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Runner's and Triathlete's Web Digest - July 1, 2005

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  • Ken Parker
    A Free Weekly E-zine of Multisport Related Articles. The Runner s and Triathlete s Web Digest is a weekly e-zine dealing with the sports of running and
    Message 1 of 1 , Jul 1, 2005
      A Free Weekly E-zine of Multisport Related Articles.
      The Runner's and Triathlete's Web Digest is a weekly e-zine dealing with the sports of running and triathlon and general fitness and
      health issues. The opinions expressed in the articles referenced by the Digest are the opinions of the writers and not necessarily
      those of the Runner's Web. To comment on any stories in the Digest visit our Forum at:
      http://excoboard.com/exco/index.php?boardid=4655
      The Original Runner's and Triathlete's Web was founded in January of 1997 and is not in any way associated with the two UK "Runner's
      Web" copycat sites or the Runner's Web Book Store in the USA.
      Visit the Runner's Web at http://www.runnersweb.com/running.html The site is updated multiple times daily. Check out our daily news,
      features, polls, trivia, bulletin boards and more. General questions should be posted to one of our forums available from our
      FrontPage.

      Support our advertisers:

      1. Runner's Web Online Store:
      Through a partnership with HDO Sports, the Runner's and Triathlete's Web has opened an online store. Check it out for your shopping
      requirements. Provide us with your feedback.
      http://store.runnersweb.com

      2. Road Runner Sports, the world's largest running store at:
      http://www.roadrunnersports.com/cgi-bin/rrs/rrs/rrHome.jsp?sc=CBM-00105&prfc=1

      3. Toronto Waterfront Marathon. September 25, 2005:
      http://www.torontowaterfrontmarathon.com/

      4. Sof Sole Offer:
      A free pair of our technical socks ($9.99 value) with the purchase of any Sof Sole insole.
      http://www.sofsole.com/pages/promo/rwebsockoffer.html

      5. The Toronto Marathon
      http://www.torontomarathon.com

      6. Total Immersion (*NEW*)
      The TAO of TI: What makes Total Immersion different.
      We're convinced there's a great swimmer inside of everyone! If you've never believed you could learn to swim well, or have been
      swimming for years with little progress, your frustrations are not your fault. The way you were taught to swim - even the way you've
      been led to think about swimming - is what has held you back.
      Though swimming is an essential life skill, traditional teaching and coaching methods have made it difficult to master because they
      teach an awkward, exhausting style of swimming. Total Immersion’s foolproof approach to teaching can help any student master a
      fluent, beautiful and economical style and brings results far faster than conventional methods:
      Only TI teaches Fishlike Swimming. Traditional instruction focuses on pulling, kicking and endless laps. TI teaches you to swim with
      the effortless grace of fish by becoming one with the water. You’ll feel the difference from your very first lap of intelligent,
      purposeful TI practice and get more satisfaction from every lap that follows.
      Only TI teaches the qualities of beautiful swimming as well as the mechanics. Swimmers come to us with the goal of swimming faster.
      They quickly learn that it’s far more helpful and satisfying to swim with grace, flow, and economy…and that speed will surely follow
      when they master ease.
      Only TI teaches transformation along with fluid strokes. TI, alone among all swimming-improvement programs, teaches swimming as a
      practice — in the same mindful spirit as yoga or tai chi. Our students tell us that by swimming the TI way they sharpen the
      mind-body connection and achieve heightened self-awareness and self-mastery, leading to greater physical and mental well-being.
      Only TI teaches you to master swimming as an art. TI teachers emphasize the same patient precision and refinement taught by martial
      arts masters. We start with simple skills and movements and progress by small, easily-mastered steps. Our students thrive on the
      attention to detail and the logical sequence of progressive skills.
      Check out the TI program at:
      http://www.totalimmersion.net


      Shopping on the internet?
      Check out the Summer Specials at our online store (in partnership with HDO Sport).
      http://store.runnersweb.com/



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      THIS WEEK:


      Webmasters
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      The Digest is also available through other RSS Readers on request.

      If anyone is looking for a web mail provider, you might wish to consider Google's GMail. Currently you can get GMail by invitation
      only from a current user. My stock of "invites" has been replenished. If you are interested in getting FREE GMail account, contact
      me at:
      mailto:kparker@....

      Microsoft(r) Alerts on RunnersWeb.com Inc.
      RunnersWeb.com Inc. now offers Microsoft(r) Alerts! This service lets you receive important messages through your MSN(r) Messenger
      or Windows(r) Messenger, your e-mail, or your mobile device. You can choose how and when you receive these messages by specifying
      your preferences during the easy setup process. Sign up at:
      http://www.messagecast.net/alerts/login.do?PINID=2598&returnURL=http://www.runne\rsweb.com

      We have 1331 subscribers as of publication time. Forward the Runner's Web Digest to a friend and
      suggest that they subscribe. at: http://groups.yahoo.com/group/RunnersWeb/join.

      Race Directors:
      Advertise your event on the Runner's Web. Over 1.8 MILLION visits in 2004!
      7,055 visitors per day for March 2005, a 65% increase over March 2004.
      7,263 visitors per day for April 2005, a 62% increase over April 2004.
      7,522 visitors per day for May 2005, a 58% increase over May, 2004
      On Monday, April 18th, 2004 we set an all-time one day high of 11,455 visitors.

      For more information:
      http://www.runnersweb.com/running/rw_advertising.html
      For text ads check out our AdBrite partnership at:
      http://www.adbrite.com/mb/commerce/purchase_form.php?opid=15182&afsid=1
      You can also list your events for free in our Interactive Calendars and on our Marathons, Races and Triathlons pages.

      Runner's and Triathlete's Web Content Partners:

      * Sports Nutrition by Sheila Kealey.
      Sheila is one of Ottawa's top multisport athletes and a member of the OAC Racing Team and X-C Ottawa. She has a Masters in Public
      Health and works in the field of nutritional epidemiology as a Research Associate with the University of California, San Diego. Her
      column index is available at:
      http://www.runnersweb.com/running/SK_index.html

      * Carmichael Training Systems
      Carmichael Training Systems was founded in 1999 by Chris Carmichael.
      From the beginning, the mission of the company has been to improve the lives of individuals we work with through the application of
      proper and effective fitness and competitive training techniques. Whether your focus is recreational, advanced, or you are a
      professional racer, the coaching methodology employed by CTS will make you a better athlete. Check the latest monthly column from
      CTS at:
      http://www.runnersweb.com/running/cts_columns.html.

