115486Re: Maintenance and Cleanliness on Campaign
- Mar 3, 2009Steve,
While I can't agree wholly with your premise, I do concur with
Radford and Rich on the idea that certain items
(including "necessaries") were often, perhaps usually, not mentioned
in orders pertaining to campaign gear, because they were considered
essential. A detailed study can give you an idea of what the men (and
officers) carried on campaign, and that is just what I'm in the
process of doing for both officers and common soldiers.
Another point regards campaigns. How do you define a campaign, when
does it begin, when does it end, and do you include any rest periods?
Witness the Monmouth Campaign which lasted, pretty much hurly-burly,
from 18 June to July 4th or 5th when the British embarked at Sandy
Hook. The Philadelphia, Saratoga and Carolina Campaigns were very
much different. So, as always, when we ask a question, the answer
should begin with "it depends."
--- In Revlist@yahoogroups.com, Richard Staron <rstaron@...> wrote:
> Good post.Â I agree with your premise completely.Â However, I
notice there is no mention of muskets, cartridge boxes, and bayonets
in many of the descriptions of what the soldiers are to carry. The
Howe orderly book does.Â Why would no mention be made of them in the
others?Â If we are using these descriptions as absolutes then it
doesn't leave us much wiggle room for assumptions.Â And if there
were some things such as muskets, bayonets, and ammo that are so
expected as to not be mentioned, then why can't other things as well?
> --- On Mon, 3/2/09, raynersteve <steverayner@...> wrote:
> From: raynersteve <steverayner@...>
> Subject: [Revlist] Re: Maintenance and Cleanliness on Campaign
> To: Revlist@yahoogroups.com
> Date: Monday, March 2, 2009, 7:40 PM
> Dear `Liste;
> The following are some notes on kit to be carried.
> Regimental Orders, Grenadier Company, 42nd "Royal Highland) Regiment
> of Foot. 4th Battalion Grenadiers (42nd and 71st Regiments of Foot)
> August 2 1776:
> "When the Men disembark they are to take nothing with them, but 3
> Shirts 2 prs of hose & their Leggings which are to be put up neatly
> their packs, leaving their knapsacks & all their other necessaries
> board ship which are carefully to be laid up by the Commanding
> Officers of Companys in the safest manner they can contrive." 4th
> Battalion of Grenadiers Orderly Book.
> Brigade of Guards:
> "Brigade Orders August 19th [1776.]
> When the Brigade disembarks two Gils of Rum to be delivered for each
> mans Canteen which must be filled with Water, Each Man to disembark
> with a Blanket & Haversack in which he is to carry one Shirt one
> of Socks and Three Days Provisions a careful Man to be left on board
> each Ship to take care of the Knapsacks. The Articles of War to be
> read to the Men by an Officer of each Ship." Glyn, p. 7.
> General Orders to the British Army:
> "Head Quarters Staten Island
> 20th August 1776â¦
> When the Troops Land, they are to carry nothing with them, but their
> Arms, Ammunition, Blankets & three days Provisions. The Commanding
> Officers of Compys. will take particular care that the Canteens are
> properly filled with Rum & Water, & it is most earnestly recommended
> to the Men, to be as saving as possible with their Grog." Howe
> Captain the Honourable William Leslie, 17th Regiment of Foot, to his
> "Bedford Long Island Sept. 2nd 1776â¦
> The Day after their Retreat we had orders to march to the ground we
> are now encamped upon, near the Village of Bedford: It is now a
> fortnight we have lain upon the ground wrapt in our Blankets, and
> thank God who supports us when we stand most in need, I have never
> enjoyed better health in my Life. My whole stock consists of two
> shirts 2 pr of shoes, 2 Handkerchiefs half of which I use, the other
> half I carry in my Blanket, like a Pedlar's Pack." Cohen, p. 63.
> Captain William Dansey, Light Infantry Company, 33rd. Regiment of
> Foot, 1st Battalion of Light Infantry:
> "Chambre," Amboy, February 17, 1777.
> You know I was determined when I left home to want for Nothing, and
> have many very good things by me; but I can make no use of for here.
> Two Shirts and other Necessaries just as a Soldier are enough for
> Officer under the rank of General." Dansey, p. 106.
> 40th Regiment of Foot:
> "M.[orning] R: O: 26th. May, 1777...
> After Regtl. Orders 2 Oclock Afternoon
> The new Trowzers to be put on this After noon and the Non Commissd.
> Offrs and men keeping three good shirts, two good pr. of shoes A
> of good stockings & 2 pr. of socks- - the Surplus of those kind of
> Necessaries with their Blue Leggons, Britches to be put up with
> name on them and the whole of each compy. to be put up in one Bundle
> with the Capts. name on it, and to be ready for the Waggon to be
> into town this After noon and Embarkd. for York" [Previously cited.]
> 49th Regiment of Foot:
> "Regimental Orders in Board the Rochford 21 August 1777
> When the Regt. lands, Evry Non Commissd. Officer and Soldier of the
> Regiment is to have with him 2 very good Shirts, &[?] Stocking[s] 2
> pair of Shoes, their Linen drawers, Linnen Leggins, half Gaiters and
> their Blankets well Rold." 49th Regiment of Foot Orderly Book.
> Lieutenant Loftus Cliffe, 46th Regiment of Foot.
> Head of Elk, Maryland, August 1777 :
> "Our field equipage... was reduced to two shirts & a blanket & a
> canteen for each Officer..."
