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Lower Counties of Virginia, 1781

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  • vastatenavy
    December 1780 - 30th -General Benedict Arnold s troops arrives in Hampton Roads, anchored near Newport News. This force includes the 80th Regiment under
    Message 1 of 16 , Jan 1, 2006
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      December 1780

      - 30th -General Benedict Arnold's troops arrives in Hampton Roads,
      anchored near Newport News. This force includes the 80th Regiment
      under Lieutenant Colonel Thomas Dundas, 125 Jagers under Captain
      Johann Ewald, the Queen's Rangers under Lieut. Col. J. G. Simcoe,
      Colonel Beverley Robinson's Corps of Loyalists from N.Y., a
      detachment of Royal Artillery, and 100 men of the American Legion
      with guides and pioneers.


      - 31st -Arnold's troops leave ships and board sloops and boats,
      move up the James River.

      Benedict Arnold: "On the 31st of December, embarked the troops which
      had arrived in small vessels and boats (part of which were captured
      upon our first arrival) and proceeded up James River with the Hope
      and Swift."

      Captain Johan Ewald of the Jagar Corp. ordered to approach militia
      positioned behind fences at town of Warwick, on northern banks of
      the James. Small arms fire was exchanged. Ewald and men wade
      ashore, swords drawn, and chase militia off. Troops spend evening
      ashore.

      General Steuben sends Colonel Senf and Captain Fairlie to the lower
      counties to gather intelligence about the invading British army.

      January 1781

      - 1st -Ewald's men skirmish with American militia. Ewald ordered to
      board boats and return to fleet. Boats anchor near Hog Island in
      Surry County,on the southern bank of the James.

      From "...The Militia are coming in from all quarters..." The
      Revolution in Virginia's Lower Counties, 1781
      Robert Friar
    • vastatenavy
      Arnold s Virginia Campaign January, 1781 17th -A day after the fighting at Mackie s Mill just outside of town, General Benedict Arnold leaves Smithfield,
      Message 2 of 16 , Jan 18, 2006
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        Arnold's Virginia Campaign

        January, 1781

        17th -A day after the fighting at Mackie's Mill just outside of
        town, General Benedict Arnold leaves Smithfield, crosses the bridge
        at Mackie's Mill, and camps for the evening near this area.

        18th -General Benedict Arnold crosses Chuckatuck creek at the town
        of Chuckatuck (in modern day Suffolk Va.) and encamps at a point
        near the Nansemond River (Sleepy Hole Ferry at modern day Chuckatuck
        bridge). The fleet anchors at the mouth of the Nansemond River.
        Arnold orders the troops under Simcoe and Ewald to cross in the
        early morning hours and prepare for their march on the town of
        Portsmouth.

        General Robert Lawson arrives and, along with Col. Parker, occupies
        Smithfield.

        From "...the militia are coming in from all quarters..." The
        Revolution in Virginia's Lower counties, 1781

        Rob Friar
        Virginia State Navy &
        7th Va. regiment
      • vastatenavy
        Benedict Arnold s Virginia Campaign Lower Counties of Virginia, 1781 February 20th -General Peter Muhlenberg, hearing that General Greene was in dire need of
        Message 3 of 16 , Feb 24, 2006
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          Benedict Arnold's Virginia Campaign

          Lower Counties of Virginia, 1781

          February

          20th -General Peter Muhlenberg, hearing that General Greene was in
          dire need of assistance in the Carolinas, moves his militia to a
          camp west of Suffolk, leaves approximately 900 militia there, and
          organizes a force 600 militia with the intent of marching to Green's
          aid. The alarm was false however and he does not depart. He moves
          with his forces back to the camp at Scott's Mill (near Chuckatuck).

          Steuben receives word from General Washington that a fleet under
          Vice-Admiral Destouches, carrying French infantry, has departed for
          Hampton Roads, and is to work in concert with him in retaking
          Portsmouth and capturing Arnold. He is also informed that Gen.
          Lafayette has been sent with 1200 Continental troops, expected to
          arrive on March 6th, to also work towards this purpose.

          21st -Arnold convenes an assembly at Kemp's Landing (Va. Beach),
          protected by Simcoe and Ewald, to entertain and persuade locals to
          re-affirm their loyalty to the King.

          22nd -Captain Weeks and the Princess Anne County militia ride into
          General Isaac Gregory's camp at Northwest River Bridge below Great
          Bridge.