      * Running Research News
      Running Research News is a monthly newsletter which keeps sports-active people up-to-date on the latest information about
      training, sports nutrition, and sports medicine. RRN publishes practical, timely new material which improves workouts, prevents
      injuries, and heightens overall fitness. Check our latest column from Running Research News at:
      http://www.runnersweb.com/running/RRN_index.html
      On January 7th we started a new feature on the website - A Question and Answer with Owen Anderson from Running Research News.
      Send in your training related questions for Owen to answer to
      mailto:webmaster@...?subject=Owen_Anderson
      Check out the questions and answers from the Q and A Index page at:
      http://www.runnersweb.com/running/RRN_AskOwen_index.html

      * Peak Performance Online
      Peak Performance is a subscription-only newsletter for athletes, featuring the latest research from the sports science world. We
      cover the whole range of sports, from running and rowing to cycling and swimming, and each issue is packed full of exclusive
      information for anyone who's serious about sport. It's published 16 times a year, including four special reports, by Electric Word
      plc. Peak Performance is not available in the shops - only our subscribers are able to access the valuable information we publish
      Check out our latest article from Peak Performance Online at:
      http://www.runnersweb.com/running/PPO_index.html

      * Peak Running Performance
      Peak Running Performance Is The Number 1 Technical Running Newsletter In America! Check out their article index at:
      http://www.runnersweb.com/running/PRP_index.html.

      * WatsonLifeSport
      Lance Watson is "Just The Winningest Coach in Triathlon". He has been coaching triathlon and distance running since 1987. Over the
      years, Lance has coached some of the most successful athletes in the sport of triathlon and duathlon.
      Check out the Lance Watson Online Article Index at:
      http://www.runnersweb.com/running/LW_index.html


      This Weeks Personal Postings/Releases:
      We have ONE personal postings this week.
      "I have made a page which generates a wrist band with your split times printed on it.
      Enter your goal distance and time and it returns the elapse time at each mile or km marker.
      Using this and your stopwatch you can quickly figure out during a race/run if you are ahead or behind your target time.
      You don't need to login to use it."
      It is at:
      http://rogercortesi.com/athleticlog/wristsplits.php
      (there are also links to it from within the training log)
      Roger
      -------------------------------------
      The Digital Athletic Log
      http://rogercortesi.com/athleticlog/


      This Week's Digest Article Index:

      1. Science of Sport: What Happens When Nandi Boys Go Out On The Town
      2. When athletes can't catch their breath
      Trainers are urged to recognize and respond to exercise-induced asthma.
      3. Science of Sport: Air Pollution
      Along with the highly publicised concerns about whether the 2004 Athens Olympic facilities would be completed in time, the various
      national Olympic organisations were also preoccupied with the environmental challenges that confronted competitors.
      4. Joe Henderson's Running Commentary - Fathers' Days
      5. Dr. Gabe Mirkin's Fitness and Health E-Zine
      6. Bone Health in Highly Trained Female Athletes
      A review of the current state of knowledge.
      7. Just ate? Feel free to take a dip
      8. Research Review Questions Effect of Vitamin C on Colds
      9. Powered by music
      Rhythm does more than move us. For athletes, the right tunes can sharpen focus, boost performance and minimize pain.
      10. From Runner's World
      11. If Thirst Comes to Worst -Fluid intake key in heat
      12. Orthotics Questions & Answers
      Custom Ultralight Running & Walking Orthotics.....
      13. Science of Sport: Sport Psychology - Choking under pressure
      14. Science of Sport: Modafinil - Banned drug works as ergogenic aid
      15. Avoid flight-induced foot swelling
      16. The Wall
      17. Tri bike frame geometry
      18. Cycling - 9 Tips To Take The “DIS” Out Of Discomfort When You're Cycling
      19. The Evolution of the Bicycle
      20. Physiological Training Principles Are Often Inaccurate
      21. Advertising on TV with Professional Triathletes
      22. Efficient running: Move more horizontally
      23. Exercise Reverses Arthritis-Related Wasting
      24. Tapering for Optimal Race Performance
      Find a balance between maintaining fitness and harboring strength.
      25. News Scan - A Collection of News Briefs


      Runner's Web Weekly Poll:
      "Which of the following magazines do you read on a regular basis?
      Competitor Magazine
      InsideTri
      Runner's World
      Running Times
      Sports Illustrated
      Triathlete Magazine?"

      You can access the poll from our FrontPage as well as voting on and/or checking the results of previous polls.
      Post your views in our Forum at:
      http://www.runnersweb.com/running/runnersweb_forum.html
      [Free Registration Required]

      Last week's poll was: "Which of the following is the biggest doping threat facing sports today?"
      The results at publication time were:
      Answers Votes Percent
      1. EPO 9 22%
      2. Genetic Engineering 13 32%
      3. Human Growth Hormone 7 17%
      4. Steroids 12 29%
      5. Other 0 0%
      Total Votes: 41

      Forward the Runner's Web Digest to a friend and suggest that they subscribe at:
      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/RunnersWeb/join


      Five Star Site of the Week: Peter "Robo" Robertson.
      "I was born in 1976, the youngest in a family of four. I have three older sisters Kerrie, Jane and Susan all of whom are now
      married. My family are spread over two states, Victoria and NSW but we gather regularly for many different family events. My
      parents, Alistair and Pat have retired and now live at Coffs Harbour on the NSW north coast. Dad enjoys fishing and lawn bowls,
      whilst mum keeps busy with her regular craft markets and line dancing.
      I’m not the only talented child of Pat and Alistair. My sister Susan (Michelsson) competed in the World Athletic Championships in
      Edmonton 2001. She ran in the marathon. Jane (Kanizay), the next in line, combines being a mother of two with running a successful
      computer software business. An outdoor adventurer, who also took time out to work as a volunteer at the Sydney 2000 Olympics. Kerrie
      (Guppy), the eldest, combines managing her own successful consulting company and raising a young family. She also enjoys playing
      hockey in Ballarat and taking time out with her family for 4WD adventures in remote outback areas of Australia...
      ... grew up in the Melbourne suburb of Wheelers Hill. This is where I first took up the sport of triathlon back in 1992, entering a
      race with some mates from school. My first race was interesting. I almost drowned in the swim and to my dad’s horror; a girl beat
      me! Thankfully, times have changed since those early days.
      The multi-sport of triathlon was very appealing and it quickly became my passion. Success came with a variety of wins at junior
      level, including the National Tour. After completing secondary school at Mazenod College (1993), I worked as an apprentice
      electrician for 2 years. It wasn't until I won both the Australian Sprint and Olympic Distance Titles (as a junior) that I decided
      that I had what it would take to turn professional. I left my apprenticeship and decided to train full-time."
      Check out Peter's site at:
      http://www.peterrobertson.com.au

      Send us your suggestions for our Five Star site. Please check our list
      of previous Five Star Sites available from the Five Star
      Window under the link "Previous Five Star Sites" as we do not wish to
      repeat a site unless it has undergone a major redesign.


      If you feel you have something to say that is worthy of a Guest Column
      on the Runner's Web, email us at
      mailto:webmaster@... or leave your comments in one of our Forums at:
      http://www.runnersweb.com/running/forum.html or from our FrontPage.

      Our Photo Slideshow is updated on a random basis. Check it out from our FrontPage.


