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Kid Ory on King Oliver's Dixie Syncopators/Ory biography

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  • John McCusker
    What I am saying then, is that it is quite possible for Filhé to have been on trombone still for the sessions of March and April 1926 — Sorry but I think
    Message 1 of 17 , Mar 7, 2012
      "What I am saying then, is that it is quite possible for Filhé to have
      been on trombone still for the sessions of March and April 1926 — "


      Sorry but I think that's a bridge too far. The Dixie Syncopators sides are without question Kid Ory- From the early "Too Bad," "Snag It" sides through to "Black Snake Blues." That muted solo on "Sugerfoot Stomp" alone should put that idea to rest.  Filhe was replaced in the Oliver band because by his own admission he couldn't cut it anymore.Further, Ory had these records in his personal collection along with the Hot 5 and Red Hot Pepper sides.
      John McCusker




      ________________________________
      From: fearfeasa <fearfeasa@...>
      To: RedHotJazz@yahoogroups.com
      Sent: Tuesday, March 6, 2012 6:07 PM
      Subject: Re: Re: [RedHotJazz] King Oliver's Dixie Syncopators


       
      Thanks for the link to the photo, John. In fact, it's the same photo as
      featured on the Decca Ace of Hearts LP issue from the early 1960s. The
      personnels as seen in the photos of the Syncopators (i.e., the three
      studio photos, all from the one date, and this one taken on the
      bandstand, probably in early 1927) are hard to reconcile with the
      personnels as given in Rust.

      The studio photos, which include Filhé, have a reed section of Howard,
      Nicholas and Bigard. According to the Rust personnels, Howard replaced
      Billy Paige sometime between the recording session of 29 May 2006 and
      that of 23 July 1926. By the session of 17 September, Albert Nicholas
      had left. Ory is present according to Rust on all of the Syncopators'
      recording sessions until 27 April 1927.

      Aurally, I think we can say with absolute confidence that Ory was with
      the Syncopators by the time of the session of 29 May 1926. The trombone
      solo on /Sugar Foot Stomp/ from that session includes the signature
      phrase which I count as Ory's all-time favourite, which he used
      throughout his whole career, and which I have never heard from any of
      his contemporaries. In the sessions prior to that, there is little to
      suggest Ory in the trombone work; although the solo on /Snag It/ sounds
      like him with regard to tone, it is just a rendition of the stock solo
      (which he originated with the Creole JB, certainly) and is pretty much
      identical on both takes.

      What I am saying then, is that it is quite possible for Filhé to have
      been on trombone still for the sessions of March and April 1926 —
      provided there was one other personnel change, namely, Darnell Howard
      replacing Billy Paige earlier than is usually reckoned.

      Howard's recent post — "Published personnels for the Dixie Syncopators
      came originally from Luis
Russell and Omer Simeon. On some sessions at
      least Ory identified himself (and Jimmy Archey also identified himself
      on later sides)" — is intriguing in this context. I'm willing to bet
      that the IDs for the earliest sessions were at best a little hazy.

      JT

      Ar 03/03/12 19:23 :07, scríobh John McCusker:
      >
      > Sorry, my bad. Here's the good link:
      > http://www.fellers.se/Kid/1927_Oliver,_King_-_Dix_Sync..html
      >
      > ________________________________
      > From: John McCusker <ory1886@... <mailto:ory1886%40yahoo.com>>
      > To: "RedHotJazz@yahoogroups.com <mailto:RedHotJazz%40yahoogroups.com>"
      > <RedHotJazz@yahoogroups.com <mailto:RedHotJazz%40yahoogroups.com>>
      > Sent: Saturday, March 3, 2012 1:21 PM
      > Subject: [RedHotJazz] Picture of Ory in Oliver band
      >
      >
      >
      > Someone asked about a picture of the Oliver band with Ory. Here's a
      > link to a picture of the Oliver band featuring Kid Ory on trombone.
      > It's from, a handbill distributed in New York while the band played
      > there in 1927. The site, KidOry.com has lots of interesting stuff on
      > the trombonist and bandleader including memorabilia and pictures many
      > of you may be unfamiliar with.
      >
      > ________________________________
      > From: John McCusker <ory1886@... <mailto:ory1886%40yahoo.com>>
      > To: "RedHotJazz@yahoogroups.com <mailto:RedHotJazz%40yahoogroups.com>"
      > <RedHotJazz@yahoogroups.com <mailto:RedHotJazz%40yahoogroups.com>>
      > Sent: Saturday, March 3, 2012 1:13 PM
      > Subject: [RedHotJazz] George Filhé and Kid Ory in Oliver band
      >
      >
      > Kid Ory replaced Georhe Filhe in Oliver's Dixe Syncopators in the fall
      > of 1925 after his gig with Armstrong at the Sunset Cafe ended.
      > Armstrong asked for more money and was rejected. He went to play at
      > the Vendome and Ory joined Oliver on sax while Filhe played out his
      > notice. According to Ory, Filhe's hearing was starting to fade. While
      > in Oliver's band Ory took music lessons to better handle the written
      > parts . These records are the first recordings where Ory employs a
      > mute. Great records though generally afield of the New Orleans style.
      >

