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Runner's and Triathlete's Web Digest - May 6, 2005

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  • Ken Parker
    A Free Weekly E-zine of Multisport Related Articles. The Original Runner s and Triathlete s Web was founded in January of 1997 as a not-for-profit resource
    Message 1 of 1 , May 6, 2005
      A Free Weekly E-zine of Multisport Related Articles.

      The Original Runner's and Triathlete's Web was founded in January of 1997 as a not-for-profit resource site. RunnersWeb.com Inc. is
      now a small business venture which sponsors the OAC Racing Team, a women's road racing and triathlon club, and the OAC Gatineau
      Triathlon and Corporate Relay and the Canadian Iron Distance Triathlon. The site is not in any way associated with the two UK
      "Runner's Web" copycat sites or the Runner's Web Book Store in the USA.

      Support our advertisers:

      1. Runner's Web Online Store:
      Through a partnership with HDO Sports, the Runner's and Triathlete's Web has opened an online store. Check it out for your shopping
      requirements. Provide us with your feedback.

      2. Road Runner Sports, the world's largest running store at:

      3. Toronto Waterfront Marathon. September 25, 2005:

      4. Sof Sole Offer:
      A free pair of our technical socks ($9.99 value) with the purchase of any Sof Sole insole.

      5. FRS Plus - the antioxidant health drink.
      Free radicals are produced continuously in the human body. They are unstable molecules that cause damage to healthy cells and are
      the by-products of our bodies' natural metabolic processes. Athletes create free radicals at a faster rate than non-athletes. As
      exercise intensity and duration goes up, so does our production of these harmful free radicals. Some have termed this the "oxygen
      paradox". Endurance exercise can increase oxygen utilization from 10 to 20 times over the resting state, with a corresponding
      increase in free radical burden.
      To offset this increased free radical production in athletes, the body has some ability to adapt, by increasing our endogenous or
      internal supply of free radical scavengers. Free radical scavengers are compounds that can actively seek out and pair with reactive
      free radicals to neutralize their ability to damage cells. The implication of the oxygen paradox for athletes is that exercise
      though healthful in many ways, creates damaging free radicals. It is essential that athletes strive to consume large amounts of
      antioxidants from food and supplements to help augment their free radical scavenger supply. It has been shown that even short-term
      changes in dietary antioxidants can significantly affect the damage
      caused by free radicals in exercise.

      6. The Toronto Marathon
      The Toronto Marathon, Half-Marathon, 5K & relay is set for October 16th. The Toronto Marathon is sanctioned by Athletics Canada and
      the AIMS and meets international standards. Participants can qualify for the Boston Marathon and other accredited international
      marathons. Visit the race site at: http://www.torontomarathon.com

      Shopping on the internet?
      Check out our new storefront just launched in partnership with HDO Sport:

      The Runner's and Triathlete's Web Digest is a weekly e-zine dealing with the sports of running and triathlon and general fitness and
      health issues. The opinions expressed in the articles referenced by the Digest are the opinions of the writers and not necessarily
      those of the Runner's Web. To comment on any stories in the Digest visit our Forum at:

      Visit the Runner's Web at http://www.runnersweb.com/running.html The site is updated multiple times daily. Check out our daily news,
      features, polls, trivia, bulletin boards and more. General questions should be posted to one of our forums available from our

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      THIS WEEK:

      We are still trying to get Yahoo News to add the Runner's Web to their indexing. You can help us by completing and ending the form
      at: http://www.runnersweb.com/running/yahoo_news_site.html

      Our site traffic continues to grow. For March 2005 we had an average of 7,055 visitors per day, a 64.5% increase over the daily
      average of 4,288 for March 2004. On Monday, April 18th, 2004 we set an all-time high of 11,455 visitors.

      Get our Syndicated headlines for you site.
      Add the Runner's Web News feed to your site through a simple JavaScript. Check out OnTri.com's implementation at:
      The Runner's and Triathlete's Web Digest is now available through an RSS feed for myYahoo at:
      [Long URL]
      The Digest is also available through other RSS Readers on request.

      If anyone is looking for a web mail provider, you might wish to consider Google's GMail. Currently you can get GMail by invitation
      only from a current user. My stock of "invites" has been replenished. I will give invitations to the first 40 Digest subscribers to
      respond (by email timestamp). Contact me at:

      Microsoft(r) Alerts on RunnersWeb.com Inc.
      RunnersWeb.com Inc. now offers Microsoft(r) Alerts! This service lets you receive important messages through your MSN(r) Messenger
      or Windows(r) Messenger, your e-mail, or your mobile device. You can choose how and when you receive these messages by specifying
      preferences during the easy setup process. Sign up at:

      We are currently at 1259 subscribers as of publication time. Forward the Runner's Web Digest to a friend and suggest that they
      subscribe. at: http://groups.yahoo.com/group/RunnersWeb/join.

      Race Directors:
      Advertise your event on the Runner's Web. Over 1.8 MILLION visits in 2004!
      7,055 visitors per day for March 2005, a 65% increase over March 2004.
      On Monday, April 18th, 2004 we set an all-time high of 11,455 visitors.

      For more information:
      For text ads check out our AdBrite partnership at:
      You can also list your events for free in our Interactive Calendars and on our Marathons, Races and Triathlons pages.

      Runner's and Triathlete's Web Content Partners:

      * Sports Nutrition by Sheila Kealey.
      Sheila is one of Ottawa's top multisport athletes and a member of the OAC Racing Team and X-C Ottawa. She has a Masters in Public
      Health and works in the field of nutritional epidemiology as a Research Associate with the University of California, San Diego. Her
      column index is available at:

      * Carmichael Training Systems
      Carmichael Training Systems was founded in 1999 by Chris Carmichael. From the beginning, the mission of the company has been to
      improve the lives of individuals we work with through the application of proper and effective fitness and competitive training
      techniques. Whether your focus is recreational, advanced, or you are a professional racer, the coaching methodology employed by CTS
      will make you a better athlete. Check the latest monthly column from CTS at:

      * Running Research News
      Running Research News is a monthly newsletter which keeps sports-active people up-to-date on the latest information about training,
      sports nutrition, and sports medicine. RRN publishes practical, timely new material which improves workouts, prevents injuries, and
      heightens overall fitness. Check our latest column from Running Research News at:
      On January 7th we started a new feature on the website - A Question and Answer with Owen Anderson from Running Research News.
      Send in your training related questions for Owen to answer to
      Check out the questions and answers from the Q and A Index page at:

      * Peak Performance Online
      Peak Performance is a subscription-only newsletter for athletes, featuring the latest research from the sports science world. We
      cover the whole range of sports, from running and rowing to cycling and swimming, and each issue is packed full of exclusive
      information for anyone who's serious about sport. It's published 16 times a year, including four special reports, by Electric Word
      plc. Peak Performance is not available in the shops - only our subscribers are able to access the valuable information we publish
      Check out our latest article from Peak Performance Online at:

      * Peak Running Performance
      Peak Running Performance Is The Number 1 Technical Running Newsletter In America! Check out their article index at:

      * WatsonLifeSport
      Lance Watson is "Just The Winningest Coach in Triathlon". He has been coaching triathlon and distance running since 1987. Over the
      years, Lance has coached some of the most successful athletes in the sport of triathlon and duathlon.
      Check out the Lance Watson Online Article Index at:

      This Weeks Personal Postings/Releases:
      We have NO personal postings this week.

