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Runner's and Triathlete's Web Digest - January 7, 2005

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  • Ken Parker
    Runner s and Triathlete s Web Digest - January 7, 2005 The Original Runner s and Triathlete s Web was founded in January of 1997 as a not-for-profit resource
    Message 1 of 1 , Jan 7, 2005
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      Runner's and Triathlete's Web Digest - January 7, 2005

      The Original Runner's and Triathlete's Web was founded in January of 1997 as a not-for-profit resource site. RunnersWeb.com Inc. is
      now a small business venture which sponsors the OAC Racing Team, a women's road racing and triathlon club, and the OAC Gatineau
      Triathlon and OAC Corporate Relay. The site is not in any way associated with the two UK "Runner's Web" copycat sites or the
      Runner's Web Book Store in the USA.


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      2. Toronto Waterfront Marathon. September 25, 2005:
      http://www.torontowaterfrontmarathon.com/

      3. Sof Sole Offer:
      A free pair of our technical socks ($9.99 value) with the purchase of any Sof Sole insole.
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      Shopping on the internet? Check out our list of affiliate programs at the bottom of the email.

      The Runner's and Triathlete's Web Digest is a weekly e-zine dealing with the sports of running and triathlon and general fitness and
      health issues. The opinions expressed in the articles referenced by the Digest are the opinions of the writers and not necessarily
      those of the Runner's Web. To comment on any stories in the Digest visit our Forum at:
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      References/URLs:
      Most references in the digest which do not have a specific URL listed here are available from the Runner's Web FrontPage (or
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      Also, if have email software that does not read HTML, all links contained in the Digest are available from the Runner's Web. All
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      New This Week:

      We are starting a new feature on the website - A Question and Answer with Owen Anderson from Running Research News.
      Send in your training related questions for Owen to answer to
      mailto:webmaster@...?subject=Owen_Anderson

      The winner of our January Pegasus Quiz was Bill Cook of Brampton, ON who identified the photo as Kenny Moore, 4th at the 1972 Munich
      Olympic Games. He wins a copy of Pegasus' Training Log software.

      If anyone is looking for a web mail provider, you might wish to consider Google's GMail. Currently you can get GMail by invitation
      only from a current user. I presently have nine (9) invitations to give away to the first nine (by email timestamp) Digest
      subscribers to contact me at:
      mailto:kparker@....

      The Runner's and Triathlete's Web Digest is now available through an RSS feed for myYahoo at:
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      Athletes - Interested in getting sponsored?
      Amateur endurance athletes can win a GNC sponsorship (just like the Pro's) to help them achieve their endurance goal. Check out the
      site and enter to win:
      http://www.gncproperformance.com/sponsorship/Default.aspx?lang=en

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      Advertise your event on the Runner's Web. Over one million pageviews in August!
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      Runner's and Triathlete's Web Content Partners:

      * Sports Nutrition by Sheila Kealey.
      Sheila is one of Ottawa's top multisport athletes and a member of the OAC Racing Team and X-C Ottawa. She has a Masters in Public
      Health and works in the field of nutritional epidemiology as a Research Associate with the University of California, San Diego. Her
      column index is available at:
      http://www.runnersweb.com/running/SK_index.html

      * Carmichael Training Systems
      Carmichael Training Systems was founded in 1999 by Chris Carmichael. From the beginning, the mission of the company has been to
      improve the lives of individuals we work with through the application of proper and effective fitness and competitive training
      techniques. Whether your focus is recreational, advanced, or you are a professional racer, the coaching methodology employed by CTS
      will make you a better athlete. Check the latest column from CTS ( Use it and lose it. How to use your own body weight to help you
      lose weight and gain fitness) at:
      http://www.runnersweb.com/running/cts_columns.html.

      * Running Research News
      Running Research News is a monthly newsletter which keeps sports-active people up-to-date on the latest information about training,
      sports nutrition, and sports medicine. RRN publishes practical, timely new material which improves workouts, prevents injuries, and
      heightens overall fitness. Check our latest column from Running Research News (Science of Sport: What Buses Teach Sprinters,
      Middle-Distance Runners, And Long-Distance Competitors About Training) at:
      http://www.runnersweb.com/running/RRN_index.html

      * Peak Performance Online
      Peak Performance is a subscription-only newsletter for athletes, featuring the latest research from the sports science world. We
      cover the whole range of sports, from running and rowing to cycling and swimming, and each issue is packed full of exclusive
      information for anyone who's serious about sport. It's published 16 times a year, including four special reports, by Electric Word
      plc. Peak Performance is not available in the shops - only our subscribers are able to access the valuable information we publish
      Check out our latest article from Peak Performance Online (Fat burning zone - Why athletes, fitness enthusiasts and slimmers should
      steer clear of the fat burning zone ) at:
      http://www.runnersweb.com/running/PPO_index.html

      * Peak Running Performance
      Peak Running Performance Is The Number 1 Technical Running Newsletter In America! Their column will resume next week. Check out
      their past articles at:
      http://www.runnersweb.com/running/PRP_index.html.

      * WatsonLifeSport
      Lance Watson is "Just The Winningest Coach in Triathlon". He has been coaching triathlon and distance running since 1987. Over the
      years, Lance has coached some of the most successful athletes in the sport of triathlon and duathlon,
      His latest article (Multisport: Train Your Brain - The Power Of Staying Positive ) is available at:
      http://www.runnersweb.com/running/news/rw_news_20050107_LW_TrainBrain.html


      This Weeks Personal Postings/Releases:
      We have NO personal postings this week.