      [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]




      [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
    • fearfeasa
      For goodness sake, John, I specifically stated that the /Sugar Foot Stomp/ solo was unmistakeably Ory !!! I was suggesting that trombone playing on the
      Message 2 of 17 , Mar 7, 2012
        For goodness' sake, John, I specifically stated that the /Sugar Foot
        Stomp/ solo was unmistakeably Ory !!! I was suggesting that trombone
        playing on the Dixie Syncopators sides recorded BEFORE that date might
        not be by Ory.

        You state in this post: "Filhe was replaced in the Oliver band because
        by his own admission he couldn't cut it anymore." When and where did
        Filhé "admit" that ?

        In a previous post you stated, " Ory joined Oliver on sax while Filhe
        played out his notice. According to Ory, Filhe's hearing was starting to
        fade." Of course Ory would say that, or something similar — he'd just
        put the man out of work, after all — but when and where did Ory say this ?

        The Ory on sax idea is an interesting one, too. He is also reported to
        have played sax in the late 30s or early 40s when he was down on the
        chicken farm, but it's rather difficult to pin down any of these reports.

        You also say that " Ory had these records in his personal collection
        along with the Hot 5 and Red Hot Pepper sides." But which records are
        "these records" ? Are you stating categorically that Ory had copies of
        /Too Bad/, /Snag It/, /Deep Henderson/ and /Jackass Blues/ in his
        personal collection as examples of his own playing ?

        You also completely ignore the problem of the changing personnel in the
        reed section. Filhé was photographed in a studio band portrait session
        along with Darnell Howard, Albert Nicholas and Barney Bigard, the three
        of whom did not supposedly come together into the Syncopators until
        AFTER Ory had replaced Filhé.

        Let's try and sort the history out — as impartially as possible.