      This Week's Digest Article Index:

      1. Multisport: To Stretch a Point
      2. Science of Sport: Race And Sport - The race to the swift - if the swift have the right ancestry
      3. Sports Psychology: Mental Approach - What's missing from your training?
      4. Dr. Gabe Mirkin's Fitness and Health E-Zine
      5. High altitude and athletic training
      6. Exercise training in ordinary people affects the activity of 500 genes
      7. Enduring Questions - Should Your Sports Drink Contain Protein?
      Sure, protein is great for postrun recovery. But while you're exercising? The debate rages.
      8. Ask the Tri Doc: Avoiding muscle cramps
      9. Marriage of mind and body for peak performance
      10. Joe Henderson's Running Commentary - Beat the Beast
      11. Those delicate hamstrings - What is so special about the hamstrings? Part 1.
      12. The Sleep-Wake Body Clock May Also Control Appetite
      Study offers possible clue to overeating in humans.
      13. Multisport: Who Needs a Coach?
      14. From Runner's World
      15. Take 30 Seconds Off Your Mile Time
      16. Swimming vs. Golf
      17. Sweat, sanctuary and a unique friendship
      Outside the gym, we lead separate lives. But while we're working out, we share everything.
      18. Cycling: Race-Like Bike Intervals
      19. Alter Your DNA: Exercise
      Muscle study reveals how physical training activates hundreds of genes.
      20. Sun protection facts you need to know
      21. We're mad about protein, and many of us are eating too much
      22. What Do You Mean by Speed?
      High-intensity training can boost your fitness but wield its power judiciously.
      23. On Being A Race Director - My Job is Secure... No One Else Wants It!
      Over the years, I have felt that race directors must feel like the crab grass in the lawn of life.
      24. Psychological Issues with Regard to the Marathon
      25. News Scan - A Collection of News Items

      Runner's Web Weekly Poll: "These marathons were rated the top 10 in the world by Runner's World. Which of them belong in your top
      New York City

      You can access the poll from our FrontPage as well as voting on and/or checking the results of previous polls.
      Post your views in our Forum at:
      [Free Registration Required]

      Last week's poll was "Do the shoe companies provide a fair level of support to the sports of track and field, and triathlon?"

      The results at publication time were:

      Answers Votes Percent
      1. Yes 19 22%
      2. No 42 49%
      3. No opinion, don't care 25 29%
      Total Votes: 86

      Forward the Runner's Web Digest to a friend and suggest that they subscribe at:

      Five Star Site of the Week: Cameron Brown - Kiwi Ironman Champion.
      Cam is a four-time winner of Ironman New Zealand and has placed on the podium at the Ironman Triathlon World Championships in each
      of the last three years. Cam's photo gallery includes many images from his racing in recent years.
      Visit the site at:

      Send us your suggestions for our Five Star site. Please check our list of previous Five Star Sites available from the Five Star
      Window under the link "Previous Five Star Sites" as we do not wish to repeat a site unless it has undergone a major redesign.

      If you feel you have something to say that is worthy of a Guest Column on the Runner's Web, email us at
      mailto:webmaster@... or leave your comments in one of our Forums at:
      http://www.runnersweb.com/running/forum.html or from our FrontPage.

      Our Photo Slideshow is updated on a random basis. Check it out from our FrontPage.

      Book of the Week: Maximum Performance for Cyclists.
      If traditional training methods aren't giving you the results you're looking for, you need a training plan that is tailored to your
      own unique physiology. It is only through specific training that you'll find gains where stock training plans fall short.
      As an experienced coach and physician, Dr. Michael Ross prescribes training plans based on proven science, not the latest training
      fad. Learn about muscle physiology and your body's response to exercise, weight training, testing, and nutrition. Ultimately, a
      training plan tailored to your specific needs and goals will give you a stronger competitive edge.
      Maximum Performance for Cyclists guides you through the steps of individualizing your workout intervals, making sound nutritional
      choices, and planning for recovery in order to achieve your best performance. A sound understanding of the science and physiology
      behind your workouts will help you focus on becoming faster. 6" x 9" 224 pp.
      Michael Ross, M.D. has consulted with national champions, Olympians, world champions, and amateur athletes as a coach and doctor. He
      has written for USA Cycling, VeloNews, medical journals, and is the author of Maximum Performance: Sports Medicine for Endurance
      Buy the book from VeloPress at:

      More books from Amazon at:
      and Human Kinetics at:

      This Weeks News:

      Multisport: To Stretch a Point:
      By Bruce Rawson, B.App.Sc (Physiotherapy), B.Hum.Movt, Masters of Sports Physiotherapy, Rehabilitation and Performance Consultant
      Fact or fallacy? Stretching muscles before you exercise will help you to avoid injury.
      Anyone attempting to read up on the benefits of stretching may be excused for coming away somewhat confused. Literature devoted to
      the benefits of stretching abounds with recommendations that are clouded by misconceptions and conflicting research reports. Despite
      the absence of significant supporting research, stretching, following warm-up, has long been promoted as a method of preventing
      injury amongst athletes and fitness enthusiasts. However recent research in sports medicine requires that we examine this assumption
      in greater depth.
      New evidence suggests that stretching immediately prior to exercise does not prevent overuse or acute injuries during that activity.
      In a study of 1538 Australian male army recruits, published in the February 2000 edition of, "Medicine and Science in Sports and
      Exercise" researchers randomly allocated recruits into two pre-exercise groups:
      More...from the Runner's Web at:

      2. Science of Sport: Race And Sport - The race to the swift - if the swift have the right ancestry:
      Let's start with a few safe predictions. All of the sprinters in the men's 100m final at the Athens Olympics in 2004 will trace
      their ancestry to West Africa. Almost all of the world-class throwers will be white, and mostly of Eurasian ancestry. And, except
      for the marathon, there will be almost no athletes of Asian ancestry appearing in Athens finals. On the other hand, elsewhere in the
      Games, Asians will flourish in diving, some gymnastic events, judo, and table tennis.
      A peculiar but decided trend is unfolding: over the past 40 years, as equality of opportunity has steadily increased in sports,
      spreading to vast sections of Asia and Africa, equality of results on the playing field has actually declined. The more democracy on
      the playing field, the less at the finish line. On the one hand, the social and economic barriers limiting participation in sports
      are crumbling; on the other, the winners in many events are increasingly limited to participants from specific regions of the world.
      It's not surprising that the United States would dominate peculiarly American sports such as basketball, but who can fathom the
      trends in world sports, such as running. Why is it that every running record from the 100m to the marathon is held by an athlete of
      African ancestry? Is it racist to be curious about such phenomena?
      Nature versus nurture
      Absolutely not, say a growing chorus of geneticists, anthropologists, and physiologists. 'Very many in sports physiology would like
      to believe that it is training, the environment, what you eat that play the most important roles in sports,' states Bengt Saltin,
      director of the Copenhagen Muscle Research Center and one of the world's premier sports medical researchers. 'But based on the data,
      it is 'in your genes' whether or not you are talented, or whether you will become talented. The extent of the environment can always
      be discussed but it's less than 20-25%.'
      More...from the Runner's Web at:

      3. Sports Psychology: Mental Approach - What's missing from your training?
      By Michelle Cleere, Sports Psychology Consultant
      I was a head triathlon coach for the Presidio YMCA Triathlon Team for many years. On my team was a woman, Tish, who has been a part
      of the team since the inception of the program. She, like many of the other people who came into the program, were either a)
      struggling with their exercise motivation and thought training for a triathlon might be good motivation or b) needing a challenge.
      Either way a lot of these people were new to one, two or three of the sports involved with triathlons and therefore were challenged
      in learning and participating in certain of these aspects so each year to help with those challenges I would do a sports psychology
      clinic. I would talk about motivation, anxiety, positive affirmations, self talk, etc. and about how the mental aspect of sport is
      many times overlooked but can be more important than the physical aspects.
      One year I was discussing becoming aware of your thought process and then continued on talking about how to change negative thinking
      into positive thinking by using positive affirmations (2-3 motivational words) or key words (1 motivational word). I continued
      talking about how many times we get to a big hill in a run and we start thinking all sorts of crazy thoughts: that hill is way too
      long; I can't make it to the top or; I hate hills.
      These negative thoughts make a person more anxious, tighten muscles for restricted movement, and actually become a self fulfilling
      prophecy; which means you will struggle getting to the top. When what we really should be thinking is something more positive: I
      will make it to the top; relax; fast; strong; light as a feather; etc. Tish, being very new to running was having a difficult time
      with it and in particular struggling with hills. So she decided that instead of concentrating so hard on telling herself that ?she
      can't? that she would come up with her own positive affirmation. She is now using ?wings of a bird? to guide her up hills and now
      whenever I do a clinic for the team she reminds people of how difficult running hills can be but how thinking positively has helped
      her make it to the top more times than not.
      More...from the Runner's Web at:

      4. Dr. Gabe Mirkin's Fitness and Health E-Zine:
      * Exercisers Can Prevent Blisters
      Blisters don't happen without warning; you'll feel pain before they appear. If you feel pain in the skin of your feet while you're
      exercising, take off your shoes and look for a cause. Usually, your sock will be wrinkled or your shoe will be rubbing because it
      doesn't fit properly. If it's your socks, straighten the wrinkle. If it's your shoes, take them off. You can try to soften the shoe
      where it irritates your skin by rubbing bath oil or cooking oil into the shoe and stretching it. If you still develop blisters, buy
      a new pair of shoes. If you're too frugal to throw away shoes, take
      a piece of adhesive tape and place it tightly on the spot on your skin where the shoe rubs.
      Wetness causes skin to stick to anything that rubs against it. Adding powder to the toes of your socks can help to keep your feet
      dry. It doesn't matter whether it's cornstarch, medicated powder or baby powder. Studies at Walter Reed Army Hospital showed that
      the most effective treatment for blisters is to sterilize a pin and the skin over the blister, stick the pin into the side of the
      skin over the blister, express the fluid, and then tape the skin tightly over its base.
      * Aspirin Does Not Improve Athletic Performance
      Many athletes think that taking aspirin or other nonsteroidals before competition can help to block the muscle pain that they feel
      when they exercise intensely and will help them to compete more effectively. It doesn't. When you exercise intensely, you run out of
      oxygen and your muscles start to burn. This is caused by breakdown products of energy metabolism accumulating in muscles to make
      them more acidic and hurt. Aspirin does not block the acidity and therefore, it does not block pain. The only way that you can stop
      the burning is to slow down.
      When you are injured, your muscles feel sore and taking aspirin will help to relieve some of the pain, but it does not help you to
      heal faster or improve strength. Aspirin can cause diarrhea, belly pain and bleeding. Taking aspirin or nonsteroidals for several
      days after injuring yourself can delay healing. Try to avoid or reduce exercising when your muscles feel sore because the soreness
      means that muscle fibers are torn and frayed. Exercising before the fibers heal increases your risk for a serious muscle-tear
      * I read an article that said bicycling weakens bones. Is that true?
      Several years ago a study from the American College of Sports Medicine reported that bicycle riders have bones that are less dense
      than people who don't exercise at all. This led some science writers and sports reporters to make the ridiculous recommendation that
      bicycle riders should lift weights to strengthen their bones, or change sports.
      Bone density tests do not necessarily measure bone strength. Birds have unbelievably thin bones that are extremely strong. Many
      birds with thin light bones are far more resistant to fractures than many mammals that have much denser bones. There is no evidence
      that bicycle riders or racers are at increased risk for bone fractures. Racers crash all the time. Lance Armstrong spends as much
      time on a bike as anyone, and
      he has had many serious high impact crashes. If he had weak bones, he would be in a wheelchair, and not be the greatest bicycle
      racer in the world.