      Book of the Week: Lance Armstrong's War : One Man's Battle Against Fate, Fame, Love, Death, Scandal, and a Few Other Rivals on the
      Road to the Tour de France
      By Daniel Coyle.
      Editorial Review From Publishers Weekly
      When an athlete is as celebrated as Lance Armstrong, journalists tend to approach either with staggering awe or malicious
      schadenfreude. Refreshingly, Coyle (Hardball) displays neither. The journalist moved to Armstrong's training base in Spain to cover
      the months leading up to the cyclist's sixth Tour de France victory in 2004, and the resulting comfort level of Coyle with his
      subject is palpable. Armstrong emerges from these pages as neither the cancer-surviving saint his American fans admire, nor the
      soulless, imperialist machine his European detractors hate. Instead, he comes across as a preternaturally gifted athlete barely
      removed from the death-defying hellion he was as a teenager, fanatically disciplined, gregarious and generous but with a legendarily
      icy temper. Coyle sweeps over the basics of Armstrong's Texas childhood and fight with cancer, concentrating on his obsessive
      training—this is a sport where results are measured in ounces and microseconds. He's sometimes too loose with his writing,
      digressing as though he had all the time in the world, but he tightens up for the grand finale: the Tour. This work is honest,
      personal and passionate, with plenty to chew on for fans and novices alike.
      Copyright © Reed Business Information, a division of Reed Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
      Buy the book from Amazon at:
      http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/0060734973/runnersweb/102-8458829-6613753?v=glance&s=books


      More books from Amazon at:
      http://www.runnersweb.com/running/amazon.html
      and Human Kinetics at:
      http://www.runnersweb.com/running/human_kinetics.html

      This Weeks News:



      1. Science of Sport: What Happens When Nandi Boys Go Out On The Town:
      Most athletes and coaches realize that genetic factors can have an impact on performance. What is less commonly realized is that
      heredity could act in two completely separate ways. First, specific genes or gene combinations could make certain individuals
      inherently more fit than others, even in situations in which no training has been carried out. If you pluck two sedentary
      individuals off the street, it is extremely unlikely that they will have the same fitness level; one might have a stronger heart,
      metabolically more efficient muscles, and/or reduced perceptions of fatigue during exercise, and these differences can be related to
      genetic make-up. If the duo agreed to engage in a 5-K run, actual performance would hinge on the inherent physiological variations.
      Second, some genes or combinations of genes control the way in which individuals respond to training (1). Some lucky athletes adapt
      dramatically to training protocols, advancing maximal aerobic capacity (VO2max) by as much as 80 percent in response to serious
      workouts. Other, less-fortunate individuals may inch VO2max up by just 5 to 10 percent as a result of the same strenuous training –
      or may not improve aerobic capacity at all. Some dedicated trainers, in fact, do not seem to respond to training at all; their
      performance-related physiological variables are stagnant (2). This creates situations in which individuals who are inherently less
      fit than others (when everyone is untrained) can move far ahead of those who were originally more fit once the training stimulus has
      been applied.
      For example, possessing the “insertion variant” (the so-called “I-allele”) of the human angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) gene
      improves an individual’s ability to adapt to endurance training (3), perhaps by enhancing efficiency of movement.
      More...from the Runner's Web at:
      http://www.runnersweb.com/running/news/rw_news_20050701_RRN_Nandi.html


      2. When athletes can't catch their breath
      Trainers are urged to recognize and respond to exercise-induced asthma.
      So many people — both recreational athletes and professionals — are being diagnosed with exercise-induced asthma that the nation's
      largest group of athletic trainers has drawn up its first guidelines for dealing with the condition.
      Asthma guidelines from the National Athletic Trainers' Assn., released last week during its annual meeting in Indianapolis, are
      aimed at familiarizing trainers, health professionals, parents and coaches with asthma's symptoms and treatments.
      Asthma sufferers face shortness of breath during and after workouts, which can trigger an acute narrowing of the airways, making
      breathing difficult and causing chest tightness.
      If untreated, it can be fatal, although deaths are not common.
      The Dallas-based trainers association's guidelines include more than 20 points showing how to recognize asthma symptoms and help
      athletes manage asthma, such as avoiding allergens by practicing indoors.
      The detailed recommendations are scheduled to be published in September in the Journal of Athletic Training.
      "Trainers are in a unique position to spot athletes' breathing difficulties," said Michael Miller, director of graduate athletic
      training at Western Michigan University in Kalamazoo, Mich. "They're the people who are in the training rooms, the practices and on
      the game fields."
      More...from the LA Times at:
      http://www.latimes.com/features/health/fitness/la-he-asthma20jun20,1,744166.story?coll=la-health-fitness-news


      3. Science of Sport: Air Pollution:
      Along with the highly publicised concerns about whether the 2004 Athens Olympic facilities would be completed in time, the various
      national Olympic organisations were also preoccupied with the environmental challenges that confronted competitors. Everyone knew it
      was going to be hot but, as the Games drew closer, the full implications of holding them in one of Europe’s most polluted cities
      finally dawned on everyone(1).
      Despite the sterling efforts of the Greek organising committee to reduce air pollution levels in time, many predicted that athletes
      would be affected by breathing problems on an unprecedented scale, while those with asthma would suffer potentially catastrophic
      exacerbation of their condition.
      The Greek authorities strenuously denied these risks, claiming that competing in Athens was likely to be no more injurious to health
      than, say, in London. Maybe they are right – time will tell. Meanwhile, what this debate highlights is the growing concern over the
      impact of air pollution on the health of city-dwellers, especially those who exercise.
      For those of us who live and exercise in the city, the potential health risks of breathing a cocktail of air pollutants are a very
      real concern. Links between high levels of air pollution and lung disease(2), cardiovascular disease(3) and even cancer(4) are being
      established in the medical literature. For example, elevated levels of air pollution are closely associated with both an increased
      prevalence of asthma(5) and an increased incidence of acute exacerbation in all patients with cardiorespiratory illness(2,6).
      More...from the Runner's Web at:
      http://www.runnersweb.com/running/news/rw_news_20050628_PPO_Air_Pollution.html


      4. Joe Henderson's Running Commentary - Fathers' Days:
      Looking over my right shoulder as I write are two photos. One pictures my father, the other a man I've often called a "second
      father."
      The first photo shows my real dad, sitting with his three brothers at the Drake Relays in Des Moines. He was younger then than I am
      now. He would die -- much too young but not before passing his passion for the sport on to me -- within a year after this shot was
      taken.
      The other photo now watching over me in the office has George Sheehan greeting runners at a Tyler, Texas, race finish line in the
      last year of his life. George was my running-writing confidant for his last 25 years.
      He was the real father of George Sheehan III. We took the stage in Edmonton, Alberta, in 1997 to talk about Dr. George's legacy.
      He handed down that legacy most directly and strikingly to his eldest son (one of the 12 Sheehan children). The dad was smaller and
      more wiry, but young George -- his longtime business manager -- carried on the sound of his father’s voice, the Irish gift for
      story-telling and the ease onstage.
      Young George was now about the same age that his dad was when he started writing for Runner’s World in 1970. I saw unmistakable
      reflections of him then in his son now.
      And I saw more and more of my own father in my aging self. He was taller and darker, but the family resemblance deepens with each
      new line in my forehead, gully in the cheeks and sag under the chin.
      More...from Joe Henderson at:
      http://www.joehenderson.com/archive/515.html


