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115481Re: Maintenance and Cleanliness on Campaign

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  • raynersteve
    Mar 2, 2009
      Dear `Liste;

      The following are some notes on kit to be carried.

      Regimental Orders, Grenadier Company, 42nd "Royal Highland) Regiment
      of Foot. 4th Battalion Grenadiers (42nd and 71st Regiments of Foot)
      August 2 1776:
      "When the Men disembark they are to take nothing with them, but 3
      Shirts 2 prs of hose & their Leggings which are to be put up neatly in
      their packs, leaving their knapsacks & all their other necessaries on
      board ship which are carefully to be laid up by the Commanding
      Officers of Companys in the safest manner they can contrive." 4th
      Battalion of Grenadiers Orderly Book.

      Brigade of Guards:
      "Brigade Orders August 19th [1776.]
      When the Brigade disembarks two Gils of Rum to be delivered for each
      mans Canteen which must be filled with Water, Each Man to disembark
      with a Blanket & Haversack in which he is to carry one Shirt one pair
      of Socks and Three Days Provisions a careful Man to be left on board
      each Ship to take care of the Knapsacks. The Articles of War to be
      read to the Men by an Officer of each Ship." Glyn, p. 7.

      General Orders to the British Army:
      "Head Quarters Staten Island
      20th August 1776…
      When the Troops Land, they are to carry nothing with them, but their
      Arms, Ammunition, Blankets & three days Provisions. The Commanding
      Officers of Compys. will take particular care that the Canteens are
      properly filled with Rum & Water, & it is most earnestly recommended
      to the Men, to be as saving as possible with their Grog." Howe Orderly

      Captain the Honourable William Leslie, 17th Regiment of Foot, to his
      "Bedford Long Island Sept. 2nd 1776…
      The Day after their Retreat we had orders to march to the ground we
      are now encamped upon, near the Village of Bedford: It is now a
      fortnight we have lain upon the ground wrapt in our Blankets, and
      thank God who supports us when we stand most in need, I have never
      enjoyed better health in my Life. My whole stock consists of two
      shirts 2 pr of shoes, 2 Handkerchiefs half of which I use, the other
      half I carry in my Blanket, like a Pedlar's Pack." Cohen, p. 63.

      Captain William Dansey, Light Infantry Company, 33rd. Regiment of
      Foot, 1st Battalion of Light Infantry:
      "Chambre," Amboy, February 17, 1777.
      You know I was determined when I left home to want for Nothing, and I
      have many very good things by me; but I can make no use of for here.
      Two Shirts and other Necessaries just as a Soldier are enough for any
      Officer under the rank of General." Dansey, p. 106.

      40th Regiment of Foot:
      "M.[orning] R: O: 26th. May, 1777...
      After Regtl. Orders 2 Oclock Afternoon
      The new Trowzers to be put on this After noon and the Non Commissd.
      Offrs and men keeping three good shirts, two good pr. of shoes A pair
      of good stockings & 2 pr. of socks- - the Surplus of those kind of
      Necessaries with their Blue Leggons, Britches to be put up with their
      name on them and the whole of each compy. to be put up in one Bundle
      with the Capts. name on it, and to be ready for the Waggon to be taken
      into town this After noon and Embarkd. for York" [Previously cited.]

      49th Regiment of Foot:
      "Regimental Orders in Board the Rochford 21 August 1777
      When the Regt. lands, Evry Non Commissd. Officer and Soldier of the
      Regiment is to have with him 2 very good Shirts, &[?] Stocking[s] 2
      pair of Shoes, their Linen drawers, Linnen Leggins, half Gaiters and
      their Blankets well Rold." 49th Regiment of Foot Orderly Book.

      Lieutenant Loftus Cliffe, 46th Regiment of Foot.
      Head of Elk, Maryland, August 1777 :
      "Our field equipage... was reduced to two shirts & a blanket & a
      canteen for each Officer..."
      Loftus Cliffe to Jack, 24 October 1777, Loftus Cliffe Papers, William
      L. Clements Library, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. [Courtesy John

      Brigadier General Archibald Campbell:
      "General Orders 24th December 1778 at Tybee [Island, Georgia.]…
      The Soldiers are to carry nothing on Shore with them, exclusive of
      their Ammunition, but a Blanket, 3 Days provision, and one Day's Rum."
      Campbell, p. 18.

      Captain John Peebles, Grenadier Company, 42nd "Royal Highland"
      Regiment of Foot:
      "Saturday 12th. Feb... [1779. Simon's Plantation, near Charleston,
      South Carolina.] no Baggage brot. ashore, only a second shirt some
      offrs. have been [in] soldiers tents -" Peebles, p. 339.