          23rd -Arnold, Simcoe and Ewald return to Portsmouth.
          Col. Dundas and the 80th regiment prepare to march to the assistance
          of Lord Cornwallis, on word that he was moving towards Petersburg.
          Subsequent dispatches dispel this information.

          24th -General Gregory and the North Carolina militia, about 700
          men, move closer to Great Bridge to put further pressure on
          Arnold's forces in Portsmouth.

          25th -Militia troops capture several boat builders and destroy
          several boats near Portsmouth, believed to be part of a plan by
          Arnold to escape via the Currituck Sound in North Carolina.

          Gen. Robert Lawson calls out the militias of Prince Edward,
          Cumberland, Amelia, Charlotte, Lunenberg, Mecklenburg, Brunswick,
          Buckingham, and Amherst Counties. He intends to arm and equip them,
          and lead them to the aid of Gen. Greene in Carolina.

          26th - Muhlenberg moves with his troops from Scott's Mill to a camp
          closer to Suffolk to cut off communications between Portsmouth and
          North Carolina.

          Taken from "...The Militia Are Coming in From All Quarters..." The
          Revolution in Virginia's Lower Counties, 1781

          Robert Friar
          Virginia State Navy &
          7th Va. Reg't.
        • vastatenavy
          Benedict Arnold s Virginia Campaign Lower Counties of Virginia March, 1781 10th -News reaches the British in Portsmouth that General Gregory s North Carolina
          Message 4 of 16 , Mar 16, 2006
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            Benedict Arnold's Virginia Campaign

            Lower Counties of Virginia

            March, 1781

            10th -News reaches the British in Portsmouth that General Gregory's
            North Carolina militia have taken up position at Edmund's Bridge
            near Great Bridge, and that Captain Weeks has moved to cut off
            communications between Great Bridge and Portsmouth. Simcoe and Ewald
            are sent to reinforce the post at Great Bridge. Ewald skirmishes
            with men of Weeks command on the road to Kemp's Landing, then return
            with Simcoe to Portsmouth.

            Gen. Muhlenberg receives his first intelligence that 2 ships have
            been spotted in the Chesapeake Bay, but he has not information on
            who they are.

            11th -Capt. Ewald is sent to Great Bridge with 200 men and lay in
            ambush for any militia who may appear. Several small parties
            approach, then turn away. Ewald is then ordered away from his
            position by Simcoe, just as a large body of mounted militia pass his
            former post. At evening the entire force marches back to Portsmouth.
            Lt. Col. Dunlop skirmishes with Week's men on the road to Kemp's
            Landing. 8 to 10 men are killed or captured.

            Gen. Muhlenberg sends a dispatch to Steuben containing letters that
            seem to indicate that General Gregory is innocent of treasonous
            arrangements with the British at Great Bridge.

            12th -Gen. Steuben receives a report of several British ships in
            Hampton Roads. He orders Muhlenberg to take into custody several
            boats (of the Virginia State Navy) that have moved down to Pagen
            Creek near Smithfield against his orders to return to Hood's Point
            in Prince George County.

            14th -Gen. Lafayette arrives in Yorktown, Virginia, and meets with
            Gen. Steuben.

            16th -British forces receive word that Vice Admiral Destouches and
            his French fleet has arrived in Hampton Roads.

            Actually, the French fleet under Admiral Destouches battles with the
            British fleet commanded by Admiral Arbuthnot off of the Virginia
            capes. The British win the engagement.

            17th -Word reaches Portsmouth that Gen. Lafayette is quickly
            advancing on the town with 10,000 men after linking up with
            Rochambeau, and a large French fleet was off the coast of Virginia.
            Arnold orders the reinforcement of the works around the town in
            preparation for an attack.
            Capt. M'Crea, in command of the post at Great Bridge, leads a party
            of men to disperse militia snipers stationed in building close to
            the star works. A note is pinned to one of the killed warning that
            any house harboring these men would be burned. Two prisoners are
            also taken.

            18th -A fleet is spotted by British lookouts in the Chesapeake Bay.
            All British ships are ordered into the Elizabeth River (The Charon,
            Guadaloupe, Fowey, and Vulcan).
            Simcoe is sent with 400 men into Princess Anne County to forage for
            supplies.

            Gen. Gregory with the North Carolina militia advances to within 2
            miles of Great Bridge with six cannon and 1200 men.