      This Week's Digest Article Index:

      1. Science of Sport: What Buses Teach Sprinters, Middle-Distance Runners, And Long-Distance Competitors About Training
      2. Fat burning zone - Why athletes, fitness enthusiasts and slimmers should steer clear of the fat burning zone
      3. Multisport: Train Your Brain - The Power Of Staying Positive
      4. Tackling holiday weight woes
      Small gains can be big problem all year.
      5. Are South Beach and Atkins Diets Right for Athletes?
      6. Fibromyalgia: New Insights Into a Misunderstood Ailment
      7. Winter still a good time for outdoor exercise
      8. 'No pain, no gain' and other myths
      9. Exercises For Ectomorphs
      10. From Runner's World
      11. Monthly training for self-coached triathletes
      12. Too much of a good thing?
      There are risks in drinking too much fluid during exercise.
      13. Want to lose weight? Stick with your diet
      Two studies make it harder to choose a winning plan.
      14. The science of keeping players in the game
      15. Female Brain More Vulnerable to Eating Disorders
      Words associated with negative body image trigger threat center for women, reasoning center for men.
      16. Some Cases of Sudden Cardiac Death May Start in Brain
      17. Why Breakfast Rules
      Skipping breakfast can lead to everything from weight gain to cardiovascular disease. Find out how the first meal of the day will
      not only give you more energy, but also keep your mind sharper to boot.
      18. Magazine: Seattle fittest, Houston fattest
      Men's Fitness ratings based on fast food, parks, other factors.
      19. The Mathematics of Race Fueling
      20. What you do between work intervals can be as important as the work itself
      21. Healing with water: the work of "water cure" pioneer Dr. Batmanghelidj
      22. Training with Others
      23. Hitting "The Wall"
      If You Understand the Scientific Reasons Behind “The Wall,” You Should Be Able to Avoid It.
      24. To supplement or not to supplement
      25 News Scan
      A collection of news items.


      Runner's Web Weekly Poll:
      This week's poll is: "Should the Ironman triathlon be added to the Olympics?"

      Cast your vote at: http://www.runnersweb.com/running.html
      Post your views in our Forum at:
      http://www.runnersweb.com/running/runnersweb_forum.html
      [Free Registration Required]

      The previous poll was: "What sport will be your prime focus for 2005?"
      The results at publication time were:
      Answers Votes Percent
      1. Adventure racing 14 7%
      2. Athletics (track & field) 18 9%
      3. Ironman triathlon 30 14%
      4. Marathon 31 15%
      5. Mountain biking 15 7%
      6. Olympic distance tri 24 11%
      7. Road cycling 20 10%
      8. Road racing 37 18%
      9. Other 20 10%
      Total Votes: 209
      You can access the poll from our FrontPage as well as voting on and/or checking the results of previous polls.

      Forward the Runner's Web Digest to a friend and suggest that they subscribe at:
      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/RunnersWeb/join


      Five Star Site of the Week: Tara Ross, Pro Triathlete
      Tara Ross, from Barrie, Ontario and a recent graduate of Wilfred Laurier University, is becoming a recognized name among
      professional triathletes around the world. Since her 3rd place finish at the 2002 ITU World Triathlon Championships (20-24 Age
      Group), Tara was named to the 2002 All (North) American list, and was awarded the Triathlon Canada Age Grouper of the year award.
      Starting the 2003 season as an unknown in the professional triathlon world, Tara has proven she can compete with the best in the
      world by moving up the world ranking to as high as 142nd (Sept. '03) on the international scene. In addition, excellent performances
      closer to home have earned Tara the reputation of being one of the top female triathletes in Canada.
      More...from Tara's website at:
      http://www.taraross.ca


      Send us your suggestions for our Five Star site. Please check our
      list of previous Five Star Sites available from the Five Star
      Window under the link "Previous Five Star Sites" as we do not wish to
      repeat a site unless it has undergone a major redesign.


      If you feel you have something to say that is worthy of a Guest Column on the Runner's Web, email us at
      mailto:webmaster@... or leave your comments in one of our Forums at:
      http://www.runnersweb.com/running/forum.html or from our FrontPage.

      Our Photo Slideshow is updated on a random basis. Check it out from our FrontPage.

      "Book" of the Week: Jeff Galloway Marathon Training Software.
      Jeff Galloway has helped hundreds of thousands of runners with his best-selling books and training camps. This software program will
      create a training schedule for you, based on Jeff's fun, low mileage, and low stress approach to marathon training. Galloway Bundle
      includes PC Coach logbook software plus Marathon / Half-marathon plan
      * Plan was created by former Olympian Jeff Galloway, author of "Galloway's Book on Running" and "Marathon".
      * This plan interviews you about your running experience, your race distance (marathon or half-marathon) and your goals. Based on
      your answers, it sets up a workout schedule that takes you through the various training phases to prepare you for your race.
      * The Jeff Galloway Marathon software includes the PC Coach Elite software logbook plus the Marathon plan. The software provides an
      advanced logbook complete with training calendar, workout logging, and long term graphs of your training data.
      * This plan can be used by first time marathoners wanting to finish a marathon, or advanced runners wishing to train for a specific
      marathon goal time. Each workout specifies the perfect distance, time, and effort level to achieve your goal.
      * If you are using a Polar S-series heart rate monitor (such as the Polar S720i, S610i, S520, or S410), you can download your data
      directly into the Galloway Marathon software. Software is compatible with Windows XP, 98 and 2000.
      Buy the software from Amazon at:
      http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/B0000WVV42/qid=1105041823/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl200/103-0734750-5745411?v=glance
      &s=sporting-goods&n=507846/ref=ase_runnersweb/
      [Multiline URL]


      More books from Amazon at:
      http://www.runnersweb.com/running/amazon.html
      and Human Kinetics at:
      http://www.runnersweb.com/running/human_kinetics.html

      This Weeks News:

      Articles:

      1. Science of Sport: What Buses Teach Sprinters, Middle-Distance Runners, And Long-Distance Competitors About Training
      On a day when you happen to step inadvertently in front of a bus, your continued existence suddenly hinges on whether your muscles
      contain enough high-energy phosphates. True, your visual system plays a role in your survival, too: After all, you do need to see
      the bus bearing down on you with all of its thunderous mightiness. But it is the job of your muscles to get you out of harm's way -
      to jump clear of the bus, and to jump free in just a small whisker of time. Such sudden leapfrogging is the province of the
      phosphates which are floating around in your muscular protoplasm.
      You see, your muscles need energy to clear the bus bumper, and they can't wait for your heart to get revved up, for a cascade of
      oxygen-rich blood to hurry through your arteries, and for the incoming oxygen to assist with the breakdown carbohydrate or fat in
      order to release the energy required for your fancy jitney jumping. Depending on this rather laborious process would leave you dead;
      that looming double-decker has no time for the niceties of aerobic metabolism.
      More...from the Runner's Web at:
      http://www.runnersweb.com/running/news/rw_news_20050107_RRN_Buses.html


