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RE: [Revlist] Re: flashlights and lanterns

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  • Gregory Theberge
    At the risk of getting myself involved in this discussion (as arguing about flashlights, lanterns, portajohns or who uses the men s or women s room seems
    Message 1 of 34 , Jun 29, 2010
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      At the risk of getting myself involved in this discussion (as arguing about flashlights, lanterns, portajohns or who uses the men's or women's room seems awefully silly), I'm going to ask the scholars on this list a question:
       
      How common was the word "Tattoo" during the American Revolution? For some reason, I have stuck in my head that the word was "Taptoo" (I know Simes uses it). Does anyone have further references that they can think of offhand?
       
      greg
       
      Probably to answer my question, I found this on the internet:(http://www.heartlandtattoo.org/tattoofaq.html)
       
      What is a "Tattoo"?
      What does the word "Tattoo" mean?

      A signal sounded on a drum or bugle to summon soldiers or sailors to their quarters at night. Originating from the Dutch "doe den tap toe" (pronounced "doo den tap too"), literally translated means "close or turn off the tap".
      A display of military exercises offered as evening entertainment.
      A continuous, even drumming or rapping.
      Where does the word "Tattoo" come from?
      In the 16th, 17th and 18th centuries field musicians were vital to military commanders to relay orders during the battle. The bands (made up of fifes, drums and bugles) kept the company or regiment in proper cadence while marching. The Taptoo was firmly entrenched as one aspect of the repertoire known in the 18th century military as the "duty" that comprised the fife, bugle and drum calls used to regulate camp and garrison activities. As early as 1688 drummers (the general terms for fifers, drummers and buglers) were expected to "beat all manner of beats, as a Call, a Troupe [sic], a March, a Retreit [sic], a Tato [sic], and a Revally [sic]". The word "Tattoo" comes from the last order and closing time shouts in Dutch, or horn signals, meaning "Doe den tap toe", or just "tap toe" ("toe" is pronounced "too"). In the 17th century the word "Tap-too" was encountered by the English Army when fighting in the Low Countries, or Netherlands, during the 100 years
      war. The phrase: "doe den tap toe" literally translated means: "put the tap to", or "close or turn off the tap". It also was used by the Dutch for "shut up" or "stop, cease". In a play of 1639 from Emden comes the line "Doch hier de tap van toe" meaning "but here we shut up" or "say no more". In the evening, the Taptoo consisted of the military band parading through a garrison town to alert the taverns that it was curfew for the soldiers, the beer taps should be cut off, and the soldiers should return to their barracks.
      The English adopted the practice and it became a signal, played by beat of drum to tavern owners to turn off the taps of their ale kegs so that the soldiers would retire at a reasonable hour. The 17th century predates the practice of constructing purpose-built military housing. Soldiers were billeted where lodgings could be obtained. Col. Hutchinson issued the following order in 1644 to mitigate the late night carousing that would occur because of the lack of supervising of their superiors:

      "If anyone shall bee found tipplinge or drinkinge in any Taverne, Inne, or Alehouse, after the houre of bybe of the clock at night, when the tap-too beates, hee shall pay 2s 6d."
      By the 18th century, barracks were constructed. The "Taptoo" or "Tattoo" was loosing its original meaning and was becoming simply a signal for lights out. In 1777 Thomas Simes in his Military Course for the Government and Conduct of Battalion write:

      "The Taptoo beats at ten o'clock every night in summer and nine in winter; the soldiers must then repair to their quarters or barracks when the non-commissioned Officers of each squad call over their roles and every man must remain there till reveille next morning."
      The 18th century saw the rise of the Military Band of Music. The Military Band tended to be a professional group, hired and paid for by the Officers. Their main purpose was to entertain on Parades, in the Officers' Mess or "pro bono publico" (very useful in strengthening ties to the local community). In a letter dated 1742 Horace Walpole, wrote, "You know, one loves a tattoo and review". Later a Scottich composer, James Oswald published a collection entitled "40 Marches, Tattoos and Night Pieces for two German flutes, violins or guitars as performed by the Prussian and Hessian Armies." These show that the term Tattoo could describe either the last duty call of the day or an evening of entertainment.


      --- On Tue, 6/29/10, chris DIPASQUALE <depot7254@...> wrote:


      From: chris DIPASQUALE <depot7254@...>
      Subject: RE: [Revlist] Re: flashlights and lanterns
      To: Revlist@yahoogroups.com
      Date: Tuesday, June 29, 2010, 7:30 AM


       



      18th century lights out/ go to bed / all soldiers in their tents , etc
       
      Chris 5th NY

      --- On Tue, 6/29/10, janae janicke <no1basketcase@...> wrote:

      From: janae janicke <no1basketcase@...>
      Subject: RE: [Revlist] Re: flashlights and lanterns
      To: revlist@yahoogroups.com
      Date: Tuesday, June 29, 2010, 7:10 AM

      I understand that, my question is what does tattoo mean in your sentence. I know of as the ink kind and with other meanings.

      To: Revlist@yahoogroups.com
      From: pineriverboy@...
      Date: Tue, 29 Jun 2010 10:40:57 +0000
      Subject: [Revlist] Re: flashlights and lanterns

       

         
           
           
            That was me: The poster had mentioned that troops were confined to quarters after tattoo, so there was little need for lighting devices in an 18th century military camp. I was agreeing with him on that point, but holding out that reenactors don't have the same situation. In fairness, he never advocated restricitng reenactors after tattoo; the issue at hand is how we light our way around camp. -Rob

      --- In Revlist@yahoogroups.com, janae janicke <no1basketcase@...> wrote:

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    • janae janicke
      I am sorry I forgot to thank Greg and Chris for explaining tattoo/taptoo for me, i have never heard of it before. Thank you Janae To: Revlist@yahoogroups.com
      Message 34 of 34 , Jun 30, 2010
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        I am sorry I forgot to thank Greg and Chris for explaining tattoo/taptoo for me, i have never heard of it before.


        Thank you Janae



        To: Revlist@yahoogroups.com
        From: gstheberge@...
        Date: Tue, 29 Jun 2010 05:46:25 -0700
        Subject: RE: [Revlist] Re: flashlights and lanterns




























        At the risk of getting myself involved in this discussion (as arguing about flashlights, lanterns, portajohns or who uses the men's or women's room seems awefully silly), I'm going to ask the scholars on this list a question:



        How common was the word "Tattoo" during the American Revolution? For some reason, I have stuck in my head that the word was "Taptoo" (I know Simes uses it). Does anyone have further references that they can think of offhand?



        greg



        Probably to answer my question, I found this on the internet:(http://www.heartlandtattoo.org/tattoofaq.html)



        What is a "Tattoo"?

        What does the word "Tattoo" mean?



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