> Loftus Cliffe to Jack, 24 October 1777, Loftus Cliffe Papers,
> L. Clements Library, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. [Courtesy
> Brigadier General Archibald Campbell:
> "General Orders 24th December 1778 at Tybee [Island, Georgia.]â¦
> The Soldiers are to carry nothing on Shore with them, exclusive of
> their Ammunition, but a Blanket, 3 Days provision, and one Day's
> Campbell, p. 18.
> Captain John Peebles, Grenadier Company, 42nd "Royal Highland"
> Regiment of Foot:
> "Saturday 12th. Feb... [1779. Simon's Plantation, near Charleston,
> South Carolina.] no Baggage brot. ashore, only a second shirt some
> offrs. have been [in] soldiers tents -" Peebles, p. 339.
> 43rd Regiment of Foot, Virginia:
> "Apollo Transport
> O[f]f Brandon James River 23rd May 1781
> Orders by Major Fergusonâ¦
> It is positively Ordered that no Soldier lands with more necessaries
> than his Blanket, Canteen, haversack, Two pair of Trowsers, Two pair
> of Stockings, and Two Shirts, and Two pair of good Shoes. The
> Remaining Necessaries of each Company to be carefully packed up and
> Orders will be given as soon as possible for its been taken proper
> care of." 43rd Regiment of Foot Orderly Book. [Previously cited.]
> Sources below.
> With the above in hand, the reader can decide whether this practice
> carrying minimal kit was common, typical, or only for short and
> Humbly Submitted,
> Steve Rayner
> 4th Grenadier Battalion Orderly Book; "4th Battalion of Grenadiers
> Orderly Book, 30 June - 15 November 1776." Courtesy of Don Hagist.
> Peebles Diary, Notebook 2. (Peebles Diary, GD 21/492, 2, SRO)
> Record Office.
> 49th Regiment of Foot Orderly Book. "Captured British Orderly Book,
> June 25, 1777 - Sept. 10, 1777. Library of Congress, George
> Papers Series 6. Military Papers. 1755-1798. Labeled: "British
> Book. June 25, 1777 - Sept. 10, 1777. A. D. 1 vol. 12o."
> Campbell, Archibald; "Journal of an Expedition against the Rebels of
> Georgia in North America Under the Orders of Archibald Campbell
> Esquire Lieut. Colol. of His Majesty's 71st Regimt. 1778." Campbell,
> Colin, ed. Edison County Historical Society, Augusta, Georgia.
> Ashantilly Press, Darien, GA, 1981.
> Cohen, Sheldon S., ed; "Captain William Leslie's Paths to Glory,"
> "New Jersey History," CVIII (1990).
> Glyn, Thomas; "The Journal of Ensign Thomas Glyn, 1st Regiment of
> Guards on the American Service with the Brigade of Guards 1776-
> Bass, Linnea, transc. Palatine, IL, 1987.
> Howe Orderly Book; "Howe, William Orderly Book, June 30 - October 4
> 1776." "General Orders from 30th June to 5th. Octr. 1776:"
> orders by His Excellency the Honble. Wm. Howe From 30th. June &
> 5th. October 1776." Collection of Morristown National Historical
> Park. Wisconsin Historical Society microfilm #P79-3244. Transcribed
> Steve Gilbert, 1992.
> Peebles, John; "John Peebles' American War, 1776-1782." Gruber,
> ed. Stackpole Books, Mechanicsburg, PA 1998.
> Price, Lt. Col. O., ed. "The Iron Duke - The Regimental Magazine of
> the Duke of Wellington's Regiment." Dover, Kent, England. Jan. 1951
> April 1953.
> --- In Revlist@yahoogroups.com, "Radford Polinsky"
> <rpolinsky@> wrote:
> > Dear John and List-
> > > I've never seen mention of oil or brick dust, etc. actually
> > > carried by soldiers BUT the men were often ordered to clean and
> > > burnish their arms. <snip> Just
> > > because none of the order books or soldiers' lists of the gear
> > > carried mention having oil, do I leave my musket to rust?
> > Smith's Universal Military Dictionary (London 1779)
> > NECESSARIES, in a military sense, implies [long list of clothing
> > snipped]
> > 1 oil bottle, 1 brush and picker, 1 worm, 1 turn-key,
> > 1 hammer cap, and 1 stopper.
> > Simes, A Military Course for the Government and Conduct
> > of a Battalion (London 1777)
> > The form for "Inspection Report of Cloaths and Necessaries,
> > (pg. 114) lists (besides clothing):
> > Leather for Arms
> > Balls of P. Clay
> > Punchin
> > Turn Key
> > Worm
> > Brush and Picker
> > Oil Bottle
> > Stopper
> > Simes The Military Guide for Young Officers (London 1781)
> > "Complement of Necessaries to be furnished each soldier"
> > 1 oil bottle; 1 brush and picker; 1 worm; 1 turnkey;
> > 1 hammer-cap; and 1 stopper.
> > As can be seen above, the oil bottle was part of the a soldier's
> > "Necessaries". You don't see it mentioned separately because
> > it was among a soldier's default items, along with things like
> > clothes and shoes. Simes above lists Pipe Clay, and the 40th
> > OB lists black ball and brushes, so at time things like these
> > were also considered necessaries. These items were so much
> > part of a soldier's standard kit that they had to issue orders to
> > leave them behind, as shown by the number of OB entries
> > starting "Shall land with no more necessaries than (list of
> > Cheers!
> > Radford Polinsky
> > (Sjt. John Savage, Col's. Coy. HM 33rd Foot)
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