      2. Fat burning zone - Why athletes, fitness enthusiasts and slimmers should steer clear of the fat burning zone:
      Gary O'Donovan explains why high-intensity exercise is the best bet for training and weight loss The concept of the fat burning zone
      is highly attractive to the exercise enthusiasts of today, many of whom are more interested in weight loss than the pursuit of
      fitness. Training zone charts adorn the walls of fitness centres up and down the country, and body-conscious exercisers religiously
      adhere to the recommended limits for exercising heart rates.
      However, while moderate-intensity exercise may be appropriate for beginners, athletes and serious fitness enthusiasts should avoid
      the fat burning zone like the plague, except on light days or recovery runs - unless they want to see a decline in energy
      expenditure and fitness.
      What is the fat burning zone?
      Although the origin of the fat burning zone (FBZ) concept is unknown, the fitness industry probably seized on the following key
      facts:
      1. low- to moderate-intensity exercise is fuelled predominantly by fat;
      2. an optimum fat burning rate has been identified (Figure 1) at 65% of maximal oxygen consumption (VO2 max) - the body's ability to
      take on board and use oxygen during exhaustive exercise.
      More...from the Runner's Web at:
      http://www.runnersweb.com/running/news/rw_news_20050107_PPO_FBZ.html


      3. Multisport: Train Your Brain - The Power Of Staying Positive:
      By Lance Watson
      Having a life passion is a gift. While triathletes may possess a wide range of natural ability, most share a passion for the
      interconnected nature of health, well-being and personal excellence. Generally speaking, athletes who are training toward goals are
      by nature driven and highly motivated individuals.
      Triathletes spend many hours putting immense physical energy into training sessions, preparing to meet their goals. Although much of
      the energy output seems physical, a great deal of mental energy goes into each and every workout and race, whether a triathlete is
      conscious of it or not. Passion drives this boundless energy, and fortunately, passion has no limits; athletes can gain immense
      enjoyment and improvement by harnessing and directing this abundance of mental energy.
      More...from the Runner's Web at:
      http://www.runnersweb.com/running/news/rw_news_20050107_LW_TrainBrain.html

      4. Tackling holiday weight woes:
      Small gains can be big problem all year.
      The holiday season may bring gifts and good tidings, but it will also deliver calorie-laden feasts, leftovers and snacks that add up
      to small but significant weight gains that resound well into the new year.
      Some people may put on five to seven pounds through the fall and winter, thanks to a steady diet of large meals, sweets and the
      like. Yet the figures are much smaller for most Americans -- just more than a pound, on average, according to government surveys.
      But that small amount of weight gained each year during the holidays does not come off over time, according to a study conducted the
      National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) and the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney
      Diseases (NIDDK).
      "The good news is it's not as bad as we thought," said Dr. Jack Yanovski, the study's principal investigator and head of NICHD's
      Unit on Growth and Obesity. "The bad news is that it's hard to take off that weight the rest of the year."
      More...from CNN at:
      http://www.cnn.com/2004/HEALTH/diet.fitness/12/29/holiday.weight/index.html


      5. Are South Beach and Atkins Diets Right for Athletes?
      The Atkins Diet and the South Beach High Protein diets continue to gather followers with the promise of holding the key to easy
      weight loss. But if you are an athlete, you might want to question this latest diet craze. Especially when you consider that much of
      the weight lost on these diets is a direct result of fewer total calories, and the water loss that occurs with muscle glycogen
      depletion. If you are an athlete, you may realize that glycogen depletion is one of the reasons athletes 'bonk' or 'hit the wall' in
      endurance competition.
      Glycogen is the stored energy in muscle, and it helps muscles retain water. This combination is critical for high intensity athletic
      performance. Depleting these energy stores is hardly something that will improve athletic performance.
      More...from About at:
      http://sportsmedicine.about.com/cs/nutrition/a/aa030601a.htm


      6. Fibromyalgia: New Insights Into a Misunderstood Ailment:
      Fibromyalgia was once dismissed by many traditional medical practitioners as a phantom illness.
      But that view is changing rapidly. Not only is fibromyalgia accepted as a diagnosable illness, it is also a syndrome that
      researchers are finding more complicated as new information emerges.
      As recently as a year ago, many physicians still associated some of fibromyalgia's symptoms with emotional problems, but that's no
      longer the case.
      A simple description of fibromyalgia is that it is a chronic syndrome characterized by widespread muscle pain and fatigue.
      For still unknown reasons, people with fibromyalgia have increased sensitivity to pain that occurs in areas called their "tender
      points." Common ones are the front of the knees, the elbows, the hip joints, the neck and spine. People may also experience sleep
      disturbances, morning stiffness, irritable bowel syndrome, anxiety and other symptoms.
      According to the American College of Rheumatology, fibromyalgia affects 3 million to 6 million Americans, 80 percent to 90 percent
      of whom are women. The condition is most often diagnosed during middle age, but at least one of its symptoms appears earlier in
      life.
      But is there a psychological tie-in strong enough to differentiate fibromyalgia from other similar diseases and conditions?
      Apparently not.
      "Fibromyalgia patients are such a diverse group of patients, they cannot all be the same," said Dr. Thorsten Giesecke, a University
      of Michigan research fellow.
      More...from Yahoo at:
      http://story.news.yahoo.com/news?tmpl=story&cid=97&e=1&u=/hsn/20050101/hl_hsn/fibromyalgianewinsightsintoamisunderstoodailment
      [Long URL]


      7. Winter still a good time for outdoor exercise:
      There really isn't any reason you can't keep exercising outdoors, even now.
      You can walk. You can run. You can ride your bicycle. You can fight those pounds that appear after holiday feasting. All you need to
      do is dress for the weather and keep a few precautions in mind.
      "Actually, heat causes more stress than cold does," said Dan Debehnke, 44, a professor of emergency medicine at the Medical College
      of Wisconsin. He runs triathlons, which requires cycling and running all the time and in all seasons.
      There are two main problems related to winter exercise, he said. One is the increased time required to get warm, and the other is
      exposure to the cold.
      Stretch and warm up
      In the first case, cold muscles are more prone to injury, Debehnke said. "Especially as you get older, it's important to stretch and
      warm up." That's particularly important during cold weather, he said.
      Michele Kobriger, 40, of Racine, likes stretching and loves yoga. So she stretches inside before she runs and then inside after. A
      friend of hers never does and has had no problems, Kobriger said.
      Kobriger has. About 20 miles into the Chicago marathon, which she ran for the first time this year after only starting as a runner
      last year, she sprained her foot.
      More...from the Journal Times at:
      http://www.journaltimes.com/articles/2005/01/01/health/iq_3261112.txt