      43rd Regiment of Foot, Virginia:
      "Apollo Transport
      O[f]f Brandon James River 23rd May 1781
      Orders by Major Ferguson…
      It is positively Ordered that no Soldier lands with more necessaries
      than his Blanket, Canteen, haversack, Two pair of Trowsers, Two pair
      of Stockings, and Two Shirts, and Two pair of good Shoes. The
      Remaining Necessaries of each Company to be carefully packed up and
      Orders will be given as soon as possible for its been taken proper
      care of." 43rd Regiment of Foot Orderly Book. [Previously cited.]

      Sources below.

      With the above in hand, the reader can decide whether this practice of
      carrying minimal kit was common, typical, or only for short and minor

      Humbly Submitted,

      Steve Rayner



      4th Grenadier Battalion Orderly Book; "4th Battalion of Grenadiers
      Orderly Book, 30 June - 15 November 1776." Courtesy of Don Hagist.
      Peebles Diary, Notebook 2. (Peebles Diary, GD 21/492, 2, SRO) Scottish
      Record Office.

      49th Regiment of Foot Orderly Book. "Captured British Orderly Book,
      June 25, 1777 - Sept. 10, 1777. Library of Congress, George Washington
      Papers Series 6. Military Papers. 1755-1798. Labeled: "British Orderly
      Book. June 25, 1777 - Sept. 10, 1777. A. D. 1 vol. 12o."

      Campbell, Archibald; "Journal of an Expedition against the Rebels of
      Georgia in North America Under the Orders of Archibald Campbell
      Esquire Lieut. Colol. of His Majesty's 71st Regimt. 1778." Campbell,
      Colin, ed. Edison County Historical Society, Augusta, Georgia.
      Ashantilly Press, Darien, GA, 1981.

      Cohen, Sheldon S., ed; "Captain William Leslie's Paths to Glory," in
      "New Jersey History," CVIII (1990).

      Glyn, Thomas; "The Journal of Ensign Thomas Glyn, 1st Regiment of Foot
      Guards on the American Service with the Brigade of Guards 1776-1777."
      Bass, Linnea, transc. Palatine, IL, 1987.

      Howe Orderly Book; "Howe, William Orderly Book, June 30 - October 4
      1776." "General Orders from 30th June to 5th. Octr. 1776:" "General
      orders by His Excellency the Honble. Wm. Howe From 30th. June & ending
      5th. October 1776." Collection of Morristown National Historical
      Park. Wisconsin Historical Society microfilm #P79-3244. Transcribed by
      Steve Gilbert, 1992.

      Peebles, John; "John Peebles' American War, 1776-1782." Gruber, Ira,
      ed. Stackpole Books, Mechanicsburg, PA 1998.

      Price, Lt. Col. O., ed. "The Iron Duke - The Regimental Magazine of
      the Duke of Wellington's Regiment." Dover, Kent, England. Jan. 1951 to
      April 1953.


      --- In Revlist@yahoogroups.com, "Radford Polinsky" <rpolinsky@...> wrote:
      > Dear John and List-
      > > I've never seen mention of oil or brick dust, etc. actually being
      > > carried by soldiers BUT the men were often ordered to clean and
      > > burnish their arms. <snip> Just
      > > because none of the order books or soldiers' lists of the gear they
      > > carried mention having oil, do I leave my musket to rust?
      > Smith's Universal Military Dictionary (London 1779)
      > NECESSARIES, in a military sense, implies [long list of clothing
      > snipped]
      > 1 oil bottle, 1 brush and picker, 1 worm, 1 turn-key,
      > 1 hammer cap, and 1 stopper.
      > Simes, A Military Course for the Government and Conduct
      > of a Battalion (London 1777)
      > The form for "Inspection Report of Cloaths and Necessaries, &c"
      > (pg. 114) lists (besides clothing):
      > Leather for Arms
      > Balls of P. Clay
      > Punchin
      > Turn Key
      > Worm
      > Brush and Picker
      > Oil Bottle
      > Stopper
      > Simes The Military Guide for Young Officers (London 1781)
      > "Complement of Necessaries to be furnished each soldier"
      > 1 oil bottle; 1 brush and picker; 1 worm; 1 turnkey;
      > 1 hammer-cap; and 1 stopper.
      > As can be seen above, the oil bottle was part of the a soldier's
      > "Necessaries". You don't see it mentioned separately because
      > it was among a soldier's default items, along with things like
      > clothes and shoes. Simes above lists Pipe Clay, and the 40th
      > OB lists black ball and brushes, so at time things like these
      > were also considered necessaries. These items were so much
      > part of a soldier's standard kit that they had to issue orders to
      > leave them behind, as shown by the number of OB entries
      > starting "Shall land with no more necessaries than (list of clothing)"
      > Cheers!
      > Radford Polinsky
      > (Sjt. John Savage, Col's. Coy. HM 33rd Foot)
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