      5. High altitude and athletic training:
      The underlying problem with high altitude (>2000 m) is that there is less oxygen and while this may not be that threatening to
      individuals at rest it does pose a challenge to athletes.
      The underlying problem with high altitude (>2000 m) is that there is less oxygen and while this may not be that threatening to
      individuals at rest it does pose a challenge to athletes.
      Of course for the pure anaerobic events no adaptation is required so this discussion is necessarily focused on endurance training
      and competition. In general the higher the altitude the longer it takes to adapt. Understanding the adaptation process and the
      things that you can do to aid it will make for a less taxing transition. A number of physiologic changes occur to allow for
      acclimatization at high altitude. These can be divided into immediate, which take place over several days, and long term which
      requires weeks to a few months.
      The first thing that happens is your respiratory rate and heart rates speed up. This occurs both at rest and during sub-max
      exercise. This helps offset the lower partial pressure of oxygen. You will not be able to reach your max VO2 so don't get
      frustrated. The faster breathing rate changes your acid-base balance and this takes a little longer to correct.
      The longer term changes are a decrease in maximum cardiac output a decreased maximum heart rate.
      An increased number of red blood cells.
      Excretion of base via the kidneys to restore acid-base balance. (Unfortunately, the net result is that you have less tolerance for
      lactic acid).
      A chemical change within red blood cells that makes them more efficient at unloading oxygen to the tissues.
      An increase in the number of mitochondria and oxidative enzymes.
      More...from the World of Endurance at:

      6. Exercise training in ordinary people affects the activity of 500 genes:
      A new study from Karolinska Institutet in Stockholm shows that hundreds of genes in the thigh muscle are activated in regular cycle
      training. The study also reveals that great differences in training response may be due to the ability in some people to activate
      their genes much more forcefully. The study is published May 2 in FASEB Journal.
      It is common knowledge that it is very dangerous to be inactive and that regular physical activity brings health, improves quality
      of life and extends life span. How these positive effects are created in the body is not known. Influences on gene activity in the
      heart, vessels and muscles are probably immensely important.
      In this study, the first of its kind, Drs James Timmons, Carl J Sundberg and co-workers show that hundreds of genes are activated by
      regular cycle training for six weeks in young healthy men. Some of these genes are most likely linked to diabetes and cardiovascular
      disease. These training study findings can therefore be important for the development of new treatment strategies for such diseases.
      More...from News-Medical.net at:

      7. Enduring Questions - Should Your Sports Drink Contain Protein?
      Sure, protein is great for postrun recovery. But while you're exercising? The debate rages.
      There's no hotter issue in sports nutrition right now than the carbs versus carbs-plus-protein controversy. The battle pits
      scientist against scientist, small companies against behemoths, and new research against long-held beliefs. At one crucial juncture,
      it even threatens the foundations of exercise physiology.
      This is quite a change from the time, not long ago, when carb was King of all Exercise Land, and giving nutrition advice to runners
      was easy: Eat carbs, and only carbs, before you run, while you run, and after you run. Bon appetit!
      The runner's perfect, or at least simple, nutritional universe began coming apart in 1992 when a University of Texas exercise
      physiologist named John Ivy first challenged King Carb. Ivy and his colleagues published a study showing that a meal of carbs plus
      protein (C+P) after exercise boosted the resynthesis of muscle glycogen (your body's best energy source) more than carbs alone (C).
      This was an important finding because glycogen resynthesis is the gold standard for measuring recovery, and most coaches and
      nutritionists believe that recovery is essential in any training program.
      Only one problem: Ivy seemed to make a critical mistake in his research design. He gave more total calories to the C+P group than to
      the C-alone group. Doh! Of course you'll recover faster and better if you get a bigger pile of grub on your plate.
      More...from Runner's World at:

      8. Ask the Tri Doc: Avoiding muscle cramps:
      By Dr. Andrew Baldwin
      Dear Tri Doc,
      I recently completed a 20-mile training run in preparation for an upcoming marathon. Everything went well with the exception of
      muscle spasms in my left and right calves. The spasms felt like quick electric shock twinges that occurred on and off for a period
      of about 15 minutes.
      I am a follower of Galloway walk breaks. After this occurred, I walked more frequently. I carry water, Gatorade and Hammer Gel with
      me. I consumed about 40 oz of water, 40 oz of Gatorade and 3 servings of Hammer Gel. I consumed the water and Gatorade alternately
      during the run about every 10 minutes (water then wait 10 minutes then Gatorade and wait 10 minutes). Hammer Gel was at the start,
      then at two hours, then at three hours. I finished the 20 miles in 3:30. I urinated at the start of the run (clear) and at the end
      of the run (clear).
      I asked someone about the spasms, and they indicated that it was probably due to dehydration. I had heavy salt residue (as usual)
      all over my face and body. As such, I could have been dehydrated even though I thought I had ingested enough liquid and urinated.
      More...from Triathlete Magazine at:

      9. Marriage of mind and body for peak performance:
      It's the day of the race and you've been preparing for months, worked smart through the off season and correctly periodized your
      training, and seemingly nothing can stand in your way. Then a peer poses a question, are you ready? Then much like your $1,000
      wheels rolling downhill, so flows the negativity from your mouth.
      I didn't get much sleep last night, they changed the course from last year, there are more hills, the rubber band broke on my
      profile design bottle ... and the list goes on. Where's your faith? Physically you're prepared, mentally you're lacking! Where does
      ones ability to believe come from?
      are blessed and seem to be born with the ability to have unshakable focus and single-minded purpose, but for those who don't there's
      hope. Add these 10 tips to your mental tool chest and begin building a stronger resolve to accomplish your goals and extract the
      most from your ability.
      1. Walk before you run. Hey, let's face it, this is an instant gratification society. We want it and we want it now. Ah, patience my
      friend. Set a goal; devise a plan. If you don't possess the knowledge to do so, then enlist a qualified professional. Now begin your
      journey. The body is subject to unchangeable laws: Introduction of a stimulus, adaptation and progression. Embrace them and be
      More...from Active.com at:

      10. Joe Henderson's Running Commentary - Beat the Beast:
      A run is such a nice way to start a day that I've started nearly 15,000 days like this. Most of these routine runs were worth
      repeating, but few are memorable.
      Already I can barely recall where this morning's run took me. It was too easy and pleasant to remember for long. Like footsteps on a
      dry road, it left behind a nothing to distinguish it from thousands of other runs.
      Of all the days the days in a career, a tiny percentage go into the mental video library, Here the pictures and words forever stay
      as clear as the day they went onto tape.
      My most memorable days are all race days. What I remember first about them is that they were no fun until they were done. Racing at
      its best never is.
      Please don't misread me here. Running can be great fun in ways that runners define the word.
      Fun is running through the woods on an October afternoon, hearing leaves crunch underfoot. Fun is leaving the first footsteps in new
      snow on a January morning. Fun is the first stripping to shorts in spring or the first baring of shoulders to the sun in summer.
      Fun is joining a partner or a group and easing the miles with your conversation. Fun is going into a run or race with no goal,
      thereby leaving yourself open to surprises and immune to disappointments.
      Everyday runs can be joyful in and of themselves. But memories so easily and often won are short-lived.
      The race, if run with great effort and high expectations, is no fun before or little fun during. It is a beast to be fought.
      You hate the thought of going into battle, but you must. If you retreat, the beast wins by default because your nerve has failed
      before your strength is tested. This battle brings moments of panic and pain, but not to try would feel worse.
      More...from Joe Henderson at:

      11. Those delicate hamstrings - What is so special about the hamstrings? Part 1:
      Or putting it another way, why should a footballer like Michael Owen or Great Britain’s Olympic sprinter Darren Campbell be prone to
      injuries in the same muscle as some marathon runners? Similarly, why should your hamstrings start complaining at the beginning of
      the cross-country season, at a time of the year when pace is not usually at its most electrifying?
      I will try and provide some answers in this article and in PART 2.
      Introducing the hamstrings
      The hamstrings are a group of three muscles that run down the back of the leg from the bone that you sit on (ischial tuberosity) to
      the lower leg just below the knee. They are attached to the two bones of the lower leg, the tibia (on the inside) and fibula (on the
      What do they do?
      If you asked a medical student this question they would probably answer by saying that the hamstrings produce flexion (bending) at
      the knee. However, their function is very much more complicated than this and therein lies the problem.
      Because the hamstrings pass across two joints (hip and knee), when they contract (shorten) they have the potential to cause movement
      at both joints. To make things even more complicated what effect their contraction has on the leg will depend on whether the leg is
      supporting weight.
      With the foot and leg off the ground the hamstrings action will draw the whole of the leg back. This is referred to as extension at
      the hip joint. If the whole leg is prevented from moving back either by contraction of the hip flexors which lie in front of the hip
      joint or by physically blocking the leg’s movement, then the knee will bend, bringing the heel up.
      More...from Real Runner at:

      12. The Sleep-Wake Body Clock May Also Control Appetite:
      Study offers possible clue to overeating in humans.
      Our molecular body clock may also play a role in regulating appetite, researchers report, in a finding that could someday be used to
      help compulsive eaters slim down.
      Mice bred to have irregular body clocks were unable to keep their body weight under control, said the report in the April 21 online
      issue of Science by investigators at Northwestern University.
      "These animals have the munchies all day long and in actuality eat all night long as well," said lead investigator Dr. Joseph Bass,
      an assistant professor of medicine, neurobiology and physiology at Northwestern. Mice with normal body clocks eat just twice a day,
      he added.
      The finding offers no immediate solution to the human problem of obesity, and related health problems such as diabetes, Bass said.
      But it does add to "the abundant evidence that timing is important" in eating habits, he said. "It will be a matter of time before
      we know how to translate this into practical advice [for people], but it makes us aware of how important synchronization is to
      One important finding is that "the clock, which we thought is only in the central part of the brain, actually is also present in the
      part of the brain that controls appetite," Bass said.
      More...from Health Scout at:

      13. Multisport: Who Needs a Coach?
      Who needs a coach? Ask six time Tour de France champion Lance Armstrong about the benefits of having a great coach. Chris
      Carmichael, founder and CEO of Carmichael Training Systems has been working with the World Champion cyclist since his early days as
      a junior National Team member, when Carmichael was the head coach for USA Cycling. Carmichael's relationship with Lance has
      transformed from that of coach, to advisor, mentor, confidant, and close personal friend.
      The elite coaching team at Carmichael Training Systems, Carmichael's Colorado based coaching group, coaches 3000 plus athletes of
      all abilities and sports, all over the world. World Champion mountain biker Alison Dunlap, World Champion time-trialist and Olympic
      silver medalist Mari Holden, Olympic swimmer Ed Moses, superbike racers Ben Bostrom and Miguel Duhamel, Champ Indy car racer A.J.
      Almandigger, supercross racers Kevin Wyndham and Timmy Ferry, and women's downhill racers Kathy Pruitt and Tracy Moseley are just a
      handful of the elite professionals that fall under the guidance of Carmichael's coaching staff.
      Clearly, the best of the best need the guidance, nurturing, mentoring, and friendship to succeed at the world's highest level of
      competition. The perceived stress to succeed at this level of competition takes a great deal of focus, meticulous preparation, and
      flawless execution. However, athletes at every level of competition experience the same perceived stress as the aforementioned
      professionals. Masters athletes must have the same level of focus, junior competitors must meticulously prepare for competition, and
      weekend warriors must flawlessly execute their plan of attack.
      More...from the Runner's Web at:

      14. From Runner's World:
      * Coach's Corner
      "If you've become increasingly frustrated with your racing results at a certain distance, try a new one. For example, you're dying
      to break 20 minutes in a 5-K, but race after race lands you in the 20:20 to 20:30 range. Forget the 5-K for a spell; try a 10-K, a
      half-marathon, or even consider racing a mile. You can also hunt down races of less-than-typical distances, such as a 12-K, 20-K or
      30-K event." -Mark Will Weber, cross-country and track coach at Moravian College in Bethlehem, Pa.
      * Injury Prevention
      Ice baby ice: "The next time you sprain an ankle or get some ITB inflammation, ice it right away. A bag of frozen peas or corn works
      well, as do the many frozen gel packs now on the market. Continue to ice the injury in 15-minute sessions several times a day until
      the pain and swelling have subsided (this can take two days or more). Once this happens, it's okay to switch over to heat therapy,
      which will speed healing by bringing more blood to the affected area." -Runner's World magazine
      * Performance Nutrition
      Keep Healthy with Honey! Next time a bee stings you, console yourself with some research findings from the University of Illinois at
      Urbana-Champaign, which suggest that honey may contain the same levels of antioxidants, molecules that repair cell damage caused by
      ultraviolet light and vigorous exercise, as some fruits and vegetables. After drinking 16 ounces of water mixed with 4 tablespoons
      of honey, subjects had significantly higher levels of antioxidants in their blood.
      * Editor's Advice
      "If your watch or stopwatch is giving you fits, then throw it away for a while. By doing so you will improve your chances of a
      no-stress, effortless run." -Lori Adams, RW assistant editor
      * Training Talk
      "A program of strengthening and flexibility for the muscles around the leg is the single most effective preemptive strike you can
      make against knee pain." From The Knee Crisis Handbook by Brian Halpern, M.D.
      * Words That Inspire
      "In high school I was lousy in every sport. I hated P.E. But I joined the track team and fell in love with running. This helped me
      find myself." -Jacqueline Hansen, two-time world marathon record holder; first woman under 2:40; 12 marathon wins, including Boston
      and Honolulu