      8. 'No pain, no gain' and other myths:
      IT was once thought that vibrating belts could jiggle away fat and that physical exertion was unsafe for all pregnant women, seniors
      and people with heart disease.
      These fitness myths and others have been debunked over the years, but various other misconceptions about exercise abound. Here, the
      fiction and the facts:
      Myth: Sit-ups shrink love handles.
      Truth: Abdominal exercises can tighten the muscles in your midsection but, because they burn so few calories, won't shrink its
      overall size. For that, you need to lose fat all over the body.
      "Spot reduction" is impossible, says Gerald Endress, fitness manager at the Duke University Diet and Fitness Center in Durham, N.C.,
      which caters to overweight people trying to slim down. "You have no choice about where you're going to take off the fat."
      To burn off the fat — and show off those newly tightened abdominal muscles — you'll need to eat less and exercise more.
      Myth: No pain, no gain.
      Truth: You'll have to work hard to go from flab to fab or to train for a triathlon, but exercise doesn't have to be heart-pounding
      to help your heart or reduce the risk of diabetes, stroke and some cancers, says Dr. I-Min Lee, an associate professor of medicine
      at Harvard Medical School in Boston who studies the health effects of exercise.
      "Even something moderate such as walking briskly can bring substantial benefit," she says.
      That's why the surgeon general recommends that Americans strive for at least half an hour of moderate-intensity exercise such as
      brisk walking, swimming, biking or gardening on most days of the week.
      And just as exercise doesn't have to be painful to perform, it should never leave you in pain afterward either.
      More...from the LA Times at:
      http://www.latimes.com/features/health/la-he-myths3jan03,1,760159.story?coll=la-headlines-health


      9. Exercises For Ectomorphs:
      Before I get into the meat of this article, let me first review the three different body types.
      Ectomorph - Skinny, small wrists. Think of Kramer from Seinfeld.
      Mesomorph - Not skinny, not heavy, perfect. Think of Arnold Schwarzenegger.
      Endomorph - heavy, thick wrists. Think of George from Seinfeld.
      I'm an Ectomorph. For years I followed the advice of muscle magazines and made little progress. Somebody has to say it, so let it be
      me. Muscle magazines are written primarily for Endomorphs and Mesomorphs. They prescribe tons of isolation work which will lean out
      the typical Endomorph and make the Mesomorph look even better. Ectomorphs don't need to isolate muscles that are not existant and
      they rarely need to lean out. The Ectomorph needs functional exercises which recruit multiple muscle groups.
      More...from Deep Fitness at:
      http://www.deepfitness.com/05/ectomorph/


      10. From Runner's World:

      * Coach's Corner
      Mix it Up: "Varying the pace of your runs is another key to ducking the doldrums and improving your fitness level. Instead of
      cruising at the same speed every day, alternate between slower and faster runs. This may mean shifting between 10 versus 8 minutes
      per mile, or between 8-minute pace and weekly speed workouts. It's the contrast that's important."
      - Runner's World magazine

      * Injury Prevention
      If you frequently run on roads with an obvious camber, run out and back on the same side of the road. If you don't do this, you'll
      always be putting stress on only on leg or one hip. Likewise, when running on a track, switch directions.

      * Performance Nutrition
      Sweet potatoes and yams: Sweet potatoes are bursting with beta-carotene. A 1-cup serving contains almost 300 percent of the RDA for
      vitamin A (which beta- carotene converts to in the body). Yams have significantly less beta-carotene than sweet potatoes, but if you
      leave the skin on, they'll give you a healthy helping of fiber.

      * Words That Inspire
      * "To me, running means freedom, but you need the discipline to gain the freedom. Find nice places, find people to run with. Use
      your runs as 'devotions,' a time to be thankful for life's beauty." -Doris Heritage, five-time world cross-country champion; set six
      world records and 17 American records; won 14 AAU national titles; two-time Olympian

      Editor's Advice
      "When running in cold weather, apply lip balm under your eyes, as well as your lips. Not only does the balm have sunscreen SPF 15
      (read the label to make sure), but it won't rub off easily while running." -Courtney Matthews, RW marketing services director

      * Training Talk
      "Eating and drinking relieve the three main factors that cause fatigue: dehydration, or loss of fluids; lowered blood glucose; and
      depleted muscle glycogen. If you play hard, you can minimize the energy-depleting effects of your workout by refueling with a
      variety of cutting-edge products on the market." -From Eat Smart Play Hard by Liz Applegate



      11. Monthly training for self-coached triathletes:
      By Patrick McCrann
      Performance Training Systems
      1/3/2005
      This is the first in a monthly series of articles designed to give multisport athletes access to real workouts they can use in their
      own training as they work to achieve their personal fitness goals.
      Each installment will cover a particular phase of the triathlete's annual plan as they progress throughout the year to their key
      event.
      These workouts are not in any specific order and are not intended to take the place of a structured training program! Athletes
      should adapt the workouts according to their level of experience and goal race.
      Below you will find a one-week sample of workouts. For additional Preparation phase weekly workouts, visit the Performance Training
      Systems site.
      Your feedback and comments on the suggested workouts are welcome in the PTS forum.
      Preparation Phase
      You have completed your minimum two-week transition period after your last race. I instruct my athletes to take a minimum of four
      weeks away from triathlon-related exercise, but there is always someone who tries to be sneaky and get some work in.
      More...from Active.com at:
      http://www.active.com/story.cfm?story_id=11417&sidebar=26&category=triathlon


      12. Too much of a good thing?
      There are risks in drinking too much fluid during exercise.
      Bob Irving downed so much water in the Half Ironman competition he made himself sick. During the last phase of the race, he vomited
      and had to walk most of the 13.1-mile run because his leg muscles cramped up.
      Irving had read about the dangers of overdrinking but figured it was all a myth. Now, after his bad experience in 1998, he avoids
      drinking excessively during long workouts.
      Three decades ago, the top warning sounded by race officials was dehydration. Athletes were told to constantly hydrate after several
      studies found a link between dehydration and a rise in body temperature, which can lead to heat stroke.
      But now researchers are taking a second look at the risks of drinking too much fluid during exercise.
      Hyponatremia, or water intoxication, was thrust into the spotlight after the back-to-back deaths of two female runners in 2002,
      including one who ran in the Boston Marathon. In both cases, the women drank excessive amounts of fluids.
      Hyponatremia happens when the body's sodium level falls below normal. People lose salt through their sweat, and overdrinking dilutes
      the sodium in the bloodstream, causing the brain to swell and push against the skull.
      More...from CNN at:
      http://www.cnn.com/2005/HEALTH/diet.fitness/01/04/water.intoxication.ap/index.html