      5. Dr. Gabe Mirkin's Fitness and Health E-Zine:
      * You Should Never Get Heat Stroke
      Every year you hear about people who pass out when they exercise and die from heat stroke, a sudden uncontrolled rise in body
      temperature that affects the brain so that it can't function properly.
      Heat stroke doesn't just happen; you get plenty of warning. First your muscles are affected, then your circulation and then your
      brain. As your temperature starts to rise, your muscles feel like a hot poker is pressing against them. As it rises further, the
      air that you breathe feels like it's coming from a furnace and no matter how rapidly and deeply you try to breathe, you won't be
      able to get enough air. When this happens, stop
      exercising. If you continue to exercise, your body temperature will rise further and affect your brain. Your head will start to
      hurt, you'll hear a ringing in your ears, you may feel dizzy, you may have difficulty seeing and then you will end up unconscious on
      the ground.
      When a person passes out from heatstroke, his brain is being cooked just as the colorless part of an egg turns white when it hits
      the griddle. Get medical help immediately. Usually, the victim should be carried into the shade and placed on his back with his
      head down and his feet up. He should be cooled by any possible means. Liquid should be poured on him, and it doesn't matter whether
      it's from a hose, a water bottle or a cup. It could be water, soda, beer, milk or whatever you have. After he is revived, he should
      be watched for more than an hour as his
      temperature can start to rise to high levels again.

      * Dear Dr. Mirkin: Is it normal for my muscles to feel sore for several days after a workout?
      Yes; after you've exercised vigorously, your muscles may feel fine, but they usually feel sore the next morning. Delayed-onset
      muscle soreness is caused by damage to muscle fibers. A study from the University of Zurich helps to explain why it takes days for
      muscles to recover from hard exercise (European Journal of Nutrition, June 2004). Muscles store sugar as glycogen in their fibers
      for energy, and this study shows that
      for the first few hours after hard exercise, muscles continue to lose glycogen. Since recovery depends on refilling muscles with
      stored glycogen as soon as possible after hard exercise, athletes should eat a high-carbohydrate, high protein meal as soon as
      possible after a hard workout and then take easy workouts for as many days as it takes for the soreness to go away. Taking another
      hard workout while the muscles feel sore increases risk for injures, so you should follow your hard workouts with easy days or days
      off until the soreness goes away.

      * Dear Dr. Mirkin: I love barbecued foods, but a friend says they are dangerous. Should I stop eating them?
      Eating any type of browned foods may contribute to heart attacks, strokes or nerve damage. Diabetics suffer a very high incidence
      of nerve, artery and kidney damage because high blood sugar levels cause sugar to attach to protein, forming advanced glycation
      products. The frightening news is that browning foods also forms advanced glycation products, and eating them raises blood and
      tissue levels and increases nerve damage.
      Cooking without water causes sugars to bind to proteins, while cooking with water prevents this process. Baking, roasting and
      broiling cause the advanced glycation products to form, while boiling and steaming do not. This is just one more reason why you
      should base your meals on fruits, vegetables, whole grains and beans -- fresh, steamed or cooked with water. Make grilled and
      browned foods a minor part of your diet.


      6. Bone Health in Highly Trained Female Athletes:
      A review of the current state of knowledge.
      Highly trained female athletes are often at peak cardiovascular fitness but face important threats to their skeletal health. Women
      that train intensively may produce abnormally low levels of estrogen, which in turn, may lead to weakened bones. Low bone strength
      (or osteopenia), is a risk factor for stress fractures. Young adults with osteopenia are also more likely to develop osteoporosis
      later in life.
      It is generally accepted that exercise promotes bone health. However, research focusing on the relationship between intensive
      exercise, bone health, and estrogen produce alarming results concerning the health of female athletes. The hormone estrogen is
      responsible for growth and development of reproductive organs, as well as onset and regulation of menstruation. In addition,
      estrogen is essential for maintaining bone health in women. Events that result in rapid declines in a woman’s estrogen level, such
      as menopause and ovariectomy (removal of the ovaries), also result in rapid losses in her bone mass and bone strength.
      Regular vigorous exercise is associated with decreased estrogen levels in the blood. In one study, healthy women who began training
      for a marathon reduced their estrogen levels by over 50%. These low estrogen levels often result in menstrual irregularity in a
      large proportion of intensively training athletes. Irregularities can include a late onset of menstrual periods, infrequent periods
      (oligomenorrhea), absent periods (amenhorrea), or more subtle abnormalities, such as a shortened luteal phase and anovulatory
      cycles. (The luteal phase refers to the phase of menstruation during which progesterone is released from the ovum and the uterine
      lining proliferates; anovulatory cycles are those menstrual cycles in which a woman does not ovulate properly. These abnormalities
      can only be detected by specific medical tests.) A recent survey of competitive collegiate cross-country runners found that 56%
      missed several menstrual periods a year or had no periods at all. Cumulative incidence of amenorrhea (loss of period) and
      oligomenorrhea among all athletes is even higher. Most studies have considered athletes with infrequent or absent periods and have
      not evaluated athletes with more subtle menstrual disturbances. However, one study found that runners who menstruate monthly but who
      have anovulatory cycles and/or shortened luteal phases also lose bone. This study is of particular interest because it demonstrates
      that highly training females who appear to be menstruating normally may still be at risk for osteopenia.
      The cause of estrogen-deficiency and menstrual irregularity in athletes is not known with certainty. However, studies have
      identified these risk factors: earlier onset of training, more intense training, psychological stress, nutritional inadequacy, low
      body weight, low body mass, and changes in body composition.
      More...from Running Times at:
      http://www.runningtimes.com/issues/web/b-fit.htm


      7. Just ate? Feel free to take a dip:
      YORK: Think of all the hours swimmers will spend beside pools and lingering on beaches this summer, counting the minutes since their
      last meal to avoid violating a fundamental rule of swimming: never get into the water on a full stomach.
      The only problem, according to experts, is that the warning is yet another old wives' tale that should be laid to rest.
      The theory is that the process of digestion increases blood flow to the stomach - away from the muscles needed for swimming - and
      leads to cramps, which increase the risk of drowning.
      Dr. Roshini Rajapaksa, a gastroenterologist at the New York University School of Medicine, said that while swimming strenuously on a
      full stomach could conceivably lead to cramps, for most recreational swimmers the chances are small. And at least one study that
      looked at drownings in the United States found that fewer than 1 percent occurred after the victim ate a meal, she added.
      But meals that include a drink or two are another story. In 1989, for example, a study in the journal Pediatrics looked at almost
      100 adolescents who drowned in Washington and found that 25 percent had been intoxicated.
      One year later, a study of hundreds of drowning deaths among adults in California found that 41 percent were alcohol-related.
      More...from the International Herald Tribune at:
      http://www.iht.com/articles/2005/06/27/news/really.php