            Taken from "...The Miliita Are Coming In From All Quarters..." The
            Revolution in Virginia's Lower Counties, 1781

            Rob Friar
            Virginia State Navy &
            7th Va. regt.
          • IVBNNJV@aol.com
            In a message dated 3/16/2006 4:25:48 AM Eastern Standard Time, vastatenavy@verizon.net writes: 17th -Word reaches Portsmouth that Gen. Lafayette is quickly
            Message 5 of 16 , Mar 16, 2006
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              In a message dated 3/16/2006 4:25:48 AM Eastern Standard Time,
              vastatenavy@... writes:

              17th -Word reaches Portsmouth that Gen. Lafayette is quickly
              advancing on the town with 10,000 men after linking up with
              Rochambeau, and a large French fleet was off the coast of Virginia.
              Arnold orders the reinforcement of the works around the town in
              preparation for an attack.
              Capt. M'Crea, in command of the post at Great Bridge, leads a party
              of men to disperse militia snipers stationed in building close to
              the star works. A note is pinned to one of the killed warning that
              any house harboring these men would be burned. Two prisoners are
              also taken.



              There is a letter from Brigadier General Arnold to Simcoe about this
              incident on our website, admonishing McCrea's conduct. However, the letter is dated
              March 15th, so I believe the incident referenced above may have happened
              earlier than stated, or Arnold mis-dated his letter. You can view it at:

              _Loyalist Institute: Queen's Rangers, Arnold to Simcoe, 1781_
              (http://www.royalprovincial.com/military/rhist/qar/qarlet5.htm)

              Robert McCrea was one of the earliest officers of the Rangers, being
              commissioned lieutenant on 3 August 1776 and captain on 25 February 1777. He was
              one of the few officers who served under Robert Rogers that continued on after
              the purges of March 1777. At the Battle of Brooklyn in 1776 he was wounded
              "which robbed him of the foreplate of his Breast;" at the Battle of White
              Plains he was again wounded, which "maimed him in his left Leg;" and finally at
              Brandywine in 1777 he lost the use of his right arm after being wounded there.
              He lost two brothers dead in the war and of course his younger sister was
              Jane McCrea, who was killed by the Indians in the Burgoyne Campaign. A
              younger brother, Creighton McCrea, was commissioned ensign in the Queen's Rangers
              on 25 April 1781. McCrea was from New Jersey.

              Todd W. Braisted
              4th Battalion, New Jersey Volunteers
              IVBNNJV@...
              www.royalprovincial.com


              [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
            • vastatenavy
              Benedict Arnold s Virginia Campaign Lower Counties of Virginia March, 1781 23rd -It is confirmed that the ships reported earlier in Hampton Roads harbor are
              Message 6 of 16 , Mar 25, 2006
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                Benedict Arnold's Virginia Campaign

                Lower Counties of Virginia

                March, 1781

                23rd -It is confirmed that the ships reported earlier in Hampton
                Roads harbor are not French, but a British fleet under Admiral
                Arbuthnot, having defeated the French in a battle of the Virginia
                capes. Gen. Lafayette returns to Williamsburg.

                24th -Gen. Muhlenberg delivers additional cartridges to Col. Josiah
                Parker at Great Bridge, and orders him to make a move towards Lt.
                Col. Simcoe, thought to be in or around the works there. However,
                when word of the British Fleet's arrival reaches him, he quickly
                returns to his camp at Suffolk, and request further orders from Gen.
                Steuben.

                26th -Gen. Lafayette, in Williamsburg, receives further confirmation
                that the fleet at Lynnhaven Bay is indeed British.

                Taken from "...The Militia Are Coming In From All Quarters..." the
                American Revolution in Virginia's Lower Counties.

                Rob Friar
                Virginia State Navy &
                7th Va. Reg't.
              • vastatenavy
                Benedict Arnold s Virginia Campaign Lower Counties of Virginia March/April, 1781 27th -Additional ships join the British fleet already in Hampton Roads,
                Message 7 of 16 , Apr 3 7:56 PM
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                  Benedict Arnold's Virginia Campaign

                  Lower Counties of Virginia

                  March/April, 1781

                  27th -Additional ships join the British fleet already in Hampton
                  Roads, containing more troops from New York.

                  Gen. Steuben orders Gen. Muhlenberg to start consolidating his
                  militia forces around Portsmouth to protect them from the danger
                  presented by these British reinforcements. Col. Parker is recalled
                  from Great Bridge. Parker makes a forced march with his two
                  regiments of militia through the Dismal Swamp, joining Gen.
                  Muhlenberg in his camp in Suffolk.