      13. Want to lose weight? Stick with your diet:
      Two studies make it harder to choose a winning plan.
      The best path to dieting success may not be the diet you choose. It's whether you can stick to your plan, according to a study that
      examines four popular diet options.
      While most diet studies examine specific diet plans, Dr. Michael Dansinger of Boston's Tufts-New England Medical Center and
      colleagues compared the advice given in four popular options: Weight Watchers, which stresses reduced calories; Atkins, which
      focuses on reduced carb intake; the Zone diet, which stresses glycemic loads and nutritional balance; and the low-fat vegetarian
      plan devised by Dr. Dean Ornish.
      Those who stayed on any of the diets for one year lost more weight, reduced their body mass index and generally improved their
      cholesterol levels more than the overall group. But the researchers found no major advantage to any one diet, according to results
      released Tuesday by the Journal of the American Medical Association.
      More...from MSNBC at:
      http://msnbc.msn.com/id/6782049/


      14. The science of keeping players in the game:
      A nagging injury can sap motivation, sometimes permanently, derailing the workout programs of even the most hard-core fitness buffs.
      But orthopedic surgeons, biomechanicists, exercise physiologists and physical therapists at Duke University are here to help.
      The Michael W. Krzyzewski Human Performance Research Laboratory, launched in 1997 and named after the Duke men's basketball coach,
      is a sports medicine facility devoted almost exclusively to injury prevention. Many of the strategies developed there — particularly
      in weight lifting, soccer, tennis and baseball — have been adopted by professional and national teams around the world.
      Among the lab's recent projects: creating a warm-up routine specifically for female basketball players.
      Injury prevention is a top focus of orthopedic sports medicine research, says Robin M. Queen, coordinator of sports biomechanics at
      the so-called K Lab.
      "Whatever the problem — whether it's foot fractures or knee injuries — we always see if we can come at it from a prevention
      standpoint," she says. "Our goal is to keep people playing."
      The researchers' discoveries ultimately could help everyone engaged in athletics. A case in point: The warm-up routines recently
      devised for the women's basketball team can be used by athletes of all ages who play court and field sports, helping them be more
      agile, quicker and faster.
      The sudden stops, starts and pivoting movements that are an integral part of basketball make players prone to ankle sprains, hip
      injuries and tears in the knee's anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) (an injury that is particularly common in women). Athletes know
      it's important to warm up muscles before doing strenuous exercise, says Mike Huff, coordinator of sports performance at the lab, but
      stretching alone is not enough to prepare bodies for the rigors of a workout or practice.
      More...from the LA Times at:
      http://www.latimes.com/features/health/fitness/la-he-lab3jan03,1,3877256.story?coll=la-health-fitness-news


      15. Female Brain More Vulnerable to Eating Disorders:
      From Better Humans.
      Words associated with negative body image trigger threat center for women, reasoning center for men.
      Differences in the processing of information could make women more vulnerable to eating disorders than men, possibly helping to
      explain why about 10 times more women than men develop anorexia and bulimia.
      Japanese researchers from Japan's Hiroshima University have provided insight into the neurobiology of eating disorders by exposing
      13 women and 13 men to a series of tests while examining their brain using magnetic resonance imaging.
      During the tests, subjects were asked to read two sets of words. One contained unpleasant words describing body image and the other
      contained neutral words. Participants were asked to score the words in terms of their pleasantness.
      For women, unpleasant words caused activity in the amygdala, part of the brain thought to be activated when people feel threatened.
      For men, the amygdala had little activity while the medial prefrontal cortex, linked with rationalizing, was active.
      "The lack of activation in the amygdala among men suggests they may not process unpleasant words concerning body image as fearful
      information, whereas women seem to do so," the researchers say. "Our results suggest men processed the words more cognitively than
      emotionally."
      The research is reported in the British Journal of Psychiatry (read abstract).
      http://bjp.rcpsych.org/cgi/content/abstract/186/1/48


      16. Some Cases of Sudden Cardiac Death May Start in Brain:
      Disrupted signals from the brain to the heart may be responsible for sudden cardiac death caused by emotional stress, says a
      University College London study.
      It found that some people have problems with a system that coordinates signals sent from the brain stem to different parts of the
      heart to control heart rhythm. These people may have a greater risk of potentially fatal heart rhythms when they're doing stressful
      mental tasks or during emotional events.
      The researchers monitored the brain activity of people with heart disease while they performed stressful mental tasks.
      Stress-induced changes in heart electrical currents were accompanied by uneven activity within the brain stem, the study found.
      "Some people are at risk of sudden cardiac death from stress, mainly people who already have heart disease. In these cases, the
      combination of heart and brain irregularities means heart failure could occur during a stressful or emotional event like a family
      gathering or even a boisterous New Year party," researcher Dr. Peter Taggart, of the university's Centre for Cardiology, said in a
      prepared statement.
      "Efforts to prevent the development of potentially dangerous heart rhythms in response to stress have focused on drugs which act
      directly on the heart, but results have so far been rather disappointing. Our research focuses on what is happening upstream, in the
      brain, when stress causes these heart rhythm problems. The results so far are very encouraging," Taggart said.
      "It may soon be possible to identify which people are particularly at risk and even to treat a heart problem with a drug that works
      on the brain," he added.
      The findings appear in the January issue of Brain.
      The Heart Rhythm Society has more about sudden cardiac death at:
      http://www.hrspatients.org/patients/heart_disorders/cardiac_arrest/default.asp