      8. Research Review Questions Effect of Vitamin C on Colds:
      A new review of 65 years of research on colds and vitamin C concludes there's little evidence that 200 milligrams or more a day
      wards off or shortens the duration of the common cold _ with the possible exception of people exposed to extreme cold or physical
      stress.
      The review's authors, Robert Douglas of the Australian National University and Harri Hemila of the University of Helsinki, Finland,
      wrote that the "lack of effect of (preventive) vitamin C supplementation on the incidence of the common cold in normal populations
      throws doubt on the utility of this wide practice."
      A bestselling book, "Vitamin C and The Common Cold," by Nobel Laureate chemist Linus Pauling published in 1970, and several
      subsequent books popularized the notion that large doses of the vitamin (1000 mg or more) could reduce the incidence of colds by
      almost half. The government's recommended daily allowance for vitamin C is 60 mg.
      More...from RedNova at:
      http://www.rednova.com/news/display/?id=158541&source=r_health


      9. Powered by music:
      Rhythm does more than move us. For athletes, the right tunes can sharpen focus, boost performance and minimize pain.
      It was the tae kwon do championship, and competitor Michael Tang needed something to help him concentrate, to calm his pumped
      pre-competition energy. He turned to the one thing he knew would work: music.
      Strapping on his headphones and cueing up some techno-trance music, he closed his eyes and began to visualize himself going into the
      ring, winning the first round, then the second. "I used the music as the soundtrack of the day," Tang recalls of the 2001 match. "It
      put me into a more relaxed state of mind and helped me focus." He kept the music in his head throughout the event. The result? He
      won the U.S. national title
      Athletes work hard to reach a state of internal calm, harnessing their mind power to stay intense, but not frantic. Music helps them
      get into that zone, offering flow, control, focus. It helps them manage the pain of stressing their bodies to levels undreamed of by
      most three-times-a-week joggers. And it becomes a positive diversion.
      "Although your brain is really high-tech, it can't think about two things at one time," says sports psychologist Michelle Cleere.
      "If you have a genre of music that really gets you pumped and keeps you focused, it will distract you from negative thoughts."
      More...from the LA Times at:
      http://www.latimes.com/features/health/fitness/la-he-fitnessmusic27jun27,1,4385574.story?coll=la-health-fitness-news
      [Long URL]


      10. From Runner's World:
      * Coach's Corner
      "After a disappointing race give yourself an hour, 2 hours tops, to be upset or angry about a bad race. Think about what went wrong,
      and why it might have gone wrong, but don't beat yourself up about it. If your ultimate objective is to run faster, you have a
      better chance of catching the PR bullet train if you arrive at the starting line without baggage from your last race." -Steve Scott

      * Injury Prevention
      Lift twice a week (after running or on a rest day) to see serious strength gains. If done properly, these three exercises--which
      require only your body weight as resistance--will boost your total-body fitness in just 3 weeks.
      1. Pushups: Keep your back straight and your palms flat, slightly wider than shoulder width. Descend slowly, until your chest and
      hips are inches from the floor. Push up faster than you came down, pause at the top, and repeat.
      2. Crunches: Lie on your back with your legs bent at a 90-degree angle and feet flat on the floor. Cross your hands over your chest,
      then raise your shoulders, keeping your lower back on the floor. Feel the tension in the stomach muscles, then lower your shoulders
      slowly, and repeat.
      3. Squats: Keeping your back straight, your head up, and your hands out in front for balance, slowly descend into a seated position,
      with legs bent at a 90-degree angle. Then push up from your heels to a straight-standing position, keeping your feet on the floor.
      Depending on your current strength, try doing two sets of 10 to 20 repetitions of each exercise, and work up from there.

      * Performance Nutrition
      Snack on Raisins: Along with apples, pears, nuts, and parsley, raisins are a great source of the mineral boron, which plays a role
      in brain function, perhaps combating drowsiness. So, eat up!

      * Words That Inspire:
      "If one asks for success and prepares for failure, he will get the situation he has prepared for." -Florence Shinn, inspirational
      author

      * Editor's Advice:
      Summer Smarts: "Cool mornings are wonderful for running, but they won't prepare your body for hot summer racing. Instead, run once
      or twice a week during the warmer hours of the day. Or run on a treadmill with the room temperature at 72 degrees." -Erin Ploskonka,
      RW designer

      * Training Talk:
      "You'll likely find that when you're training for such an athletic event, you'll want to eat a healthy, well-balanced diet that
      supports your training.
      Overeating or indulging in lots of less-than-nutritious foods will leave you feeling dull and tired during your workouts, so you'll
      quickly learn to eat what's good for you." -From Triathlon Training by Eric Harr



      11. If Thirst Comes to Worst - Fluid intake key in heat:
      As the temperatures outdoors soar, do you wilt like a flower? If the heat's got you beat, it might be time to keep track of your
      liquid assets. While fluid intake is often a hot topic for athletes as they aim for peak performance, what's on tap isn't given a
      great deal of thought by many other people.
      Yet at this time of year a segment of the population may be in a somewhat dehydrated state -- not parched for water but just
      slightly low on fluids. And while we could only survive a few days without any water, simply running a little short won't affect
      your health -- but it can leave you feeling drained. More extreme dehydration, however, can be life-threatening.
      You don't have to be taking part in an athletic event to pay a price for mild dehydration. Even if you're slaving away at a desk,
      overlooking your fluid needs can exact a toll that can't quickly be made up. Decreased productivity isn't something people think of
      when it comes to ignoring the lure of the water cooler. But science shows it does happen. French scientists evaluated the effects on
      healthy men of becoming dehydrated after either being exposed to heat or after exercising and found that the subjects experienced
      fatigue while they were dehydrated. Even after being given fluids, however, they continued to feel tired. Their scoring on tests to
      measure their cognitive function, including activities involving short-term memory, was also impaired compared to when they were
      well-hydrated.
      More...from the National Post at:
      http://www.canada.com/national/nationalpost/news/bodyandhealth/story.html?id=00a14f58-f80d-4494-baae-19ab8ae5763f
      [Long URL]


      12. Orthotics Questions & Answers:
      Custom Ultralight Running & Walking Orthotics.....
      Orthotic Frequently Asked Questions & Answers.
      Please review our most asked questions. If you would like a complimentary evaluation of your old orthotics, or if you have any
      additional questions or concerns and want to speak with one of our orthotic experts, please click here or call our 24/7 Helpline at
      888-353-7834.
      What are "orthotics"?
      Orthotics (orthoses) are specially-prepared foot supports. These anatomically molded devices, worn under the heel and arch of your
      foot to correct skeletal anomalies, do more than "support" your feet. They actually realign them to a natural, "neutral" position to
      relieve foot, let and back stress, increase endurance, restore critical balance, improve sports performance, alleviate foot fatigue
      and prevent a wide range of foot problems.
      How do I know if I need orthotics?
      You definitely need orthotics:
      1. If you participate in any activity that places stress on your feet.
      2. If you have an obvious imbalance that causes such symptoms as flat or high arched feet.
      3. If you have external malalignments such as bow knees, knock knees, pigeon-toes, or "duck feet."
      4. If you've already developed chronic foot problems, ranging from corns and calluses to arch pain and heel spur pain.
      5. If your job requires being on your feet for extended periods of time.
      More...from Cool Running at:
      http://www.coolrunning.com/engine/2/2_1/borthotic-questions-answe.shtml