                  30th -Captain Johan Ewald is still suffering the affects of his
                  severe wound received at Scott's Creek. He continues to conveless in
                  a make-shift hospital in Norfolk.

                  31st -The British Fleet enters the Elizabeth River containing
                  additional forces under Major-General William Phillips, consisting
                  of the following.

                  „X English Light Infantry
                  „X 76th Highland Reg't.
                  „X Erbprinz Regiment
                  „X Artillery

                  British ships are ordered up the Chesapeake bay to prevent
                  Lafayette's forces at Head of Elk from advancing to meet him via
                  that route (The Monk, Hope, and several privateers). The light
                  infantry under Lt. Col. Abercromby encamps at Kemp's landing, with
                  Simcoe nearby at Newtown.

                  Gen. Lafayette returns to Maryland, intent on rejoining
                  Washington's' army.

                  April 1781

                  1st - Gen. Phillips and his troop debark in Portsmouth. Phillips
                  immediately proceeds to strengthen the works in Norfolk and
                  Portsmouth.

                  Gen. Muhlenberg moves his forces to Scott's Mill, near Everetts in
                  Suffolk. He leaves bodies of militia positioned as follows.

                  -Colonels Matthews and Wills regiments with Major Nelson's cavalry
                  at Cowper's Mill (4 miles from Suffolk on the road to Portsmouth)
                  -Colonels Dick's and Downman's regiments at Chuckatuck.

                  Taken from "...The Militia Are Coming In From All Quarters..." The
                  Revolution in Virginia's Lower Counties

                  Rob Friar
                  Va. State Navy &
                  7th Va. Regt.
                • vastatenavy
                  Virginia Campaign Lower Counties of Virginia April 1781 1st - Gen. Phillips and his reenforcing troops debark in Portsmouth, releiving Gen. Arnold of command.
                  Message 8 of 16 , Apr 19 4:56 PM
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                    Virginia Campaign

                    Lower Counties of Virginia

                    April 1781

                    1st - Gen. Phillips and his reenforcing troops debark in Portsmouth,
                    releiving Gen. Arnold of command. Phillips immediately proceeds to
                    strengthen the works in Norfolk and Portsmouth.

                    Gen. Peter Muhlenberg moves his forces away from Portsmouth to
                    Scott's Mill (Suffok near Chuckatuck). He leaves bodies of militia
                    disposed as follows.

                    „X Colonels Matthews and Wills regiments with Major Nelson's
                    cavalry at Cowper's Mill (near the town of Suffok)
                    „X Colonels Dick's and Downman's regiments at Chuckatuck.

                    6th -Lafayette is ordered to return to Virginia with his troops and
                    take immediate command of the militia and new continental troops
                    there.

                    8th - Most of Gen. Muhlenberg's militia, having served their 3 month
                    term, leave camp, leaving him with only 700 men in the field. He
                    proceeds to send all military stores that he does not need further
                    into the country to protect it from the British forces, and
                    continues to monitor the movements of the British in Portsmouth.

                    13th -Gen. Muhlenburg moves all stores and men to a camp at
                    Broadwater (Ivor in southern Isle of Wight County, 22 miles west of
                    Suffolk). He now has approximately 1000 militia with him there. He
                    places them in the following positions.

                    „X Major Riddick with 110 men at Cowper's Mill
                    „X Major Boykin with 150 men near Scott's Mill
                    „X Colonel Wills with 240 men near Stoner's Mill (Mackie's Mill
                    near Smithfield)
                    „X 500 men at Broadwater

                    He also begins to send military stores to Prince George Courthouse.

                    18th -Major Robinson's Loyalist Regiment, the Erbprinz Regiment, and
                    portions of the 76th and 80th are assigned to garrison Portsmouth.
                    The remaining troops, the Rangers, Jagers, Light Infantry, the 76th
                    and 80th reg'ts., and the artillery embarked on long boats at
                    Portsmouth.
                    Phillip's fleet arrives at the mouth of Pagan Creek, near
                    Smithfield, but does not land there.

                    19th -The British fleet continues up the James River, land at the
                    Chickahominy River, and overtakes the militia posts at Yorktown and
                    Williamsburg.