      17. Why Breakfast Rules:
      Skipping breakfast can lead to everything from weight gain to cardiovascular disease. Find out how the first meal of the day will
      not only give you more energy, but also keep your mind sharper to boot.
      By Lisa Dorfman, M.S., R.D.
      You've heard it so many times it's become cliché: Breakfast is the most important meal of the day. Still skipping it? Here's why you
      shouldn't: Your brain runs on glucose, the energy source that allows you to perform everything from simple mental tasks like
      answering e-mail to physical challenges like tackling a five-mile run or getting through your favorite yoga class. When you start
      the day off without this critical energy source you're effectively starting at a deficit, causing your body to work extra hard to
      convert stored carbohydrates or protein to energy, and compromising its ability to burn fat. The result is a listless mind, sluggish
      body and, most likely, a compromised mood.
      Studies show that skipping breakfast may also lead to weight gain, and as a result, greater risk for heart disease and stroke.
      Depriving yourself in the morning (consider your body has been bereft of energy for 10 hours or more) can lead to overeating later
      in the day, and over time can slow your metabolic rate, putting you at greater risk for a steady weight creep as you age.
      In essence, breakfast can mean the difference between being your ideal weight or overweight, being alert or feeling flighty and
      forgetful, fighting infection or succumbing to infections like colds and flu viruses.
      More...from Her Sports at:
      http://hersports.com/eNewsletter/newsLtr15/news15Article1.html


      18. Magazine: Seattle fittest, Houston fattest:
      Men's Fitness ratings based on fast food, parks, other factors.
      Must be something in the coffee.
      Seattle has been named the fittest city in the United States in the February issue of Men's Fitness magazine, leaping past the buff
      competition from Honolulu, Colorado Springs, San Francisco and Denver.
      Exercising faithfully and shunning fast food boosted Seattle to the top from No. 6 last year, Men's Fitness Editor in Chief Neal
      Boulton said.
      "Eighty-five percent of Seattle residents get some exercise every month, and that's a really significant thing," Boulton said. The
      city's jittery love affair with espresso might fuel some of that activity, he noted: "There's not only a lot of it, it's pretty darn
      strong."
      In its nonscientific Seventh Annual Fattest and Fittest Cities Report, the magazine compares 50 cities by weighing 14 factors,
      including fast food restaurants per capita, TV watching, air quality, and parks. In Seattle, for example, sporting goods stores and
      gyms outnumber fast food joints -- a key statistic.
      More...from CNN at:
      http://www.cnn.com/2005/HEALTH/diet.fitness/01/05/fittest.city.ap/index.html


      19. The Mathematics of Race Fueling:
      In the 1995 Hawaiian Ironman Paula Newby-Fraser skipped a few pit stops and ran out of gas on the bell lap. She sat down on Alii
      Drive, literally within sight of the finish line. Talk to her boyfriend/coach Paul Huddle and there’s an edge in his voice which
      suggests that although he’s long ago emotionally processed and shelved this race he still, just a little bit, kicks himself over it.
      During the last eight miles of the run Newby concentrated and was focused but was still getting caught by Karen Smyers. She took a
      calculated risk that passing up a few aid stations would buy her some precious seconds. She thought she could get to the finish on
      desire.
      Desire and a quarter will buy you a cup of coffee, though, when you’ve got no gas in the tank.
      Mathematics is not psychology or history. There is no room for interpretation. It is an exact science, and when you’ve got no feed
      in the stable you can’t ride your horse to town. There is a brutal reality to the fueling considerations you must make during a
      long-distance race. You’ve got to know how much to take in, where to take it in, what to take and in which form it should be taken.
      You need to figure out a plan in advance for getting fuel into yourself. You’ll know how to make that plan after reading everything
      below.
      Hawaiian Ironman competitors are the lab rats for all long-distance athletes in all disciplines. They boldly go where no athlete has
      gone before—except those who’ve raced the same race on the same course in prior years. Hawaii differs from other races in that
      things often don’t go as planned. Elsewhere, you figure out your fueling plan in advance and you’re usually able to execute it. The
      problem with Hawaii is it’s so damn hot and humid. Your stomach doesn't cooperate. Then your plan is shot to heck.
      More...from Slow Twitch at:
      http://www.slowtwitch.com/mainheadings/coachcorn/racefuel.html


      20. What you do between work intervals can be as important as the work itself:
      You're doing some tough intervals in the pool, on your bike, or at the track, and after each one you're gasping for oxygen and
      hoping that the pain in your muscles will subside soon. You've read that it's best to exercise lightly during your recovery
      intervals, but your body and mind are telling you to just grip the pool edge, stand down from your bike, or lean over and clutch
      your knees while your lungs heave to and fro. Does it really make a difference what you do between work intervals?
      Research carried out recently in France answers that question with a resounding yes. The new study suggests that if you're carrying
      out short, very intense work intervals, you're far better off exercising lightly during your recovery intervals, compared to just
      resting.
      In the just-published research, 10 fit (VO2max = 56), healthy male cyclists exercised at an 'all-out' intensity during six-second
      work intervals, with five-minute recoveries. Although such recoveries might seem unusually long to you, they are of a duration which
      is often recommended during intense training sessions. The principle behind such elongated recoveries is that they permit
      higher-quality work during subsequent work intervals.
      After the initial six-second work interval and five-minute recovery, the cyclists completed a second six-second work interval with
      greater pedal resistance, recovered again, carried out a third six-second interval with even higher resistance, recovered, and
      continued in this manner until they reached 'peak anaerobic power' - the highest power they could possibly exert during the
      six-second exertions.
      More...from Crucible Fitness at:
      http://www.cruciblefitness.com/library/research-papers/running/0098.htm


      21. Healing with water: the work of "water cure" pioneer Dr. Batmanghelidj:
      Those of you who are familiar with the work of the late Dr B. may own his book called "The Water Cure," or "Water for health, for
      Healing, for Life: You're Not Sick, You're Thirsty." He's also the author of "Your Body's Many Cries for Water." Essentially, Dr. B
      is the foremost authority on the relationship between the consumption of water and states of health or disease in the human body.
      As he explains in great detail in his many books, most common diseases (for which there are a variety of names such as asthma,
      arthritis, hypertension and so on) are really just names given to patterns of symptoms created by the body's drought management
      system. When the human body begins to get dehydrated, it initiates a drought management system that seeks to conserve water. The
      symptoms characterized by this drought management effort are given disease names by conventional medicine and then treated with
      toxic prescription drugs.
      More...from NewsTarget at:
      http://www.newstarget.com/003200.html


