
      introduce a period of rest that is at least three weeks in length if you are a year-around endurance athlete. Losing fitness is a
      necessary evil if your goal is to improve year to year.
      The transition period can rejuvenate fatigued muscles and joints. Logging hundreds of hours of training can only point an athlete in
      the direction of overuse injuries. By introducing a transition period you may be fending off an injury that is just around the
      If you have been sick occasionally throughout your season your body may be shouting out for a good rest period. Time away from
      training can help hormone levels, rebalance blood chemistry and rejuvenate the central nervous system. Your body's micronutrients
      and blood chemistry may thank you after a month away from serious training with a better immune system and faster recovery between
      Nutrition may be another great area to concentrate on during the transition phase. Since intensity and training volume are
      dramatically reduced this can be a good time to analyze your overall nutrition and start new habits. Focus your diet around
      nutrient-dense, low-glycemic, high quality, unprocessed foods. Save the starches and grains (pasta, bread, rice) for later in the
      training year when you need them for fast recovery fuel. Starches should be viewed as your secret weapon to pull out for the times
      when you need super-fast absorbing foods after intense training and races. Choose high quality protein, such as free-range meat and
      wild fish, during all training periods and especially so during the transition phase when you are preparing your body for upcoming
      strength training in the weight room.
      If you need to lose weight, the transition and preparation phases are the safest time of the training cycle to focus on a calorie
      deficit regime. Remember you need to burn 3500 calories, or intake 3500 fewer calories, to lose one pound of body weight. This can
      be done safely with fewer consequences during the transition and preparation phase, as compared to base, build and race phases.
      Remember the closer you get to your race season the more important it is to replace lost glycogen stores during and immediately
      after training.
      You may also be surprised, after a transition period, at how some things are just obviously wrong with your equipment once you
      resume training again. Certain issues just don't come to light until you take time away and start over. Remember when you train day
      after day, week after week, month after month your body adapts to good, or bad, equipment. Many athletes adapt to a less than ideal
      position that over time creates nagging issues—saddle sores, cramps, back pain, neck pain, knee issues. All of these are unwelcome
      to endurance athletes yet many learn to train with the pain, even though the solution may be simple. Small adjustments to your
      handlebars, saddle, cleats, shoes and more can relieve pain and increase economy.
      Your body is unbelievably adaptable, which isn't always welcome when the goal is to go fast and be efficient. Adapting isn't always
      the best solution. A misaligned knee, excessive movement or rocking may be obvious after you take a break. The best thing is to fix
      the source of the problem, rebuild and re-adapt.
      Take your fitness to a new level by starting with a fresh mind and body. Total fitness improvement is the overall goal, but
      short-term fitness loss is a necessity.
      Dirk Friel has raced as a professional cyclist on the roads of Europe, Asia and the Americas since 1992. He is also an Ultrafit
      Associates coach specializing in road and mountain bike events. Dirk is also a co-founder of TrainingPeaks ( www.trainingpeaks.com).
      Look for Dirk's new book this Christmas, Workouts in a Binder For Indoor Cycling. Dirk may be reached by e-mail at
      mailto:dfriel@... .

      7. From Runner's World:
      * Injury Prevention
      Don't run in wet shoes, which can cause blisters and athlete's foot. If your shoes are wet from the rain, immediately stuff them
      with crumpled newspaper to keep their form and last longer. Later on, a hairdryer on the lowest setting can be used to thoroughly
      dry them before your next run.
      * Coach's Corner
      "One of the great beauties of racing is that everyone has an equal chance to "win"--at least their own race. Unlike other sports,
      there's no need to beat an arbitrary standard (such as "par" or an opponent's score). You measure yourself against your personal
      records. Your PRs give you an objective measure of success that doesn't depend on defeating anyone else." -Joe Henderson
      * Performance Nutrition
      Eat More Marinara and Watermelon: Two to four servings of tomato sauce a week can cut your risk for prostate cancer by 34 percent.
      Like tomatoes, watermelon contains lycopene, a phytochemical that may reduce your prostate-cancer risk by as much as 34 percent. A
      single 1-inch slice of watermelon has as much lycopene as four tomatoes.
      * Words That Inspire:
      "Cross Country is like poker. You have to be holding five good cards all the time." -Rollie Geiger, North Caroline State Coach
      * Editor's Advice:
      "Before you go to bed, plop your favorite smoothie ingredients into a blender, and put it in the fridge. After your morning run, hit
      the switch, and 8 seconds later you'll have breakfast." -Lori Adams, RW assistant editor
      * Training Talk:
      "Determining your honest-to-goodness maximum heart rate involves a very strenuous test. You've got to be willing and able to place
      enough demand on your heart to get it to beat as fast as it can. I've done it. It wasn't pretty." -From Marathoning for Mortals by
      John Bingham