                    Gen. Muhlenberg, now aware that the British did not intend to land
                    at Smithfield, leaves his camp at Broadwater and marches his men to
                    camp at Wall's Bridge (in southern Surry County on the Blackwater
                    River). He leaves Col. Josiah Parker in command of the remaining
                    militia troops in the area, consisting of the troops from Isle of
                    Wight, Southhampton and Nansemond counties. They stay at the camp at
                    Broadwater.

                    Steuben remains in Chesterfield Courthouse, organizing the removal
                    of stores to more secure locations at Cumberland old Courthouse and
                    Point of Fork.

                    24th - Gen. Phillip's troops, that had reboarded their boats, land
                    at Brandon plantation near City Point and march on Petersburg.

                    Gen. Muhlenberg had moved his troops to Cabin Point (on Rt. 10,
                    Surry County), then on to Blandford (near Petersburg), where he was
                    positioned when the British troops approached.

                    25th -Phillips and Arnold advance on Muhlenberg's militia defending
                    Blandford , near Petersburg, on the Appomattox River.

                    At approximately 1 o'clock p.m, British forces attack 1000 militia
                    defending Blandford bridge, which crosses the Appomattox River.
                    After an intense 2 hour battle, the militia were forced to tear up
                    the bridge and retreat across the River.

                    29th -Muhlenberg and his troops, having retreated to Richmond, are
                    joined by Gen. Lafayette and his forces, having arrived by forced
                    marches from Head of Elk. Lafayette takes command of all forces in
                    the state.

                    Taken from "...The Militia are Coming in From All Quarters..." The
                    Revolution in Virginia's Lower Counties, 1781

                    Rob Friar
                    Virginia State Navy &
                    7th Va. Regt.
                  • vastatenavy
                    As July dawns in the lower counties of Virginia in 1781, concern was growing amongst local leaders. A British force had been occupying the town of Portsmouth
                    Message 9 of 16 , Jul 4, 2006
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                      As July dawns in the lower counties of Virginia in 1781, concern was
                      growing amongst local leaders. A British force had been occupying
                      the town of Portsmouth since April, and several reinforcements had
                      arrived and been sent to join Lord Cornwallis as he marched
                      throughout the state with the bulk of his army. Shadowing him was
                      Gen. Lafayette, who had called most of the militia to him, under the
                      command of Governor Thomas Nelson, then an acting general in the
                      field.

                      Left in the lower counties (below the James River) to keep an eye on
                      the British occupying Portsmouth was Col. Josiah Parker of Isle of
                      Wight County, former commander of the 5th Virginia Regiment. With
                      him was the militias of South Hampton, Surry, Isle of Wight
                      Nansemond and Norfolk Counties, about 400 men, including 50 mounted
                      and 2 artillery pieces; one 12 pounder and one 3 pounder. Col.
                      Parker usually kept a safe distance from Portsmouth, usually staying
                      around Suffolk, where he could respond to any moves out of the town
                      to North Carolina or west towards Williamsburg.

                      Capt. Johan Ewald, still recovering from the wound he received from
                      the battle with Lafayette at Scott's creek, Portsmouth, in March,
                      finally heals enough to return to the army, and waste no time in
                      making his way up the James River to report for duty. Along with him
                      are other recovering Queen's Rangers and Jagers from the hospital in
                      Norfolk. They meet with Col. Simcoe somewhere near the ferry landing
                      at Cobham (ferry to Jamestown) on June 16th, and soon rejoin the
                      army near Richmond. In the next few weeks, Cornwallis moves his army
                      to Williamsburg, then to Jamestown, intending to march to Portsmouth.

                      Here is where we pick up our timeline of events, leading up to the
                      fourth of July.

                      June 1781

                      29th -Col. Parker is now at another camp near Suffolk (Camp Babbs),
                      where he notifies Governor Nelson that he has 522 men of the local
                      militia.

                      July 1781

                      4th - At Jamestown, Ewald learns that the army was to march back to
                      Portsmouth, as Cornwallis had been ordered to send the light
                      infantry, Rangers, and the Anspach, 43rd, and 76th regiments to New
                      York.

                      Simcoe with Ewald and the Rangers, Jagers, and Althouse
                      sharpshooters are sent across the James River, landing at Cobham in
                      Surry County (few hundred yards from modern ferry landing at
                      Scotland wharf). They set up a defensive ring on the heights of the
                      town to cover the landing of the remaining forces still at Jamestown.