      22. Training with Others:
      By Coach Mark
      My Personal Experience
      In the late eighties/early nineties I attended Otago University in Dunedin. At the time I was pretty keen on running and the Hill
      City Club in Dunedin had a bunch of young guys running for it - some of who were all fairly talented to say the least. A couple had
      represented New Zealand at junior level, all were provincial representatives and a few went on to represent New Zealand at senior
      level. What a fantastic opportunity to improve my running - train hard with the top guys and I'd become a legend!
      Well, to cut a long story short, it didn't quite work out like that. Training with these guys was, for me, like racing. I would be
      hanging on the back of the bunch, nearly sucking my fillings out with each breath, and my legs would be aching while these guys were
      laughing and being idiots while running around the Ross Creek tracks at six minute mile pace! It definitely wasn't the right kind of
      training for me. My long aerobic runs nearly destroyed me, and on top of this I was left with barely enough energy to do my quality
      training.
      One of the guys owned a heart rate monitor so I borrowed it and started toying around with it. At the time I was studying Physical
      Education so decided to put a few theories into practice. My long easy runs became solo affairs at a heart rate I could hold a
      sustained conversation at.
      More...from Endurance Coach at:
      http://www.endurancecoach.com/Training_with_Others.htm


      23. Hitting "The Wall":
      If You Understand the Scientific Reasons Behind “The Wall,” You Should Be Able to Avoid It.
      "It felt like an elephant had jumped out of a tree onto my shoulders and was making me carry it the rest of the way in.”—Dick
      Beardsley, speaking of hitting "The Wall" at the second marathon of his career, the 1977 City of Lakes Marathon.
      “I wasn’t wanting to talk much. And when I’m not talking, you know I’m hurting.”—Don Frichtl, a runner who encountered "The Wall"
      somewhere after mile 21 of the 2002 Chicago Marathon.
      “At around mile 23, I was beginning to feel like the anchor was out.”—George Ringler, speaking of his 1991 Lake County Marathon.
      “The Wall.” It evades easy definition, but to borrow from Supreme Court Justice Potter Stewart’s famous definition of obscenity, you
      know it when you see it—or rather, hit it. It usually happens around mile 20, give or take a couple of miles. Your pace slows,
      sometimes considerably. Some runners say that it feels as though their legs had been filled with lead quail shot, like the stomach
      of Mark Twain’s unfortunate jumping frog of Calaveras County. Others can’t feel their feet at all. Thought processes become a little
      fuzzy. (“Mile 22, again? I thought I just passed mile 22!”) Muscle coordination goes out the window, and self-doubt casts a deep
      shadow over the soul.
      The bad news is that more than half of all nonelite marathon runners report having hit The Wall at least once. The good news is that
      more than 40 percent of all nonelite marathon runners have never hit The Wall. In other words, while it certainly doesn’t hurt to be
      prepared for the possibility of hitting The Wall, doing so is far from inevitable.
      Energy Dynamics 101
      “Hitting The Wall is basically about running out of energy,” says Dave Martin, Ph.D., Emeritus Regent’s Professor of Health Sciences
      at Georgia State University in Atlanta—chemical energy, that is, stored in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and obtained
      from the breakdown, or metabolism, of energy-containing fuel. The runner’s primary fuel sources are carbohydrates (in the form of
      blood glucose and glycogen, a polymer of glucose stored in the muscles and liver) and fats (free fatty acids in the bloodstream and
      muscle triglycerides, molecules containing three fatty acids).
      More...from Marathon & Beyond at:
      http://www.marathonandbeyond.com/choices/latta.htm


      24. To supplement or not to supplement:
      Almost every nutritional survey conducted in recent times confirm that the majority of North America's population do not receive all
      of the nutrients essential to maintaining optimal health and fitness. For starters, here are some startling revelations of a recent
      consumer nutrition survey:
      82% of young children and 70% of adult women do not get enough iron in their diet.
      51% of the population (and up to 73% of adult women) do not get enough B 6 in their diet.
      42% of the population (and up to 62% of adult women) do not get enough calcium and magnesium in their diet.
      33% of the population do not get enough vitamin A in their diet.
      25% of the population do not get enough vitamin C in their diet.
      To emphasize the seriousness of these deficiencies, iron is essential in the resistance to disease, especially in young children.
      Lack of calcium is a major cause of osteoporosis or brittle bones in the elderly and of particular significance to older women.
      Iron, calcium, folic acid and vitamin B6 are the nutrients needed in the greatest amounts for successful pregnancies. Yet these
      nutrients are most often absent in the diets of young women.
      Adequate amounts of zinc and vitamins A, E and C are important anti-oxidation agents and as such help in the prevention of cancer,
      yet these essential nutrients are severely lacking in the diets of about 33% of North Americans. The findings of this survey are
      overwhelming. It is clear that most North Americans do not follow an adequate diet. And is it any wonder? Ask any North American to
      name the four basic food groups and see just how many of them could. Ask how many servings that they and the other members of their
      family should be getting in order to meet the minimum daily requirement in maintaining good health and you will be stunned. Compound
      this lack of nutritional knowledge with the mis-information we are constantly bombarded with on television promoting foods of low
      nutritional content and we can begin to get a sense for the root cause of North America's malnutrition.
      More...from GreatCycling.com at:
      http://www.greatcycling.com/articles/7.htm


      25. News Scan:
      * Hired muscle?
      "In the next few decades, futurists say, athletes and soldiers will call on artificial muscles to lift heavier loads and run
      faster," reports Electronic Engineering Times.
      It adds that in March university researchers will meet in San Diego for an unusual arm-wrestling match between a human being and an
      artificial arm made from electro-active polymers. Many of the scientists are working on artificial muscles of their own and some
      hope such muscles will take their place inside human bodies, where they could enable extraordinary athleticism.
      From the Globe and Mail's "Social Studies" column, December 31, 2004

      * Fitness for Every Body: Jump in resting heart rate sign of overtraining
      Question: I read somewhere that your heart rate can indicate that you are overtraining or might be about to get sick. How can you
      tell this from your heart rate? A.B., Vancouver
      Answer: Studies have shown that a five-or-more-beat increase in an individual's normal resting heart rate is one of the first
      indicators of overtraining or illness. So it's a wise idea for exercisers to regularly monitor and track their resting heart rate.
      To determine your true resting heart rate, before you get up in the morning, measure your heart rate for one minute. Be sure to wait
      a few minutes after the alarm has gone off, so your heart will recover from being startled. Do this three days in a row and take the
      average of all three. This is your resting heart rate. Now that you have a base value, you can monitor your resting heart rate on a
      regular basis and be alerted to back off on your training intensity or volume if your resting heart rate is greater than five beats
      per minute compared to your normal level.