      15. Take 30 Seconds Off Your Mile Time:
      By Andrew Neugebauer, CTS Coach, Nike Farm Team
      Improving your mile time by thirty seconds is no small task. The mile is as demanding on your anaerobic energy system as it is on
      your aerobic energy system. The ratio is about sixty five percent aerobic to thirty five percent anaerobic. This calls for a variety
      of training intensities and a well organized training plan.
      There are many things you can do to improve your time. Sitting on your couch wishing you could run faster is not one of them. To be
      as blunt as I can, the only way to improve is to have a systematic and detailed training plan set up for you, and then to get
      motivated and follow through with the plan. Just as an architect follows a step-by-step blueprint when designing a house, your
      training must be built the same way. Likewise, the coaches at Carmichael Training Systems would like to have 6 to 8 months to work
      with an athlete in order to help them reach their true mile potential.
      If you are starting fresh you will need at least eight to twelve weeks of base training. At CTS we call this the foundation phase.
      The first thing we like to have the athlete complete is an eight-minute field test. In a nutshell, it’s 8 min of all out running. At
      the end of the test, you record your average and max heart rate and the distance you covered. This gives us an accurate and
      reproducible gauge of fitness, and allows us to prescribe heart rate ranges for particular training runs.
      More...from Carmichael Training Systems at:

      16. Swimming vs. Golf:
      By Kevin Koskella
      Recently, I have taken up golf, and I can’t help but notice the similarities between learning golf and learning swimming. Both are
      finesse sports that require large amounts of concentration and practice to get right, and it is unnecessary (and ill-advised) to
      gain great amounts of strength to make major improvements in either sport. Let’s look at some specific ways golf is like swimming:
      1. It Starts with Head Position. In golf, you must keep your head still and look straight at the ball while you swing in order to
      make contact. In swimming, you must keep your head still and look straight down at the bottom of the pool while you rotate in order
      to get the most out of your stroke.
      2. Concentration is Key. The moment you start thinking about more than one thing when you are about to hit the ball is the moment
      that something goes wrong. If I get 2 tips on my golf swing and I think about both of them the next time I tee up, I tend to have an
      underwhelming result! The same goes for doing the swimming drills. As a coach, if I give a swimmer several things to think about,
      inevitably, nothing will go right. The idea is to concentrate on one aspect, practice it, master it, and move on.
      3. The Fewer Strokes, The Better. When improving your score in golf, you want to take fewer strokes to get the ball in the hole. To
      improve your swim (especially open water), you want to take fewer strokes per length, in order to utilize your energy for the entire
      swim or triathlon.
      4. Follow Through is Important. When you hit the ball, it is important that you follow through all the way with your club. In
      freestyle swimming, to get the most out of your stroke, you must extend your arm and glide.
      5. Power Comes from the Core. Your arms and legs themselves do not need to be incredibly powerful to have success in either sport.
      With both sports, the power comes from the core- abdominal muscles, lower back, and hips. Legs are used more for stabilization than
      to propel you forward in swimming. Legs in golf are also used more for stabilization, rather than for more powerful strokes.
      Both sports can also be frustrating, but with practice, patience, and persistence, swimming and golf can both present you with a
      meditative-like form of exercise that I have found to be both fulfilling and fun!
      About the Author
      Kevin coaches masters and triathlete swimmers in San Diego, CA. He operates the website www.TriSwimCoach.com, a resource for
      beginning through intermediate level triathletes looking for help with swimming. The site features a free email newsletter offering
      tips and articles on triathlon swimming. Kevin has also written an electronic book titled “The Complete Guide to Triathlon Swimming”
      which is sold on his website in downloadable form.

      17. Sweat, sanctuary and a unique friendship:
      Outside the gym, we lead separate lives. But while we're working out, we share everything.
      My friend Rita Rago and I have been pals for about seven years. We see each other several times a week and share the most intimate
      details of our lives, from work to our marriage to families.
      The thing is, we've almost never seen each other outside of the walls of the gym we belong to in Hollywood. Yes, a couple of times
      we've run into each other at the Hollywood Farmers Market, but because that immediately follows our Sunday morning workout, it feels
      like an extension of the gym.
      Rita is my gym friend. This is different from a workout buddy. Workout buddies meet regularly for the primary purpose of exercising
      together, coaxing one another through that last set of bicep curls. Gym friends don't really care if you do that last set of bicep
      curls; they want to know what you thought of last night's episode of "The Apprentice" or whether that dinner with the in-laws went
      It's a relationship with few strings attached that usually doesn't extend beyond the gym — and that's fine.
      Richard Sherman, a clinical psychologist in Tarzana, agrees. Such relationships, he says, are similar to how our parents and
      grandparents casually kibitzed at barbershops and across clotheslines. Today, we may be more likely to form such friendships at the
      coffeehouse, nail salon — or gym.
      At his health club, Sherman says, "there's a comfort level at seeing the same friends and having something to talk about as you're
      changing or working out." Plus, the casual environment of the gym — no street clothes, no makeup — encourages people to let their
      hair down. "It's almost like a sanctuary," he says.
      And Sherman knows first-hand the value of a gym friend. For 18 years he had a gym buddy with whom he "shared everything. It was a
      very close relationship," he says. Then the friend died last year. Sherman says he still finds it difficult to go to the gym at the
      time of day when he used to see his friend.
      More...from the LA Times at:

      18. Cycling: Race-Like Bike Intervals:
      This article was published in the April 2005 issue of Inside Triathlon.
      There's an incredible method of interval training that allows you to train like you race. These intervals require you to take a
      race-like focus of covering a given distance as quickly as possible. We call these intervals Parceled Out Effort (POE) intervals.
      POE intervals can be a great part of your training across the triathlon disciplines. Here, we'll take a close look at how to
      incorporate POE intervals into your bike training.
      POE intervals are performed exactly as their name implies. You parcel your effort out over a given distance (or duration), with the
      goal of covering the distance as quickly as you can or going as far as you can over the duration.
      Let's look at an example to see exactly how POE intervals work. A set of POE intervals on the bike could look like this: 6 X 5' POE,
      RI = 2', 90-100 RPM. Your job, in completing this set is to perform six five-minute work intervals, while taking a two-minute rest
      interval (RI) between the work intervals. You ride fast/hard during the work intervals and slow/easy during the rest intervals.
      Specifically, it is your job to complete as much work as possible during the total 30 minutes (6 X 5') of work intervals. You want
      to view this as a 30-minute time trial, broken up by rest intervals. Completing as much work as possible in the 30 minutes can be
      viewed in a few ways. From a theoretical perspective, you can view this as riding with the intent to travel the greatest distance
      possible in these 30 minutes of riding. Alternatively, you can view this as riding with the intent to maintain the best average
      speed or best average power output that you can for these 30 minutes of riding.
      To time trial any distance in the best time possible, you should aim for even-splitting or better yet, negative-splitting your times
      during the first and second half of that performance. View POE intervals in the same way. The only difference being the rest
      intervals, which create broken time trial sets. By setting up the duration of your work and rest intervals in a variety of ways, you
      can create specific intensities and train across all spectrums of your anaerobic metabolism in the course of a periodized training
      More...from the Runner's Web at:

      19. Alter Your DNA: Exercise:
      Muscle study reveals how physical training activates hundreds of genes.
      Genetic activity: Insight into how exercise affects genes could provide targets for gaining health benefits with less effort
      Exercise has been shown to activate hundreds of genes, and differences in their activation may partly explain differences in
      athletic ability.
      James Timmons and Carl Sundberg of the Karolinska Institutet in Stockholm have shown that regular cycle training affects about 500
      genes in thigh muscles.
      Their findings suggest that differences in training responses are due to differences in people's ability to activate genes more
      The study, which involved healthy young men in regular cycle training for six weeks, showed that participants who improved their
      performance most also had markedly greater activation of several genes in muscles.
      Fitness pills?
      Besides providing insight into athletic ability, the study provides targets for developing interventions that mimic the effects of
      Exercise is known to improve health and quality of life. Determining the genetic factors involved in such benefits could lead to
      interventions that mimic exercise.
      For example, Timmons, Sundberg and colleagues found in their study that many activated genes are likely linked to diabetes and
      cardiovascular disease.
      In an interesting twist, the researchers also compared genes activated by regular exercise with genes activated in people with
      Duchenne's muscular dystrophy, a muscle wasting disease.
      They found similar genes that were activated. This could mean that muscles in people with muscular dystrophy strive to adapt in a
      similar way to those of people who are exercising.
      The research is reported in the FASEB Journal

      20. Sun protection facts you need to know:
      By Heidi Kelchner - Her Sports Magazine
      If you've been less than diligent about slathering on sunscreen in the past, consider this: Melanoma is now the most common cancer
      in women age 25 to 29, and second only to breast cancer in women 30 to 34, according to The Skin Cancer Foundation.
      Protecting your skin takes just a little planning and shopping before heading outdoors. With the number of quality sunscreens,
      bronzing products and self-tanners (much safer than getting a suntan) available, there's no excuse for damaging your skin.
      Here's how to beat the sun -- May is National Skin Cancer Awareness Month, by the way -- this summer and for the rest of your life:
      Skin Care 101: wear sunscreen or sunblock! To protect against skin cancer and premature aging, the American Academy of Dermatology
      (AAD) recommends wearing a broad-spectrum sunscreen or sunblock that protects against both UVA and UVB rays with an SPF of 15 or
      higher. UVB rays pose risk to top layers of skin and lead to sunburn (think "B" for burn). UVA rays affect under layers of skin,
      which leads to premature aging (think "A" for aging). All sunscreens protect from UVB rays but only broad-spectrum sunscreens
      protect against both.
      More...from Active.com at:

      21. We're mad about protein, and many of us are eating too much:
      Find out how to avoid going overboard and which sources will leave you in fighting shape.
      By Kimberly A. Tessmer, R.D.
      You know high-protein diets lack essential nutrients, and that carb restriction can be an athlete's death knell. But protein is
      vital to everything from muscle building and repair to metabolism and hair growth, and needs careful consideration in an active
      woman's diet. The question, then, is how much do you need? And what sources are best?
      The theory adopted by many athletes is that more protein equals more muscle. In truth, extra protein offers no added performance
      benefits, and may actually be harmful to the kidneys and weaken the bones.
      In proper quantities, however, protein is a powerhouse nutrient. It's found in every cell of the body, and is responsible for
      helping build and repair body tissues, regulating digestion and metabolism, producing enzymes, replacing red blood cells, growing
      hair and fingernails, creating hormones and other body chemicals, and boosting the immune system.
      Too Much of a Good Thing?
      When you eat too much protein—as studies have shown most Americans do—it is not stored as protein but rather used as fuel or stored
      as fat. If you're consuming adequate calories, protein will likely end up as fat, since the body will select carbohydrates as an
      energy source first and foremost.
      More...from HerSports at:

      22. What Do You Mean by Speed?
      High-intensity training can boost your fitness but wield its power judiciously.
      How fast do you need to train to optimize your speed? The answer to that question varies depending upon whom you ask. Some people do
      several high-intensity sessions each week, and others do every workout at the same moderate pace. For a small minority of athletes
      one of these two plans may result in success, but the majority of multisport athletes' workout schedule should fall within these two
      extremes. There is no doubt that speed sessions will improve performance, but how fast and how often should you go hard?
      High-intensity training can be defined as anaerobic, or above lactate threshold, workouts. Aerobic work is done at an effort below
      your lactate threshold. If you use a heart-rate monitor you can develop a good estimate of your lactate threshold (the training
      intensity at which you produce lactic acid more quickly than your body is able to flush it) by doing a hard 30-minute cycling or
      running time trial when you are rested. Determine your average heart rate over the last 20 minutes of the workout ¾ it will be close
      to your lactate-threshold heart rate. Note that you should perform tests on both the bike and run as your LT will differ for each
      Finding the balance
      For most athletes, races under one hour will rely primarily on the anaerobic system ¾ that is, you will be racing above your LT.
      However, races longer than two hours are almost exclusively sub-LT efforts. Ironman-distance racing typically occurs substantially
      below lactate threshold.
      Too much high-intensity training greatly increases the risk of illness, burnout and overtraining and such efforts require more
      recovery time as they temporarily break down the body. But with adequate rest the body will overcompensate and recover, leading to
      greater fitness.
      The University of Colorado's Mark Whetmore, coach of one of the top U.S. collegiate running programs, warns against too much
      anaerobic training. Whetmore, who has coached U.S. Olympians Adam Goucher and Alan Culpepper, relies primarily on aerobic training
      and only adds anaerobic training toward the end of the season. Says Whetmore, “The contribution of anaerobic training to one's
      overall racing ability is overrated. It is more productive to train the aerobic system.”
      More...from EnduranceOne at:

      23. On Being A Race Director - My Job is Secure... No One Else Wants It!
      Over the years, I have felt that race directors must feel like the crab grass in the lawn of life.
      I often ask an audience the day before a race how many are running in the race? Hundreds of the folks in the room raise their hand.
      Then I ask, how many in the room are directing the race? No hands go up…except mine. I’m immediately reminded how the odds are truly
      stacked against the race director and his/her team.
      So, how, or better yet, why, do most race directors become race directors? Certainly not many aspired to be race directors when they
      where making career decisions in high school and college. I’m not aware of too many educational institutions that offer race
      directing as an elective. For most, like me, it just happens by default…right place, right time…or could it be wrong place, wrong
      Most race directors do this on a volunteer basis and to help a specific cause near and dear to them. Others have chosen this as a
      career path and end up producing multiple events a year with the hope that when it is all said and done they can earn more than ten
      cents an hour.
      Without race directors, there are no races. And, without runners, there are no races either. So, it sort of makes sense for all of
      us to work together and to support each other. Most race directors are or have been runners. However, most runners probably have
      never directed a race.
      More...from Cool Running at:

      24. Psychological Issues with Regard to the Marathon:
      Of all the distance running events, a marathon or ultra presents the greatest challenges both physically and mentally.
      Even after completing all the required training and making it to the race rested and healthy, arriving at the starting line in less
      than the ideal state of mind can have a devastating effect on your performance.
      In this article, a variety of mental strategies will be discussed that will enable you to set realistic goals, complete the
      necessary training (in particular, the long runs), and be optimally prepared mentally for the challenges that await you in
      completing the marathon. Please be familiar with the following terminology (described with positive outcomes), as each will be
      mentioned later:
      Mental Rehearsal/Visualization - The process of creating pictures or images in your mind.
      Imagery - Playing out/imagining in your mind the way you wish for an event to occur.
      Self-Talk - The "voice" in your head that can be trained to provide positive affirmations during adversity and tough times.
      Before You Begin
      There are certain "prerequisites" or internal characteristic that a runner must possess in order to undertake the necessary training
      that the marathon requires. These include motivation, self-discipline, and effective time-management, all of which are inter-related
      A coach can be enthusiastic about the training program he or she designs/presents and show interest in the runner's development;
      however, motivation and self-discipline must be developed primarily from within.
      The best marathon training program in the world will not enable a runner to make it to the finish line of a marathon if he or she
      isn't internally motivated to undergo and complete the training and then finish the race.
      Similarly, it requires a great deal of self-discipline to complete the long training runs while at the same time, cope with other
      daily distractions and manage all the personal responsibilities daily living provides. This is why it is crucial that the runner who
      wishes to train for the marathon be an effective manager of time.
      More...from the World of Endurance at:

      25. News Scan:
      * Women On The Run:
      According to Racestats.Blogspot, 6819 of the 11392 finishers in the Country Music Half Marathon were women. The men finisher's count
      was 4573. That puts the women's finishing total at 60 percent of all finishers, one of the highest percents we've seen for a race of
      this kind.

      * Brooks Joins With Los Angeles Triathlon:
      Brooks Sports has announced a licensing agreement with the 2005 City of Los Angeles Triathlon. The Triathlon will take place on
      Sept. 11.

      * Asthma - Take Exercise and Take Control
      Taking exercise and staying fit can help to keep asthma symptoms under control, said experts on World Asthma Day (3 May).
      Four out of ten people with asthma say their condition can stop them from exercising, yet research shows that active people can
      control their asthma symptoms more effectively and enjoy a healthier lifestyle.
      Asthma UK has produced a guide to exercising, 'Stay Fit and Active', which offers advice to people with asthma on tackling sports
      and physical activities safely.
      Tips offered in the guide include: always carry your reliever inhaler with you when you exercise; try to avoid your triggers such as
      pollen, and warming up and down will help to avoid asthma symptoms developing.
      An incredible one in four of the British Olympic Team in Athens last year was found to have asthma in pre-Olympic tests, but with
      symptoms effectively controlled many went on to win medals.
      Marathon champ Paula Radcliffe certainly hasn't let having asthma stand between her and a world record.
      'Research is showing us that asthma is not a barrier to exercise and fitness, and also that staying active has a really positive
      impact and helps people to keep their symptoms under control,' said Katie Shepherd, Asthma UK's Care Development Manager.
      For a copy of 'Stay Fit and Active' contact our Supporter & Information Team (020 7704 5888; email mailto:info@...).

      * Women hydrate more than men during a marathon race: hyponatremia in the Houston marathon: a report on 60 cases.
      From the MRC/UCT Research Unit for Exercise Science and Sports Medicine, Department of Human Biology, University of Cape Town Sport
      Science Institute of South Africa, Newlands, South Africa.
      OBJECTIVE:: To examine the relationship between gender and the development of hyponatremia in marathon runners. DESIGN:: A
      retrospective analysis of prerace and postrace data collected on 117 runners completing the Houston Marathon from 2000 to 2003.
      SETTING:: The Houston Marathon. PARTICIPANTS:: A total of 117 marathon runners (63 male and 54 female) who consented to participate
      in hyponatremia research. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:: Prerace and postrace body weight and serum sodium ([Na+]) concentrations were
      measured. Total fluid intake was self-reported immediately following the race. RESULTS:: Of the runners tested, 28% developed
      hyponatremia ([Na+] </= 135 mmol/L). Hyponatremic runners (n = 33) drank significantly more fluid (31.70 versus 18.90 cups; P <
      0.001), lost the least weight (-0.14 versus -1.61 kg; P < 0.001), and dropped serum [Na+] levels further (-7.48 versus -1.92; P <
      0.001) compared with nonhyponatremic runners. Female runners (n = 54) were significantly lighter (62.46 versus 80.73 kg; P < 0.001),
      ran slower (303.02 versus 269.06 minutes; P < 0.001), lost the least weight (-0.62 versus -1.68 kg; P < 0.001), dropped serum [Na+]
      levels further (-4.44 versus -2.67; P < 0.01), and had lower postrace serum [Na+] values (136.87 versus 138.50; P < 0.01) compared
      with male runners while consuming the same total amount of fluid during the race (22.87 versus 22.30 cups; P = 0.83, NS). There were
      significant inverse relationships between serum [Na+] change versus body weight change (r = -0.65; P < 0.001) and between postrace
      [Na+] versus body weight change (r = -0.60; P < 0.001), with significant sex differences noted only between nonhyponatremic female
      and male runners (-0.91 versus -0.2.05 kg; P < 0.001) and between hyponatremic and nonhyponatremic male runners (-0.11 versus -2.05
      kg; P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS:: Female marathon runners drink more fluid than male runners in proportion to body size. A loss of 3 kg
      body weight corresponds to a 0 change in serum [Na+] from prerace to postrace, suggesting that a loss of 3 kg dur<br/><br/>(Message over 64 KB, truncated)
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