        JT



        Ar 07/03/12 12:58 :06, scríobh John McCusker:
        >
        > "What I am saying then, is that it is quite possible for Filhé to have
        > been on trombone still for the sessions of March and April 1926 — "
        >
        > Sorry but I think that's a bridge too far. The Dixie Syncopators sides
        > are without question Kid Ory- From the early "Too Bad," "Snag It"
        > sides through to "Black Snake Blues." That muted solo on "Sugerfoot
        > Stomp" alone should put that idea to rest. Filhe was replaced in the
        > Oliver band because by his own admission he couldn't cut it
        > anymore.Further, Ory had these records in his personal collection
        > along with the Hot 5 and Red Hot Pepper sides.
        > John McCusker
        >
        > ________________________________
        > From: fearfeasa <fearfeasa@... <mailto:fearfeasa%40me.com>>
        > To: RedHotJazz@yahoogroups.com <mailto:RedHotJazz%40yahoogroups.com>
        > Sent: Tuesday, March 6, 2012 6:07 PM
        > Subject: Re: Re: [RedHotJazz] King Oliver's Dixie Syncopators
        >
        >
        >
        > Thanks for the link to the photo, John. In fact, it's the same photo as
        > featured on the Decca Ace of Hearts LP issue from the early 1960s. The
        > personnels as seen in the photos of the Syncopators (i.e., the three
        > studio photos, all from the one date, and this one taken on the
        > bandstand, probably in early 1927) are hard to reconcile with the
        > personnels as given in Rust.
        >
        > The studio photos, which include Filhé, have a reed section of Howard,
        > Nicholas and Bigard. According to the Rust personnels, Howard replaced
        > Billy Paige sometime between the recording session of 29 May 2006 and
        > that of 23 July 1926. By the session of 17 September, Albert Nicholas
        > had left. Ory is present according to Rust on all of the Syncopators'
        > recording sessions until 27 April 1927.
        >
        > Aurally, I think we can say with absolute confidence that Ory was with
        > the Syncopators by the time of the session of 29 May 1926. The trombone
        > solo on /Sugar Foot Stomp/ from that session includes the signature
        > phrase which I count as Ory's all-time favourite, which he used
        > throughout his whole career, and which I have never heard from any of
        > his contemporaries. In the sessions prior to that, there is little to
        > suggest Ory in the trombone work; although the solo on /Snag It/ sounds
        > like him with regard to tone, it is just a rendition of the stock solo
        > (which he originated with the Creole JB, certainly) and is pretty much
        > identical on both takes.
        >
        > What I am saying then, is that it is quite possible for Filhé to have
        > been on trombone still for the sessions of March and April 1926 —
        > provided there was one other personnel change, namely, Darnell Howard
        > replacing Billy Paige earlier than is usually reckoned.
        >
        > Howard's recent post — "Published personnels for the Dixie Syncopators
        > came originally from Luis
Russell and Omer Simeon. On some sessions at
        > least Ory identified himself (and Jimmy Archey also identified himself
        > on later sides)" — is intriguing in this context. I'm willing to bet
        > that the IDs for the earliest sessions were at best a little hazy.
        >
        > JT
        >
        > Ar 03/03/12 19:23 :07, scríobh John McCusker:
        > >
        > > Sorry, my bad. Here's the good link:
        > > http://www.fellers.se/Kid/1927_Oliver,_King_-_Dix_Sync..html
        > >
        > > ________________________________
        > > From: John McCusker <ory1886@... <mailto:ory1886%40yahoo.com>
        > <mailto:ory1886%40yahoo.com>>
        > > To: "RedHotJazz@yahoogroups.com
        > <mailto:RedHotJazz%40yahoogroups.com>
        > <mailto:RedHotJazz%40yahoogroups.com>"
        > > <RedHotJazz@yahoogroups.com <mailto:RedHotJazz%40yahoogroups.com>
        > <mailto:RedHotJazz%40yahoogroups.com>>
        > > Sent: Saturday, March 3, 2012 1:21 PM
        > > Subject: [RedHotJazz] Picture of Ory in Oliver band
        > >
        > >
        > >
        > > Someone asked about a picture of the Oliver band with Ory. Here's a
        > > link to a picture of the Oliver band featuring Kid Ory on trombone.
        > > It's from, a handbill distributed in New York while the band played
        > > there in 1927. The site, KidOry.com has lots of interesting stuff on
        > > the trombonist and bandleader including memorabilia and pictures many
        > > of you may be unfamiliar with.
        > >
        > > ________________________________
        > > From: John McCusker <ory1886@... <mailto:ory1886%40yahoo.com>
        > <mailto:ory1886%40yahoo.com>>
        > > To: "RedHotJazz@yahoogroups.com
        > <mailto:RedHotJazz%40yahoogroups.com>
        > <mailto:RedHotJazz%40yahoogroups.com>"
        > > <RedHotJazz@yahoogroups.com <mailto:RedHotJazz%40yahoogroups.com>
        > <mailto:RedHotJazz%40yahoogroups.com>>
        > > Sent: Saturday, March 3, 2012 1:13 PM
        > > Subject: [RedHotJazz] George Filhé and Kid Ory in Oliver band
        > >
        > >
        > > Kid Ory replaced Georhe Filhe in Oliver's Dixe Syncopators in the fall
        > > of 1925 after his gig with Armstrong at the Sunset Cafe ended.
        > > Armstrong asked for more money and was rejected. He went to play at
        > > the Vendome and Ory joined Oliver on sax while Filhe played out his
        > > notice. According to Ory, Filhe's hearing was starting to fade. While
        > > in Oliver's band Ory took music lessons to better handle the written
        > > parts . These records are the first recordings where Ory employs a
        > > mute. Great records though generally afield of the New Orleans style.
        > >
        >
        > [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
        >
        > [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
        >
        >


        [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
      • John McCusker
        ________________________________ From: fearfeasa To: RedHotJazz@yahoogroups.com Sent: Wednesday, March 7, 2012 8:19 AM Subject: Re:
        Message 3 of 17 , Mar 7, 2012
          ________________________________
          From: fearfeasa <fearfeasa@...>
          To: RedHotJazz@yahoogroups.com
          Sent: Wednesday, March 7, 2012 8:19 AM
          Subject: Re: [RedHotJazz] Kid Ory on King Oliver's Dixie Syncopators/Ory biography


           
          For goodness' sake, John, I specifically stated that the /Sugar Foot
          Stomp/ solo was unmistakeably Ory !!! I was suggesting that trombone
          playing on the Dixie Syncopators sides recorded BEFORE that date might
          not be by Ory. 