      * Protein May Protect Against Lung Disease Damage
      (HealthDayNews) -- A protein believed to cause lung problems may actually help protect the lungs against damage caused by asthma and
      other chronic respiratory diseases, says a University of Texas Medical School at Houston study.
      In research with mice bred to mimic human chronic lung disease, the scientists found that knocking out the A1 adenosine receptor
      resulted in higher levels of inflammation, mucus and tissue damage in the lungs of the mice. The mice who lacked this protein also
      died sooner.
      "Some believe this receptor protein plays a detrimental role and if you block it, you could improve asthma. This study shows that if
      you remove this protein from a diseased lung, you'll make lung inflammation and damage worse," study senior author Michael R.
      Blackburn, an associate professor of biochemistry and molecular biology, said in a prepared statement.
      "It will be important to examine the interplay of adenosine receptor signaling in other model systems as well in the lungs of people
      suffering chronic lung disease to determine how these pathways might be manipulated to treat the progression of asthma and COPD
      [chronic obstructive pulmonary disease]," Blackburn said.
      The study appears in the Jan. 4 issue of the Journal of Clinical Investigation.
      More information
      The U.S. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute has more about asthma at:
      http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/dci/Diseases/Asthma/Asthma_WhatIs.html

      * Organic ketchup protects against cancer
      Organic varieties of tomato ketchup contain three times as much of a cancer-fighting chemical called lycopene as non-organic brands.
      In the US, tomato ketchup comes in purple and green varieties as well as the traditional red. Betty Ishida and Mary Chapman at the
      Agricultural Research Service in Albany, California, US, wondered if the colouring might be indicative of low levels of lycopene,
      the pigment that makes tomatoes red.
      The chemical has been shown to help protect against breast, pancreatic, prostate and intestinal cancer, especially when eaten with
      fatty foods. There is also evidence that lycopene can reduce the risk of heart attacks (New Scientist print edition, 23 December
      2000).
      The researchers tested lycopene levels and antioxidant activity in 13 ketchup brands: six popular ones, three organic, two store
      brands and two from fast-food chains. Purple and green ketchups had a similar lycopene content to their plain red counterparts.
      But organic ketchups excelled, with one brand containing 183 micrograms of lycopene per gram of ketchup, about five times as much
      per weight as a tomato. Non-organic brands averaged 100 micrograms per gram, with one fast-food sample containing just 60 micrograms
      per gram.
      If you want high lycopene levels, says Ishida, the rule of thumb is to pick the darkest red ketchup.
      Journal reference: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry (DOI: 10.1021/jf0401540)
      From: NewScientist.com.

      *End of Articles*

      This Weeks Featured Events:
      *Please verify event dates with the event websites*


      January 7, 2005:
      Dubai Marathon - United Arab Emirates
      http://www.dubaimarathon.org

      January 8, 2005:
      Charlotte Observer Marathon - Charlotte, NC
      http://runforpeace.active.com

      Paramount 10K - Paramount, CA
      http://www.nealand.com/finishline

      January 9, 2005:
      Disney Marathon - Orlando, FLA
      http://dwws.disney.go.com/wideworldofsports/sportingevents/sportingevent/sportingeventindex?id=SPORMarathon04SporEvn
      [Long URL]

      P.F. Chang's Rock "n" Roll Marathon - Scottsdale, AZ
      http://www.rnraz.com


      For more complete race listings check out our Upcoming Races, and Calendars. Check the Runner's Web on Sunday and Monday for race
      reports on these events at:
      http://www.runnersweb.com/running.html


      Check out our FrontPage and our Runner's Web Television Links page at:
      http://www.runnersweb.com/running/rw_television.html

      For Triathlon Coverage check out The Sports Network at:
      http://www2.sportsnet.ca/tvschedule/tvsked_sport.php?region=ONTARIO&schedule_id=25

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      Have a good week of training and/or racing.

      Ken Parker
      Runner's Web
      mailto:webmaster@...
      http://www.runnersweb.com/running.html


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      If you have an accident while running or cycling, do you want your
      family to be contacted? Do you want to receive immediate and
      proper medical treatment? If so, make this cool item part of your
      gear -- for safety and peace of mind. Road ID has created 4
      awesome ways for athletes to wear ID: the SHOE, the WRIST, the ANKLE,
      and the NECK.
      Get your RoadID at:
      http://www.roadid.com/?referrer=50

      The TRACK PROFILE Reader 2004, an in-depth review of the 2003 season
      by Bob Ramsak, is now available. Selected from hundreds of
      reports filed by the Track Profile News Service last year, The TRACK
      PROFILE READER provides a unique look back at the
      personalities, stories and events that defined track and field in
      2003. With in depth profiles of the sport's biggest stars and
      comprehensive on-site reports from major competitions, this annual
      review takes the reader beyond the results, providing a perfect
      companion for casual and
      diehard fans alike. Check out the book at:
      http://www.booksurge.com/author.php3?accountID=GPUB00341&affiliateID=A000497

      The Stretching Handbook:
      http://www.thestretchinghandbook.com/cgi-bin/at.pl?a=286905
      The Stretching Video in a DVD version. With the DVD version you're
      able to use the convenient menu facility to:
      * Go directly to a specific stretch;
      * View only stretches for a specific muscle group;
      * Pause each stretch to get a good look at how it is performed;
      * View only the introduction and rules for safe stretching; or
      * Play the entire video from start to finish.
      Buy the DVD at:
      http://www.thestretchinghandbook.com/cgi-bin/at.pl?a=286905&e=products/video-dvd.htm

      Buy all your sporting goods at Fogdog Sports, your anytime, anywhere
      sports store.
      Click here: http://www.fogdog.com/cgi-bin/affiliate?siteid=40054907

      How To Run And Enjoy The Marathon By James Raia:
      Price: $7.95
      As a practical guide to the 26.2-mile journey, How To Run And Enjoy
      The Marathon is a series of 15 self-help and service-oriented
      articles about running marathons - the proper shoes to running
      etiquette - is written by James Raia, a journalist and veteran
      middle-of-the-pack marathon and ultramarathon runner in Sacramento,
      Calif.
      Buy the book at:
      http://hop.clickbank.net/?rhianyth/eltomaja

      END...OF DIGEST...
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