      13. Science of Sport: Sport Psychology - Choking under pressure:
      What causes skilled and experienced athletes to ‘choke’ under the many pressures of competition? This question, highly relevant in
      the wake of Paula Radcliffe’s dramatic and high profile collapse during the recent Olympic marathon, has been investigated by a team
      of Australian researchers, who set out to examine the role of self-consciousness and trait (or dispositional) anxiety as predictors
      of choking in sport.
      Choking has been defined as ‘performance decrements under pressure circumstances’ and is thought to occur when a performer focuses
      in a conscious way on skills that have become automatic, with a detrimental effect on performance.
      In the Australian study, 66 student basketball players completed questionnaires designed to measure self-consciousness and sport
      anxiety before completing 20 free throws under two different conditions: 1. Low pressure – observed only by a research assistant
      with no consequences attached to performance; 2. High pressure (about one hour later) – videotaped, observed by an audience and with
      a performance-contingent financial incentive.
      More...from the Runner's Web at:
      http://www.runnersweb.com/running/news/rw_news_20050630_PPO_Choking.html


      14. Science of Sport: Modafinil - Banned drug works as ergogenic aid:
      Traces of the banned stimulant drug modafinil have been found in the urine of a number of world-class athletes, including US
      sprinter Kelli White. But until now there has been no scientific evidence that modafinil, prescribed for sleep disorders, such as
      narcolepsy, is at all effective as an ergogenic aid.
      Powerful evidence in favour of modafinil has now emerged from Canadian research, whose underlying agenda was to consider modafinil
      as a tool for use during military combat operations.
      The study, involving 15 healthy men familiar with exhaustive exercise, was set up to investigate the effect of acute ingestion of
      modafinil on time to exhaustion during high-intensity exercise.
      The subjects exercised on cycle ergometers for five minutes at 50% VO2max, then at 85% VO2max to exhaustion on three separate
      occasions:
      Control condition (C) – no supplement;
      Placebo condition (P) – dietary fibre ingested in the form of opaque gelatin capsules, one hour before a standardised light
      breakfast and three hours before the exercise test;
      Treatment condition – modafinil (M) in a dosage of 4mg per kg of body weight, given in the same form and according to the same
      protocol as the placebo. Key findings were as follows:
      Modafinil ingestion was associated with a significant 22% increase in time to exhaustion compared with the control and placebo
      conditions, making it comparable in efficacy to caffeine. However, the researchers point out, ‘as [modafinil] has a half life of
      10-13 hours, twice that of caffeine, its use could possibly result in a more sustained efficacy than that reported for caffeine’;
      Modafinil led to a slight but significant increase in VO2 compared with control and placebo – but only during the last 30 seconds of
      exercise, when subjects were close to exhaustion;
      Heart rates increased with time in all the conditions, but were highest of all with modafinil;
      Modafinil was associated with significantly lower ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) than control or placebo, but only after 10
      minutes of exercise at 85% VO2max. Subjective RPE values were similar at exhaustion, regardless of treatment.
      More...from the Runner's Web at:
      http://www.runnersweb.com/running/news/rw_news_20050630_PPO_Modafinil.html


      15. Avoid flight-induced foot swelling:
      Does air travel leave your feet so swollen they look and feel as if you've walked to your destination?
      It's not uncommon, says the American Podiatric Medical Association (APMA). Limited movement and dehydration while in the air can
      cause feet to swell. The APMA offers these suggestions to minimize the impact of flying on your feet:
      - Drink plenty of water before and during your flight. This keeps you hydrated and reduces foot swelling.
      - Skip the salt before boarding. Alcoholic drinks and food with salt increase the likelihood of dehydration.
      - Wear comfortable shoes that give your feet room to expand.
      - Take a stroll during the flight to keep your blood circulating.
      - Stretch in your seat to prevent or reduce tightness in your feet, ankles and calves. Try exercises such as rolling your ankles,
      wiggling your toes and flexing your feet.
      From Active.com


      16. The Wall:
      For most runners 'the wall’ is that dreaded, figurative, point of no return that signifies that it’s all over. For a select
      subculture of runners in and around the tiny North Jersey hamlet of Bernardsville, the Wall is anything but; it’s a proving ground,
      a launching pad, a literal wall in front of Bernards High School, where generations of runners convened to discover if they had the
      right stuff.
      For myself and others, the Wall signifies a culture of excellence; each runner that put their time in at the Wall knows the legends
      that built that wall by name; an oral history spun through the decades ensured that they wouldn't be forgotten. And runners far and
      wide who put in their time at the Wall felt the blow as two of the cornerstones recently passed on.
      On June 12, Ed Mather, 75, one of America's greatest high-school coaches, passed on after a long battle with Parkinson's. Mather's
      teams at Bernards High, culled from a school whose enrollment placed it in the state's small-school division, won big and won often.
      I could fill a page with the improbable statistics that marked his era at Bernards, but it wouldn't capture the measure of the man,
      for the most indelible mark he left was on the souls of the runners who became empowered and enlightened under his watch.
      Like so many, I fell under Mather's spell the moment I met him. I'd fallen off the back of a pack of runners at the Green Mountain
      Running Camp in Lyndonville, Vermont when then Jersey prep star and current Texas distance coach Jason Vigilante dropped back to
      help me out. Rounding a turn for home we passed Mather. I ran for my life as he made chase after us, yelling as we scrambled up the
      hill, "I'm gonna stick my foot up your ass – SIDEWAYS!" It was textbook Mather – in a moment he managed to inspire and cajole. Given
      an hour, Mather left you empowered.
      Mather led me to The Wall, to that magical place where champions were made. It was there that I met Col. Larry Sullivan. Sullivan
      was a renaissance man, in many ways shrouded in mystery, but at the Wall he was a fixture and a fan. I remember him most vividly
      holding forth on steamy summer nights in the early to mid-90s after we'd finished our run, recounting stories of the Bernards glory
      days, keeping the culture alive, now that Mather had retired and his assistant, Mark Wetmore, had moved on. And I remember him
      taking it further, as when he lent me an exceedingly rare copy of a book on Jim Ryun as if were contraband, knowing full well that
      for the initiated, it felt like it was.
      On June 16, hours after delivering the principal eulogy for Ed Mather, Col. Sullivan passed on. I grieve for them, their families
      and loved ones. And I find comfort in that the legacy of what they built at the Wall will continually manifest itself in unseen,
      brilliant ways, long, long after the runners have moved on.
      Have stories from your time at the Wall? Share them with Chris Lear at mailto:chrisklear@....
      From Runner's World at:
      http://www.runnersworld.com/