                      Rob Friar
                      Virginia State Navy &
                      7th Va. Reg't.
                    • vastatenavy
                      While the Battle of Greenspring was being fought north of the James River, actions were still being taken to make safe the south side of the James River for
                      Message 10 of 16 , Jul 7, 2006
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                        While the Battle of Greenspring was being fought north of the James
                        River, actions were still being taken to make safe the south side of
                        the James River for Cornwallis' eventual crossing.

                        July 1781

                        5th - Captain Johan Ewald reconnoiters towards Smithfield and
                        Southhampton County on word that 2000 militia were at Smithfield. By
                        evening word reaches Ewald that a force of 200 militia stand at
                        Wilson's plantation, about 4 miles from Cobham (site of the ferry
                        landing) and adjacent to Chippokes Plantation (current state park).
                        Simcoe gives Ewald two Ranger companies, and along with his Jagers,
                        he pursues the militia from Wilson's to Crafford's mill on Lower
                        Chippokes Creek, skirmishing with and capturing a Lieutenant and
                        several men. Once they reach Crafford's mill, they stop and return
                        to Cobham by nightfall.

                        6th - Lord Cornwallis's baggage train crosses the river. Lafayette
                        engages Cornwallis at Greenspring Plantation.


                        7th - Following his victory at Greenspring, Cornwallis crosses with
                        his remaining troops to Cobham. Simcoe marches to and occupies
                        Crafford's Mill at Chippokes Plantation.

                        Rob Friar
                        Virginia State Navy &
                        7th Va. regt.
                      • vastatenavy
                        After the battle of Greenspring, Lord Cornwallis moves the rest of his arm across the James River to Surry County, and proceeds caustionsly towards the town of
                        Message 11 of 16 , Jul 10, 2006
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                          After the battle of Greenspring, Lord Cornwallis moves the rest of
                          his arm across the James River to Surry County, and proceeds
                          caustionsly towards the town of Portsmouth, Va., where he hopes he
                          can be resupplied by the Royal navy, and to send some of his forces
                          back to New York as ordered by Gen. Clinton.

                          July, 1781

                          8th - Capt. Johna Ewald marches with his jagers and the Light
                          Infantry towards Smithfield (in Isle of Wight County). He learns
                          that the militia have left Smithfield to a position at the
                          Blackwater River (southwest of the town).


                          9th - Lord Cornwallis's army leaves Cobham and encamps at Nelson's
                          tavern on Lawne's creek, in northern Isle of Wight County near the
                          James River. Lt. Col. Simcoe takes the Jagers, Rangers, and
                          sharpshooters to within 8 miles of Smithfield to provide an advance
                          post in case the militia approaches.

                          10th -The British army proceeds to Mackie's Mill (on Scott's Factory
                          Rd. near Smithfield) and encamps on the grounds of Six Oaks
                          plantation.

                          Rob Friar
                          Virginia State Navy &
                          7th Va. Regt.
                        • vastatenavy
                          After moving the bulk of his..ARMY..to the outskirts of the town of Smithfield on the south side of the James River, Lord Cornwillis cautiously proceeds south
                          Message 12 of 16 , Jul 12, 2006
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                            After moving the bulk of his..ARMY..to the outskirts of the town of
                            Smithfield on the south side of the James River, Lord Cornwillis
                            cautiously proceeds south to the town of Suffolk in Nansemond
                            County, on the only road that leads to the town of
                            Portsmouth...Meanwhile, Col. Tarleton has been sent from Cobham west
                            and south on his raid though that part of the state, with orders to
                            rendevous with Cornwallis back at Suffolk.

                            July, 1781

                            11th -While Cornwallis takes his..ARMY..towards Suffolk via the more
                            direct route (Longview), Captain Johan Ewald and Lt. Col. Simcoe are
                            ordered to cover his left by proceeding to Suffolk via Chuckatuck
                            Mill (modern day route 10). Ewald and Simcoe cautiously advance past
                            Chuckatuck and Everrett's Mills before joining the rest of
                            the..ARMY..at Scott's Mill (Modern-day Lake Prince, Suffolk).

                            12th -Cornwallis and his..ARMY..arrives in the town of Suffolk,
                            encamping at Riddick's Mill near Jerico ditch. Simcoe places Ewald
                            in ambush near Newby's Mill, west of Everett's (near Chuckatuck), to
                            challenge militia in the area under the command of Col. Josiah
                            Parker. Toward evening Ewald leaves this position, and waits in
                            ambush near Cahoon's Mill (modern-day Lake Cahoon) west of the town
                            where the roads from the Blackwater River, Scott's Mill, and Suffolk
                            intersect. Ewald eventually joins Simcoe at Cahoon's Mill and
                            encamps for the night.