      8. Majority of Americans Becoming Overweight or Obese
      Thirty-year survey showed nine out of 10 men packed on excess pounds.
      Over the three decades between 1971 and 2001, nine out of 10 American men and seven out of 10 women were overweight or became
      overweight, and more than a third were obese or became obese, according to a new study.
      The findings from the study of more than 4,000 white adults enrolled in the ongoing Framingham Heart Study suggest the vast majority
      of American adults are at risk of becoming overweight or obese.
      "National surveys and other studies have told us that the United States has a major weight problem, but this study suggests that we
      could have an even more serious degree of overweight and obesity over the next few decades. In addition, these results may
      underestimate the risk for some ethnic groups," Dr. Elizabeth G. Nabel, director of the U.S. National Heart, Lung, and Blood
      Institute (NHLBI), said in a prepared statement.
      More...from Health Scout at:

      9. Multisport: Flexibility - The Stepchild of Sports Training:
      By Jeb D. Stewart MS, CSCS, Coach
      Flexibility is one of the most neglected aspects of physical fitness and sports training. Quite often, when the subject is brought
      up, the eyes roll in conjunction with a sigh of boredom and dismay. However, when someone is offered stretching, the offer is almost
      always received with a resounding and enthusiastic expression of gratitude and acceptance. What this tells me is that everyone
      enjoys and needs to be stretched, but no one enjoys doing it them selves. I am with you on this one folks. However, flexibility is a
      crucial component of any exercise or sports performance program and here are some of the reasons why. First of all, a supple muscle
      will be able to tolerate physical stress much better than an inflexible one and will be much less prone to injury. Second, the
      increased range of motion allows for greater speed and force production as well as more freedom of movement. This will lead to
      greater comfort when performing any movement or while exercising and will also lead to improvements in athletic performance.
      Finally, stretching helps increase total and specific range of motion and enhances recovery from exercise by assisting in the
      flushing of metabolic waste from the muscles. Tight muscles also lead to musculoskeletal imbalances that can cause injury and lead
      to pain. This is especially common in the lower back of individuals who run, cycle, or just sit at a desk all day whose hamstrings
      and hip flexors are tight. Like most people, I do not stretch as much as I should but have stepped it up as a result of injuries I
      have had in the past, which improved with flexibility work. I also have athletic goals that will be more easily reached with a body
      that is supple and pain free. Watch someone's attitude toward flexibility quickly change once they are injured or experiencing pain.
      Hopefully, many of us will see the importance of flexibility work and start to stretch before we get to get this point. So, give
      this step-child of the training world a little more attention, and maybe those aches and pains will not be such a bother to you
      More...from the Runner's Web at:

      10. Science of Sport: What I Learned About Training From Uncle Bud:
      By Owen Anderson, Ph. D. (Copyright © 2004-2005)
      When you are young, it is not necessary to have an idol. Sometimes, though, it helps.
      At the age of 12, my cynosure was my uncle Bud. Technically, his name was Raymond J. Anderson, but Bud was better, like new growth,
      I loved him because of his approving smile, because he listened to me, asked me what I really wanted to do. He was 20 years more
      into the salad than my dad and stood in nicely for my uninterested brother.
      He broke my heart at a baseball game when he said I had a slow swing, but I figured it was just like the game - he got two more
      strikes. When he asked if I would work on his farm during the summer, I changed instantly from a useless kid into a happy hand.
      Drenched daily by the Iowa sun, my skin turned the color of cork. I walked the bean fields searching for errant corn, marched the
      maize meadows for eloping soy. I drove the Farmall and John Deere, dug post holes, cleaned out silos. I hand-milked the cows at
      12-hour intervals, probed beneath surprisingly vicious chickens for warm brown eggs, poured fresh milk into troughs for frenzied
      pigs. Bud and I took 15-minute naps on the porch after ham-sandwich lunches and checked the box on the gravel road each afternoon
      for the Des Moines Register, our only - rather feeble - connection to the world outside our viridescent parabola of grain.
      I didn't learn about the loft in the barn until August, when the hay, goldening in the field, became just crisp enough for Bud's
      blades. Bud showed me how to climb the ladder built into the interior wall and taught me to place my hands on the rim of the single,
      square loft entry so that I could vault into the warm, hazy, dry-grass-scented space, somehow avoiding what seemed to be an
      inevitable 30-foot plummet right back to the bottom.
      More...from the Runner's Web at:

      11. Running Form: How Should You Run?
      A key component to successful distance running is efficiency or economy of movement. It is common to focus on training the heart,
      lungs and legs when preparing for an event but training form is less common.
      Recently I was able watch some of the athletes I train complete the run portion of a Half Ironman Triathlon event and between the
      wind gusts, showers and hail, I had a chance to assess their run form. The athletes have all had plenty of swim technique training,
      in most cases bike technique training but only a handful had had any run technique training. Those that had, really stood out and in
      some cases their run times were very close to their run times in a straight Half Marathon which they completed a few months earlier.
      An increased level of fitness would account for some of this but also knowing how to run efficiently made a huge difference. The
      outcome of this observation was a Sunday afternoon technique and drill session for some of the athletes down at the local park.
      Good running form involves a mix of your body movements so that you move with optimal mechanical efficiency. Good form can decrease
      discomfort when you run, help prevent injury, increase speed as well as lower the energy output at a given speed. Below are the main
      points I look at when assessing an athletes form and the advice I give them.
      More...from TriFuel at:

      12. Sport spotlight: Trail running:
      By Leigh Brown Perkins, Her Sports Magazine
      When she trained for her third Tour du Mont Blanc ultra marathon last summer, Chloë Lanthier-Brandner never was spotted running the
      roads near her home in Whistler, British Columbia. She was always deep in the woods, blazing up and down old logging trails.
      "All of my runs are on trails," Lanthier-Brandner says. "I forget I'm running."
      Elite runners are not the only ones lured by trails. More than 5.7 million Americans consider themselves avid trail runners, an
      increase of 36 percent in the last five years, according to the Outdoor Industry Association. Another 37 million runners hit the
      trails a few times a year.
      Nancy Hobbs, founder of the All-American Trail Running Association and co-author of The Ultimate Guide to Trail Running, explains
      the growing interest in trail running this way: "There's a real spiritual component to being on the trail. It provides a great
      physical challenge but in a serene, forgiving environment."
      More...from Active Women at:

      13. Exercising with diabetes:
      By Lisa Liddane, The Orange County Register, Calif.
      If you have diabetes, you already know that exercise is a staple for controlling this common disease. But once peripheral neuropathy
      sets in, being physically active can be a tricky issue.
      Peripheral neuropathy is nerve damage that affects the feet and, sometimes, the hands. It affects about 15 percent of the 18 million
      people in the United States who have diabetes.
      It can lessen the ability to feel cold, heat and pain.
      And it can be dangerous. If you have this complication, you may not feel injuries in your feet. One of my co-workers who has
      peripheral neuropathy had no idea he had stepped on a nail until he saw blood. He also has had to give up his favorite way to stay
      active: playing basketball.
      Nerve damage can lead to foot ulcers. In the worst-case scenario, ulcers and infections can spiral out of control, necessitating
      foot amputation.
      This shouldn't scare diabetes patients into becoming sedentary. So far, studies show that there's a good reason to be physically
      active. Exercise can increase blood flow to the affected areas and even slow down neuropathy, according to a recent report in the
      journal The Physician and Sportsmedicine.
      More...from Active.com at:

      14. The DNA Diet:
      Are you wasting valuable munch time on food you don't need? A cutting-edge gene test may tell you exactly what your body requires to
      stay healthy, grow stronger, and recover faster.
      YOU EAT A BALANCED DIET and train like a madman. You've even given up beer. But no matter how hard you try, you can't keep up with
      the hammerheads on bike rides or the LeBron wannabes on the basketball court. What's a genetically challenged striver to do? One
      option may be nutrigenomics—a fast-emerging (and controversial) nutritional science that can help you overcome your genetic
      limitations with a diet tailored to your DNA.
      Nutrigenomics spun out of the Human Genome Project, the effort begun in 1990 by the U.S. Department of Energy and the National
      Institutes of Health to identify the nearly 25,000 genes that make us who we are. With the job complete, scientists have started
      using this knowledge to uncover revelations in fields like evolution, anthropology, molecular medicine, and forensics and to
      research cutting-edge cures for dozens of genetic disorders like diabetes.
      Over the past ten years, countless studies have looked at nutrigenomics and the correlation between diet and genes. A 2002 study
      published in BMJ (British Medical Journal) stated that specific nutritional advice based on patients' DNA can help them avoid
      diseases. But it's only recently that this technology has been connected to sports performance.
      "It stands to reason that this knowledge would positively affect athletic results," says Mark Troxler, a team physician for USA
      Track & Field. "Right now athletes take supplements they don't need, and need supplements they don't take, but they don't know it.
      Nutrigenomics can eliminate a lot of that misunderstanding."
      More...from Outside Magazine at:

      15. Bump in the Road:
      Learning to Live with Being Injured.
      Being injured still goes against how I perceive myself. I’ve been having this recurring dream that I am running across the street
      because the light is about to turn red, and I actually make it across before it does. I always wake up soon after the dream with
      what still shocks me: knee pain.
      I have loved running ever since I started, seven years ago. I consider myself a recreational runner who is addicted enough to have
      run six marathons in the past five years but who does it purely for its therapeutic effect rather than competition. I attribute
      running to enabling me to have the patience and perseverance to pass the bar exam.
      Running was the one escape I allowed myself the summer I was studying for the bar; I would go for a run at lunch and let myself go
      as far and as long as I wanted. Either it would give my mind a chance to go blank and I would focus on the music and my heart
      beating, or it would actually allow me to finally understand some legal distinction that heretofore had eluded me. Running helped me
      deal with a heart-wrenching break-up. Running gave me the courage and strength to quit my first real job.
      Monday, April 26, 2004 was my first day at a new job. Two days later, I figured I’d go to the gym for a lunchtime spinning class. At
      11 a.m., all of the new employees filed into a conference room for our benefits training. My spinning class was to begin at 12:30.
      Thankfully, I managed to bolt out of work by 12:15 and run the couple of blocks to the gym. I swiped my ID card and then bounded up
      the steep, two-story escalator. At the foot of the escalator, I checked my watch, 12:26. "I have four minutes. But, I’ve cut it this
      close before and still made it," I thought to myself, "I just hope the class isn’t full yet."
      Before the spinning room was in my sights, I fell up the escalator, my gym stuff landing steps above me, my legs and arms splayed
      out. Next thing I knew I was on the floor with an ice pack on my knee. A big trainer, who seemed well over six feet tall, with
      bulging arm muscles was looming far above me yelling, "What is your name, miss, do you know your name?!" I was surrounded by people,
      and the paramedics were there. They asked me who they should contact, and I told them not to contact anyone because I was going back
      to work. The trainer bellowed, "Well, can you stand?" When I tried, my knee immediately gave out and the pain was astounding.
      "You’re coming with us," the paramedic said.
      More...from Running Times at:

      16. Success: It's all in your imagination:
      It's a Sunday morning long run and you find yourself locked into an easy rhythm. The miles are flowing by and your thoughts start to
      drift. You imagine what it would be like to be the best runner in the world.
      You sweep aside all challengers with ease. No, that's too easy; you heroically clinch victory with the last stride of the race. You
      blow kisses to the crowd. No, that's not your style, either. You modestly accept their applause and politely field questions from
      the admiring masses.
      OK. Back to reality. "What's the point of dreaming?" you say to yourself. "I'll never be that good!" You wipe your runny nose with
      your shirt sleeve, tilt your head into the wind and try to concentrate on finishing this run with a bit of self-respect.
      Why not imagine what it would be like to be the best? Great astronomer and scientist Dr. Carl Sagan once wrote, "Imagination will
      often carry us to worlds that may never exist, but without it we go nowhere."
      This principle unquestionably applies to sport, and it has been well documented that our thoughts and images create neuromuscular
      impulses. The implications for athletes are clear: Since our bodies tend to do what they're told, all we need to decide is what to
      tell them.
      More...from Active.com at:

      17. The enigma of phosphorus:
      by Frank Horwill
      "Warning: excessive consumption of this drink may damage your bones"
      The average 70-kilogram man has 680,000 milligrams of phosphorus in his body. It is an essential nutrient, and sufficient quantities
      are necessary for calcium to do its job in the system, yet too much phosphate can increase calcium needs, which, if not met, can
      render the individual calcium- deficient. A junk-food diet is rich in phosphorus and can produce a relative calcium deficiency and
      all the problems that this entails. Ideally, the dietary calcium-phosphorus ratio should be about 1 or 2:1.
      The phosphorus RDA has recently been fixed at 900mg. In 1980, in the USA, it was fixed at a trivial 100mg per day. In the UK, the
      daily intake is about 1200-2000mg. Good food sources include milk and milk products, nuts and wholegrain cereals, poultry, eggs,
      fish, meats and legumes.
      B vitamins are only effective when combined with phosphate in the body. A very important use in the athlete is the
      phosphorus-containing compound, adenosine triphosphate (ATP), which is involved in all exercise, short or long. Its other activities
      include: development of bones and teeth, multiplication of cells, activation of some enzymes and vitamins, and maintenance of body
      neutrality. It also participates in carbohydrate metabolism.
      But are athletes getting too much?
      Quite possibly athletes are ingesting three times the RDA. Dr Tim Noakes, the eminent physiologist at Cape Town University and
      author of 'The Lore of Running' (one of the greatest books ever written about road running) and four other scientists decided to
      carry out an investigation into the causes of shin-soreness. To do this, they brought together 12 sufferers from different sports
      (not just runners).
      More...from the Serpentine Running Club at:

      18. Resistance Training in Cold Weather:
      Resistance training places high internal and external load demands on the human body. It must be physically prepared to meet and
      exceed these artificially designed stresses. To successfully adapt, conditions within the body must be favourable. Temperature
      variations, however, can sometimes overpower the metabolic responses of the organism.
      Weight training in an unheated building is the gold standard for hardcore lifting. Anyone can go to an air-conditioned or heated
      commercial gym to lift, but how many lifters actually look forward to exercising in the ambience of a near freezing outbuilding gym.
      It separates the serious true strength athlete from the wannabe's.
      I am NOT saying a cold environment is a bed of roses, but it can be a strong motivator to keep moving and stay in the correct
      work-to-rest ratio. Resting is not an option when it is cold. Movement produces heat and heat keeps the body ready for action. Under
      certain conditions, however, it can be downright dangerous to be out in the cold. If you develop any chest pains when you exercise
      in the cold, but not when it's warm outside, see your doctor. The cold air hitting your face constricts the blood vessels; this in
      turn raises your blood pressure, which makes your heart work harder to pump blood to the body. The heart rate also slows, so less
      blood reaches the heart. If your heart is working harder, it needs more blood. But the slower heart rate is bringing less blood
      which results in decreased oxygen supply. Now your heart hurts.
      More...from Brian Mackenzie at:

      19. Gaining The Winter Running Edge:
      When the days get shorter, snow and sleet are not far away. With the prospect of poor footing and several months until spring, many
      runners make winter running a low priority. If you are serious about your racing in the warmer months, however, the winter is a
      critical portion of your yearly running plan. Winter running can give you a competitive advantage over your weaker-willed
      competition. While they come up with excuses why not to run (too dark, too slippery, too windy, too cold), you have the opportunity
      to develop an edge that will serve you well when racing season arrives.
      During the winter you lay a foundation of endurance that you can draw upon during the rest of the year. World-class runners such as
      Paula Radcliffe divide the training year into chunks each with a specific purpose, and credit their summer successes to the many
      miles of training they put in over the winter. Forty years ago, famed New Zealand coach Arthur Lydiard demonstrated the importance
      of developing a solid aerobic base during the winter. With a winter’s training behind you, you can reduce your mileage during the
      racing season to achieve your best performances.
      Before you launch into serious winter training, however, you need a chance to recover from a hard fall of racing. After a full year
      of training and racing, the holiday season provides the perfect opportunity for mental and physical recovery. This break allows you
      to indulge in holiday festivities without having to be the awkward one who cannot have any eggnog because you have to go do a set of
      hill repeats.
      Continuing hard training around the full annual cycle year-after-year is a sure path to mediocre running. A break in discipline will
      do you good, and the accompanying guilt will fuel your running through the winter. For most runners, a break of 4 to 8 weeks is
      enough to fully recharge the batteries. Your break may consist of no running or simply cutting back your mileage by 20 to 30% and
      keeping high intensity sessions to a minimum. The important thing is that your muscles, tendons and ligaments have time to repair
      fully and you are not expending mental energy on your running.
      More...from Pete Pfitzinger at:

      20. Are Heart Rate Monitors Worth The Bother?
      Training techniques and programs have become increasingly more sophisticated in recent years. Advanced technology regarding the
      food, clothing, and equipment best suited to aid athletic performance have seemingly transformed sport into as much a scientific
      endeavor as a physical endeavor.
      Among the instruments that have gained popularity for use by athletes is the heart rate monitor. Many coaches, scientists, and
      athletes feel strongly that training "by the numbers" (i.e., monitoring one's heart rate) can significantly impact on physical
      performance. On the other hand, there are those who question the validity of measuring heart rate during exercise, and some experts
      warn that an over reliance on target heart-rate zones can lead to erroneous conclusions about the intensity of training.
      The Gatorade Sports Science Institute polled four experts on their opinions regarding this very practical and yet controversial
      issue. Their answers to our questions follow.
      More...from the GSSI at:

      21. Study results call athletes less moral:
      After a recent University of Idaho study reported that character growth is negatively affected by involvement in sports, Boston
      University athletes and administrators say the study's findings are visible in athletes' behavior on and off the field.
      Boston University Sports Psychology Director Dr. Len Zaichkowsky said the topic of low moral judgment in athletes has been "bounced
      around" in recent years.
      "They are just so competitive that they'll do whatever it takes to win - within the rules," he said. "But when you try to measure
      what's right and wrong in life and then in sports, it depends on what circumstance you're in."
      The study, conducted over the past 17 years, evaluated 72,000 individuals from 1987 to 2004 and linked moral development with the
      competitive nature of organized athletics, as opposed to recreational activities.
      "The environment of athletics has not been supportive of teaching and modeling moral knowing, moral valuing and moral action," the
      results stated.
      The study reported that athletes' moral levels declined from the beginning of the study and that athletes who compete in team sports
      have a lower moral judgment than their peers who compete individually.
      Women also have the same "low level" of moral action as their male counterparts, according to the results.
      More...from the Daily Free Press at:

      22. Sudden Death and Exercise:
      Sudden death in athletes will always be an emotive topic, for it suggests that athleticism may not prevent the development of heart
      disease and may actually increase the likelihood that the athlete will die suddenly during exercise. Persons who die suddenly during
      exercise have advanced heart disease of which they are frequently unaware. The commonest forms of heart disease associated with
      sudden death during exercise are coronary artery disease and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Less common cardiac conditions linked to
      sudden death in athletes include anomalous origin of the coronary arteries, aortic rupture associated with Marfan's syndrome,
      myocarditis, mitral valve prolapse and various arrhythmias. The incidence of these predisposing diseases in the athletic population
      is extremely low, possibly of the order of 1 per 10,000 to 1 per 200,000 athletes. Detection of some of these conditions in
      asymptomatic athletes may be difficult, if not impossible. Regular exercise reduces the overall risk of sudden death in persons with
      latent coronary artery disease, yet acutely increases the risk of sudden death during exercise for those with heart disease that
      predisposes to sudden death. In practical terms, only athletes with symptoms or clinical signs of, or risk factors for coronary or
      other forms of heart disease should undergo routine maximal exercise testing when they commence an exercise training program.
      However, once symptoms suggestive of cardiac disease are present in athletes, detailed cardiological testing is mandatory.
      More...from Sports Science at:

      23. The Good Heart:
      Diet and exercise are not the whole secret to cardiovascular health. Mounting evidence suggests that your psychological outlook is
      just as important.
      You can call it the Northridge Effect, after the powerful earthquake that struck near Los Angeles at 4:30 on a January morning in
      1994. Within an hour, and for the rest of the day, medics responding to people crushed or trapped inside buildings faced a second
      wave of deaths from heart attacks among people who had survived the tremor unscathed. In the months that followed, researchers at
      two universities examined coroners' records from Los Angeles County and found an astonishing jump in cardiovascular deaths, from
      15.6 on an average day to 51 on the day of the quake itself. Most of these people turned out to have a history of coronary disease,
      or risk factors such as high blood pressure. But those who died were not involved in rescue efforts or trying to dig themselves out
      of the rubble. Why did they die? In the understated language of The New England Journal of Medicine, "emotional stress may
      precipitate cardiac events in people who are predisposed to such events." To put it simply, they were scared to death.
      Folk medicine has always recognized that a sudden fright or bad news can be fatal. And the same Greek word, meaning "constriction,"
      is the root of both "anger" and "angina." But the Northridge study—and others involving survivors of the 1981 Athens earthquake and
      the 1991 Iraqi Scud-missile attacks on Israel—helped fuel new research in what might be called psychocardiology, the profound
      connections between emotions and the cardiovascular system. For a long time, cardiologists resisted the idea that the heart, the
      sturdy wellspring of life, can be fatally deranged by a mental event. But it's not just sudden shocks like earthquakes that kill.
      Mounting evidence suggests that chronic emotional states such as stress, anxiety, hostility and depression take a far greater toll.
      "Fifty percent of people who have heart attacks do not have high cholesterol," points out Edward Suarez, associate professor of
      psychiatry and human behavior at Duke. The risk of psychological and social factors are almost as great as obesity, smoking and
      hypertension, the traditional medical markers for cardiovascular disease—which afflicts 70 million Americans and is the nation's No.
      1 killer. Researchers are now starting to learn why. And a growing number of clinics are putting that insight to work in programs
      that tackle heart disease.
      More...from Newsweek at:

      24. Aging and Exercise:
      The Phenomenon of Aging
      Aging and ultimate death seem characteristic of all living organisms. Atherosclerosis and arteriosclerosis progressively decrease
      the tissue oxygen supply, and in some organs such as the brain, cells that die are not replaced. In other tissues, the cell
      constituents change with aging; for example, cross-linkages develop between adjacent collagen fibrils, decreasing their elasticity
      and facilitating mechanical injury. In consequence, most biological functions show a progressive, age-related deterioration (8).
      The mechanisms underlying the aging process are not well understood. Possible hypotheses (2, 8) include a "wear and tear" which
      exceeds the reparative capacity of the tissues, a development of immunity to the individual's own protein constituents, and errors
      in cell division, associated with exposure to external radiation or endogenous mitogens such as peroxidases. Some biologists have
      even argued that aging has been "programmed" by evolution to avoid the hazard of overpopulation.
      Age Classification
      Young adulthood typically covers the period from 20-35 years of age, when both biological function and physical performance reach
      their peak. During young middle-age (35-45 years), physical activity usually wanes, with a 5-10 kg accumulation of body fat. Active
      pursuits may be shared with a growing family, but it becomes less important to impress either an employer or persons of the opposite
      sex with physical appearance and performance. During later middle-age (45-65 years), women reach the menopause, and men also
      substantially reduce their output of sex hormones. Career opportunities have commonly peaked, and a larger disposable income often
      allows energy demanding domestic tasks to be deputed to service contractors. The decline in physical condition thus continues and
      may accelerate.
      In early old age (65-75 years), there may be a modest increase of physical activity, in an attempt to fill free time resulting from
      retirement (8). By middle old age (75-85 years), many people have developed some physical disability, and in the final stage (very
      old age, over 85 years) they become totally dependent. A typical expectation is of 8-10 years of partial disability, and a year of
      total dependency (5).
      There are nevertheless wide inter-individual differences in functional status at any given chronological age. In terms of maximal
      oxygen intake, muscle strength and flexibility, the best preserved 65-year-old may out-perform a sedentary 25-year-old. Whether
      assessing fitness for continuing employment or recommending an exercise prescription, decisions should thus be based upon biological
      rather than chronological age. Unfortunately, there is no very satisfactory method of determining a person's biological age,
      because the different biological systems age at differing rates. Attempts to combine such measurements as graying of the hair, loss
      of skin elasticity, a decrease of vital capacity, and a decrease of reaction time into a global index seem to provide no more than a
      complicated and inaccurate method of assessing the individual's chronological age.
      More...from Sports Science at:

      25. Digest Briefs:
      * Glucosamine/Chondroitin--They Work!:
      Many runners decided this long ago, based on their own positive results with glucosamine hydrochloride/chondroitin sulfate
      supplements, particularly to decrease osteoarthritis knee pain. But most medical experts were skeptical. They said they would have
      to wait for the results from the GAIT study (Glucosamine/chondroitin Arthritis Intervential Trial) conducted at 16 U.S. medical
      centers. Those results have now been compiled, and will be presented at the American College of Rheumatology meeting in San Diego in
      mid-November. Here's what the researchers concluded: "Combination of G + CS is effective in treating moderate to severe knee pain
      due to OA." In another glucosamine study, European researchers tested glucosamine sulfate vs. acetaminophen for pain relief.
      Concluded the researchers: "Glucosamine sulfate ... might be the preferred symptomatic medication in knee OA." Both studies agreed
      that there are no serious side effects to use of glucosamine and chondroitin products.
      * The Golden Ratio
      By Coach Matt Russ
      If you are trying to loose weight, base period is the most efficient time of year to do it. Once you are in later training periods
      trying to drop pounds can impair your ability to train hard, and build muscle and speed when it counts the most. Body fat loss
      produces an instant increase in VO2 max.
      If you are a cyclist, power to weight ratio is the golden ratio. If you have a power meter you can gauge your optimal power to
      weight ratio by these figures ??
      An optimally fit recreational rider will be able to produce a mere 1.6 watts per pound.
      A world champion (Lance) will produce 2.7 watts per pound for 45 min.
      This does not just count for cyclist. A runner will drop 2.5 seconds per mile with each pound of body fat lost. Drop 10 pounds and
      you just shaved 11 min. off your marathon.
      Drop the ballast!
      From the Sports Factory.

      * Cardiac Deaths Are Decreasing In Marathons
      Many marathon observers have worried that the increase in slower, less fit runners who are flocking to marathons could lead to an
      increase in cardiac events and deaths. Not so, apparently. In a Letter to the Journal of the American College of Cardiology, Twin
      Cities Marathon medical director Bill Roberts, M.D. has updated his data base of cardiac events during the Twin Cities and Marine
      Corps Marathons. In a comparison of pre-1995 to post-1995, Roberts found that cardiac events (heart attacks) decreased from 1 in
      44,000 marathon finishers to 1 in 55,000. Deaths decreased much more substantially, from 1 per 55,000 runners to 1 p<br/><br/>(Message over 64 KB, truncated)
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