      17. Tri bike frame geometry:
      Some bikes, depending on frame geometry, corner better than others. Typically, road geometry corners better than tri geometry. With
      tri geometry, your body is a little more forward.
      The aerobars typical of tri bikes add some instability when cornering compared to standard drop bars. However, for the most part, it
      doesn't matter what bike you are riding; turning is fairly universal.
      When cornering, lean your bike, not your body, into the turn. This way, if you over steer, you can bring the bike back. If you lean
      into a turn with your body, it is much harder to bring your body back upright with gravity pulling it down.
      Also, place pressure on the pedal by the foot that is on the outside of the turn. This will help you maintain stability. If you
      notice accomplished cyclists, their inside leg is bent while the outside leg is pressing on the pedal. For example, if you are
      making a left hand turn, the right foot should be straighter and placing pressure on that pedal.
      More...from Active.com at:
      http://www.active.com/story.cfm?story_id=11896&sidebar=26&category=triathlon


      18. Cycling - 9 Tips To Take The “DIS” Out Of Discomfort When You're Cycling:
      If you are a relatively new rider, you may not know how to prevent the most common mistakes that can lead to physical discomfort
      during a ride. Even if you have been riding for a long time you can slip into bad habits, and end up hurting more than is necessary.
      Here are a few tips to help make every ride more comfortable:
      1. Warm up/Cool down: Allowing your body to gradually come up to “operating temperature” at the beginning of a ride, and then
      pedaling a few extra minutes at a very easy intensity at the end of your ride, can both go a long way toward minimizing muscle
      soreness and increasing both recovery from riding, and adaptation to training. Make sure to allow adequate warm up and cool down
      time in every ride.
      2. Eye Wear: When you squint due to the sun or wind or even bugs, you use a lot of energy and the facial muscles can become
      fatigued. This can lead to headaches and strain. To reduce the risks of this occurring, try wearing sunglasses during every ride. I
      am a particular fan of Rudy Project Glasses, as they make many different styles and lenses that allow you to choose the appropriate
      lens for a particular sunlight condition.
      3. Pain in the neck: Try to avoid riding in the same position all of the time. This especially includes your head position. Try
      tilting your head from side to side, or stretching it out by sitting or standing “tall.” Always remember though, safety FIRST, so
      don’t take your eyes off the road.
      More...from TriFuel at:
      http://www.trifuel.com/triathlon/bike/9-tips-to-take-the-dis-out-of-discomfort-when-youre-cycling-000899.php


      19. The Evolution of the Bicycle:
      One might feel that bicycles have always been there but it is not so. Bicycles have been around for only about two hundred years.
      The first type of bike missed an essential feature of todays machines - it had no pedals! Instead the cyclist used their feet to
      push directly off the ground, so the action looked a bit like a run. Despite this, these machines (called 'Daisines') were popular
      both in North America and in
      Western Europe.
      There is a controversy over the history of the bicycle. It is argued by many that a student of Leonardo Da Vinci sketched a model of
      the same way back in 1493. This was the period of the Renaissance during which many new ideas came up in Europe. But like many other
      ideas from Da Vinci's studio, this did not see the light of day and active efforts to pursue it were never made.
      The first pedal-powered bike to enjoy success was the 'velocipede', a French invention known to English speakers as a 'bone shaker'.
      It had pedals fixed to the front wheel so you could ride it without touching the ground. The common name, bone shaker, was due to
      it's wooden wheels that must have transmitted every bump into the road straight to the rider! Despite this they were enormously
      popular throughout
      the 1860's and in the US schools to teach velocipede riding were set up.
      The bizarre looking Penny Farthing, with it's enormous front wheel, saw the light in the 1870s. Like so many odd designs in human
      history, the purpose of the design was to achieve speed. It was before gear, so the only way to make the wheel travel further with
      each pedal stroke was to make the wheel itself bigger. It meant these bikes could rocket along, but were hard to stay on if you hit
      a bump - and if you feel, you fell from a great height!
      In 1880's, a new addition to the bike was made which was the chain. To increase the balance of the bike a chain was added. This
      chain kept the pedals where they were supposed to be and made riding a bike easier. Modern road bike was christened the 'Safety
      Bike'. At the same time Dunlop, a veterinary surgeon, who worked in Scotland, invented the air filled tire. With these two
      inventions, by 1890 the bike had taken on a form, which was not very different from the bike, as we know it today.
      The golden age of the bicycle started from the fag end of the nineteenth century. Owing to great demand from North America and
      Europe, many factories making items such as sewing machines started producing bicycles too to meet the burgeoning demand. The last
      frontier in bicycle design, the gearing system, was made in the initial years of the twentieth century. The modern bike was now
      born.
      Thrust on technology has made development of lighter, stronger and dynamic bikes possible now. With adventure being the buzzword in
      these times, the Mountain bikes have replaced the BMX of the 1980s. But these are small advances compared to the path breaking
      invention of the Safety bike of the late nineteenth century.
      Fahrrada benteuer is the webmaster and operator of Bicycle Adventure at: http://www.bicycleadventure.com, which is a premier
      resource for bicycle information.


      20. Physiological Training Principles Are Often Inaccurate:
      This review article critically evaluates several physiological models (i.e., explanations) that are supposed to account for exercise
      responses and improvements. Such models are variously used as the theoretical bases for structuring training programs for athletes.
      A central theme of the review is that contemporary physiology looks at explanations for responding rather than the accurate
      prediction of performance improvements. The former is relatively secure from critical evaluation whereas the latter is difficult to
      research and has an inherent possibility of failure.
      A second suggestion is that contemporary physiologists have forgotten the history of the discipline. Many informative, substantive,
      and valuable principles of exercise response were discovered in the first part of the twentieth century but have gradually have
      fallen out of the common literature. That omission is one of the reasons that contribute to modern theories of exercise physiology
      being incomplete and inaccurate.
      Research Weaknesses
      The accurate measurement of exercise responses in the field has been subverted by laboratory testing. The author offers three
      reasons why this has occurred.
      The variables influencing human performance are not easily controlled. A field setting exacerbates that difficulty. This has led to
      the situation where laboratory measurements are used to infer performance characteristics in the field (e.g., a change in VO2max is
      used to infer the likelihood of an endurance performance change).
      There is a dearth of tools to measure accurately human performance in the laboratory. If sports performance cannot be measured
      frequently with a high degree of precision in the laboratory, then training-induced changes in sports performance are not
      quantifiable. Direct, accurate testing is rarely possible. Consequently, physiological surrogates (e.g., VO2peak, VO2) are used to
      predict changes in performance.
      ". . . most training studies . . . have measured the physiological and biochemical responses of the human to training and have paid
      less attention (i) to the extent to which human exercise performance is altered by different training programs and (ii) to the
      specific physiological adaptations which explain training induced changes in athletic performance." (p. 124)
      An important weakness in current exercise physiology is a lack of certain knowledge of the precise factors that determine fatigue
      and hence, limit performance in different types of exercise under a range of environmental conditions. This is largely due to
      researchers and teachers advocating only one specific incomplete model of exercise physiology that does not explain performance
      under all conditions.
      The review contemplates five exercise physiology models used popularly to explain and guide physical conditioning programs.
      More...from Coaching Science Abstracts at:
      http://www-rohan.sdsu.edu/dept/coachsci/csa/vol71/noakes.htm