                            Rob Friar
                            Virginia State Navy &
                            7th Va. Regt.
                          • vastatenavy
                            July 1781 Cornwallis is encamped at the town of Suffolk, where he will remain for several days. Several small detachments are sent into the surrounding
                            Message 13 of 16 , Jul 16, 2006
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                              July 1781

                              Cornwallis is encamped at the town of Suffolk, where he will remain
                              for several days. Several small detachments are sent into the
                              surrounding countryside to keep an eye on the local militia.

                              13th -Lt. Col. Simcoe and Captian Ewald march to Cowper's Mill, 4
                              miles from Riddick's on the road to Portsmouth (Nansemond Pkwy. at
                              Beamon's mill).

                              14th -Simcoe leaves for Portsmouth along with the Light Infantry,
                              the 43rd and 76th regiments, and the Anspach Brigade, to embark for
                              New York. The remaining troops stay at Riddick's Mill near Suffolk.
                              By evening, Ewald is ordered to cover the army's flank by
                              positioning himself to the west of town, on the road to the
                              Blackwater River and Edenton.

                              15th -Col. Dundas is sent to forage near Newby's Mill, on the road
                              to Orbit (and the modern-day Isle of Wight Co. courthouse) near
                              Everrett's (not far from Chuckatuck). Ewald covers his force by
                              placing his Jagers and the sharpshooters at Everrett's. He advances
                              on and skirmishes with local militia, capturing one.

                              Rob Friar
                              Virginia State Navy &
                              7th Va. regt.
                            • vastatenavy
                              Speaking of the chiggers, heat, and thunderstorms experienced at Greenspring this past weekend, it seems chronologically and geographically significant to post
                              Message 14 of 16 , Jul 17, 2006
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                                Speaking of the chiggers, heat, and thunderstorms experienced at
                                Greenspring this past weekend, it seems chronologically and
                                geographically significant to post an entry from Johan Ewald's
                                journal during his stay in the town of Suffok with Cornwallis at
                                this time in July 1781. I like to refer to it as the "Battle of the
                                Chiggers".

                                Suffolk, Virginia., Mid-July, 1781

                                "For eight days we were the most tormented people in this world.
                                Ever since the billions of sand and biting flies left us, a small
                                kind of insect has appeared which is completely round and no larger
                                than a pinhead. It feeds in the skin and multiplies by the hundreds
                                in one night, making small clear boils and causing such irritation
                                with itching that one has no rest day or night. Nothing can be done
                                about it until the skin is broken and bleeding from scratching. A
                                number of our men are very sick from it; their entire bodies look
                                like people who are seized with smallpox. The inhabitants console us
                                by saying that the insects will last only until the end of this
                                month…Added to this is the unbearable heat, which increases all the
                                time. It is often so intense that one can hardly breathe, especially
                                after a terrible thunderstorm, when all the air seems to vanish.
                                Moreover, the worst thunderstorms come with each evening and last
                                through half the night. With each thunderbolt a brilliant zigzag
                                flashes around our heads, combined with the most violent downpour."

                                Rob Friar
                                Virginia State Navy &
                                7th Va. Regt.
                              • vastatenavy
                                Lower counties of Virginia July, 1781 20th -Gen. Lafayette and his troops are encamped at Melvern Hill, north of the James River, near Richmond (site of future
                                Message 15 of 16 , Jul 25, 2006
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                                  Lower counties of Virginia

                                  July, 1781

                                  20th -Gen. Lafayette and his troops are encamped at Melvern Hill,
                                  north of the James River, near Richmond (site of future Civil War
                                  battle).

                                  21st -After spending several days around Suffolk, the British army
                                  leaves the town and marches toward Portsmouth, encamping at Hall's
                                  Mill (modern-day Jolliff Road, about half way between the two towns.

                                  22nd -British arrive in Portsmouth. Capt. Johan Ewald is placed in
                                  position once again at the defile at Scott's Creek, location of his
                                  battle with Lafayette and local militia in March.

                                  23rd -Orders are countermanded regarding the embarkation of troops
                                  to New York. They land at Yorktown instead.