      21. Advertising on TV with Professional Triathletes:
      Triathlon is growing for multiple reasons but in the beginning it was because of the Pro's. It was men like Scott Tinley, Scott
      Molina and Mike Pigg that made competitors out of spectators. When they competed, jaws dropped and if you looked closely at the
      crowd, you could see people utter, "I'm going to do one of these." This was the early advertising campaign of triathlon. Decades
      later, not much has changed. Pro's are still the best advertisement for triathlon or any sport. Just think about what Tiger Woods
      did for golf or Lance Armstrong for cycling.
      Like golf and cycling, triathlon has its own Pro's like Nicole Deboom but the average person doesn't know this. Nicole Deboom and
      Tiger Woods are both at the top of their game. Any competition they enter, they could win. So why's Tiger Woods a household name
      while Nicole Deboom isn't? Because being at the top of your game isn't good enough to be a household name. You need to be marketed
      and that takes more than just extra hours at the pool.
      More...from Bauer Tri News at:
      http://www.bauertrinews.com/storyDeepThoughts.faces.37.id


      22. Efficient running: Move more horizontally:
      Despite what most runners and their coaches believe, technique plays an enormous role in sustained fast running. Most runners
      subscribe to one of two basic paradigms of propulsion. Unfortunately, both are flawed. One creates more upward propulsion than
      forward and the other isolates a relatively small, weak muscle group instead of harnessing a number of muscles to work together to
      produce propulsion.
      Learning to use large muscle groups to create horizontal propulsion with minimal vertical oscillation will help you run farther and
      faster.
      Upward thrust method
      One challenge for runners is creating propulsion as close to purely horizontal as possible. Excessive vertical displacement
      increases the energy cost of running dramatically. The most common method runners use to develop propulsion is the upward thrust. At
      toe off, the knee is straightened forcefully, thrusting the body up and forward.
      This technique wastes a tremendous amount of energy, leads to local muscular fatigue in the quadriceps and slows turnover.
      More...Active.com at:
      http://www.active.com/story.cfm?story_id=11735&sidebar=13&category=running


      23. Exercise Reverses Arthritis-Related Wasting:
      Progressive resistance training can help patients with rheumatoid arthritis who experience muscle wasting, researchers report.
      "Generalized muscle wasting in rheumatoid arthritis is common although often masked by a concomitant increase in fat mass," Dr.
      Samuele M. Marcora told Reuters Health. "Our preliminary study suggests that progressive resistance training is an effective
      treatment for this metabolic complication of rheumatoid arthritis."
      As reported in the Journal of Rheumatology, Marcora from University of Wales-Bangor, UK, and colleagues investigated the value of
      progressive resistance training (PRT) in 20 patients with rheumatoid arthritis and loss of muscle mass.
      Ten of the patients participated in 12 weeks of PRT, consisting of thrice-weekly sessions that included eight resistance exercises
      per session. The other 10 patients continued their usual care without additional PRT.
      More...from RedNova at:
      http://www.rednova.com/news/health/158471/exercise_reverses_arthritisrelated_wasting/index.html


      24. Tapering for Optimal Race Performance:
      Find a balance between maintaining fitness and harboring strength.
      Most performance oriented runners will do pretty much what they're told in training. Run 8 x 800 meters at the track? Sure. Do a
      40-minute tempo run? No problem. It's when we're instructed to scale back, run less and conserve our energies, that we balk.
      Training provides long-term fitness improvements but produces short-term fatigue. Leading up to an important race, the challenge is
      to find the optimal balance between maintaining the best possible racing fitness and resting to reduce the fatigue of training. This
      is referred to as a well-planned taper.
      To achieve your best when it counts, you can only afford to do a full taper before a few key races each year. If you race often and
      were to taper thoroughly for each race, you would have little time left for hard training. So you learn to "train through" some
      races. But for the big ones, you will want to go all out to achieve your best.
      A recent paper published in the International Journal of Sports Medicine reviewed more than 50 scientific studies on tapering to
      find out whether tapering betters performance, and how to go about it. The review showed that there is no question tapering works.
      Most studies found an improvement of about 3% when athletes reduced their training before competition. This translates to more than
      five minutes for a three-hour marathoner or more than a minute for those racing 10K in 40 minutes.
      How Long Should You Taper?
      Several of the studies concluded that the optimal length of taper is from seven days to three weeks, depending on the distance of
      the race and how hard you've trained. Too short a taper will leave you tired on race day, while tapering for too long will lead to a
      loss of fitness. How do you find the right balance? Consider than any one workout can give you far less than a 1% improvement in
      fitness, but a well-designed taper can provide a much larger improvement in race performance. Therefore, it is probably wiser to err
      on the side of tapering too much than not enough. The optimal number of days to taper for the most popular race distances are as
      follows: marathon, 19 to 22 days; 15K to 30K, 11 to 14 days; 5K to 10K, 7 to 10 days.
      More...from Running Times at:
      http://www.runningtimes.com/issues/99julaug/taper.htm




      25. News Scan:

      * Fila USA to Sponsor CDC’s New Challenge Cup
      John Bingham Racing, LLC and FILA USA have announced that the 29th annual Chicago Distance Classic Half Marathon held on August 7,
      2005, in Grant Park, will host the first annual "FILA Chicago Challenge Cup" to be awarded to the fastest running specialty store
      team. The FILA Chicago Challenge Cup trophy will go to the store that has the fastest aggregate time for a three person mixed gender
      team.

      * Triathlon 101 with Coach Lance Watson: Heart-rate training zones
      Q: A little background: I'm a 30-year-old male, 6'1", 255 pounds. I've been on a fairly effective heart rate-based running program
      for about three months now, averaging between 25 and 35 miles a week. At my size, the real problem is running, so I figured I'd go
      with a running-focused program through the winter to build my base and get some extra weight off. I am naturally a big guy, and at
      my leanest, approximately 10-percent body fat, I still weigh about 225. My latest resting heart rate was 43 BPM first thing in the
      morning.
      Here's my dilemma: I've been seeing some results, most noticeably I’m able to run faster at lower heart rates, with the majority of
      my runs under or at my recovery threshold (70 percent of max heart rate). I based my heart-rate percentages on 220 minus my age, as
      when I started the program I was unconcerned with finding my actual max HR. Looking back on my log this morning, I started thinking
      that I should be seeing greater results. So I went out, did a 30-minute warm-up and followed that with three sessions of all-out
      sprint effort for one minute each. The first sprint, my max heart rate hit 193, however, I was shocked when my following two sprints
      posted a max heart rate of 220.
      Up to this point, all of my heart-rate averages have been based on 183 (the max I had hit prior to today, but again, I never tested
      myself at an all-out effort). I had been feeling that my runs were too easy and that I<br/><br/>(Message over 64 KB, truncated)
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