                                  24th -Col. Josiah Parker, commander of all militia near Portsmouth,
                                  writes Governor Thomas Nelson, informing him that he intends to soon
                                  leave the service. He has spent much of his own fortune, and fears
                                  he has also lost his good reputation, in supplying his troops in the
                                  field, with little or no help or appreciation from the state. He
                                  plans to sail for France at his earliest convenience, aboard one of
                                  the several ships he owns.

                                  26th -Governor Thomas Nelson informs Col. Josiah Parker that with
                                  the new authority granted him under a law passed by the Assembly,
                                  marshal law is in effect within 20 miles of his camp, as well as
                                  within 20 miles of the enemy's camp. Thus, he is free to punish the
                                  loyalist from Nansemond County responsible for capturing and
                                  mistreating a Capt. Nott, who was on patrol near Suffolk. The
                                  loyalist, Dempsey Butler, was a deserter from Parker's camp who
                                  joined with Loyalist troops harassing Parker from Nansemond and
                                  Norfolk Counties. His men captured Nott, shot him, and were taking
                                  him back to Portsmouth when they were surprised by mounted militia,
                                  who captured Butler and rescued Capt. Nott. The Capt. died of his
                                  wounds while in Parker's camp.
                                  The Governor also implores Col. Parker to stay in his position and
                                  not leave, as his services are greatly needed and appreciated by the
                                  state.

                                  Rob Friar
                                  Virginia State Navy &
                                  7th Va. regt.
                                • vastatenavy
                                  Once the British arrive in the town of Portsmouth, Va., Col. Josiah Parker and the combined militia forces of the lower counties near Suffolk and Gen. Gregory
                                  Message 16 of 16 , Jul 29, 2006
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                                    Once the British arrive in the town of Portsmouth, Va., Col. Josiah
                                    Parker and the combined militia forces of the lower counties near
                                    Suffolk and Gen. Gregory and the North Carolina Militia below Great
                                    Bridge keep watch from a safe distance, unsure of what Cornwallis'
                                    next move may be...

                                    July, 1781

                                    27th -General Lafayette writes Col. Parker, requesting that, since
                                    he may be leaving the service soon, to please be sure to leave a
                                    channel of communication with Gen. Gregory so that he may stay
                                    completely informed of the enemy's actions in that quarter. He also
                                    expresses his wish that Col. Parker stay in the field, as his
                                    services are invaluable.

                                    29th -Captian Johan Ewald, repossitioned at Scott's Creek upon his
                                    return to Portsmouth with the main British force, is ordered to
                                    embark with his troops. General O'Hara occupies his position on
                                    Scott's Creek with English Guards. Catp. Ewald marches to the town
                                    and boards the boats with members Dundas' 80th Regiment.

                                    30th -Gen. Peter Muhlenberg, now in command of Lafayette's Light
                                    Infantry and a regiment of Riflemen, is positioned near Suffolk.
                                    Col. Parker commands the lower county militia units (Surry, Isle of
                                    Wight, and Nansemond) closer to Portsmouth.

                                    31st -By this time, Cornwallis has embarked most of his troops
                                    aboard several ships and barges in Hampton Roads Harbor. Their
                                    destination is a mystery to the patriot forces. Only a small holding
                                    force is left in the town of Portsmouth.

                                    Col. Senf, writing from Fort Powhatan (Hood's Point) informs Col.
                                    Davies of Gen. Alexander Leslie's force at Portsmouth, which
                                    consisted of the following:

                                    •Detachment of the 17th Regiment (200) at Ivy's (on modern-day
                                    Jollif Road near Hall's Mill), 12 miles this side of Portsmouth,
                                    under a Lieutenant Colonel Johnson.

                                    •2 Companies of the 76th Regiment (120) at Ivy's.

                                    •2 Battalions of Anspacks (1000) on duty at Great Bridge.

                                    •260 Hessians in Norfolk and Portsmouth under Colonel De Tucks
                                    [Fuchs?].

                                    •50 Jagers in Portsmouth/Norfolk

                                    •Total of 1630 effectives, 60 of which are mounted.

                                    •70 Royal Artillery present as well.

                                    •General Benedict Arnold with Col. Robertson's Regiment [Loyal
                                    American Regiment] (63) rank & file gone to New York.

                                    •No ships of force and very few frigates.


                                    Rob Friar
                                    Va. State Navy &
                                    7th Va. Regt.
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