          "Much hotter than Filhe, the Kid became a mainstay of the brass section for the rest of the plantation engagement.
          King Joe Oliver, Rust and Allen p. 17
          Doesn't sound like anyone would ever confuse these two players.


          You state in this post: "Filhe was replaced in the Oliver band because
          by his own admission he couldn't cut it anymore." When and where did
          Filhé "admit" that ?

          King Joe Oliver, Rust and Allen p. 17
          Filhe had an arrangement with Oliver.


          In a previous post you stated, " Ory joined Oliver on sax while Filhe
          played out his notice.


          "The only time he ever played alto professionally was during the first six weeks he was with Oliver. George Fields (sic) then playing trombone with King Joe, had six weeks left on his contract. "
          Jazz Information, Nov. 22, 1940, p. 7

          You also say that " Ory had these records in his personal collection
          along with the Hot 5 and Red Hot Pepper sides." But which records are
          "these records" ? Are you stating categorically that Ory had copies of
          /Too Bad/, /Snag It/, /Deep Henderson/ and /Jackass Blues/ in his
          personal collection as examples of his own playing ?
          Yes. I went through his records years ago and he had amassed  reissues of his recording with Oliver, Armstrong and Morton. Little else in his collection.

          You also completely ignore the problem of the changing personnel in the
          reed section. Filhé was photographed in a studio band portrait session
          along with Darnell Howard, Albert Nicholas and Barney Bigard, the three
          of whom did not supposedly come together into the Syncopators until
          AFTER Ory had replaced Filhé.

          Perhaps the problem above is the word "supposedly."Someone is obviously mistaken.


          [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
        • Bob Smith
          Dear JT, ... by his own admission he couldn t cut it anymore. is probably a paraphrase of the statement in the 1957 Jazz Book Club edition of King Joe
          Message 4 of 17 , Mar 7, 2012
            Dear JT,

            " ... by his own admission he couldn't cut it anymore." is probably a paraphrase of the statement in the 1957 Jazz Book Club edition of 'King Joe Oliver' p. 17 (Allen / Rust), viz.:
            "Filhe - ... - was getting old; he had an understanding with Joe that he would leave when his ear started to go. So when Filhe felt it was time to quit, he gave Oliver his notice, and Edward "Kid" Ory came in and took his place."

            Kind Regards

            Bob Smith


            [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
          • fearfeasa
            Thanks, Bob. I can t find my copy of /King Joe Oliver/. That quote is a bit odd, isn t it ? Filhé was 52 in 1925, which is hardly old. And as for having an
            Message 5 of 17 , Mar 7, 2012
              Thanks, Bob. I can't find my copy of /King Joe Oliver/. That quote is a
              bit odd, isn't it ? Filhé was 52 in 1925, which is hardly old. And as
              for having "an understanding with Joe that he would leave when his ear
              started to go" --- from these words you'd think they'd been playing
              together for a few decades instead of a few months. Definitely a strange
              choice of words by the authors. I'd like to find their original source.

              When John said he'd seen copies of the Syncopators recordings in Ory's
              collection, I thought at first he meant he'd seen original 78s of all
              these items; but it seems twhat he saw were LP reissues --- presumably
              the 2-volume Decca Ace of Clubs set from the early 1960s, which had
              tracks from a number of sessions, some with Ory, some without. Let me
              say it again: there is no evidence (apart from dodgy aural
              identification), that Ory played on the first couple of Syncopators'
              recording sessions. He may have done --- but then again, he may not
              have... It's fun to speculate.

              JT

              Ar 07/03/12 15:33 :23, scríobh Bob Smith:
              >
              > Dear JT,
              >
              > " ... by his own admission he couldn't cut it anymore." is probably a
              > paraphrase of the statement in the 1957 Jazz Book Club edition of
              > 'King Joe Oliver' p. 17 (Allen / Rust), viz.:
              > "Filhe - ... - was getting old; he had an understanding with Joe that
              > he would leave when his ear started to go. So when Filhe felt it was
              > time to quit, he gave Oliver his notice, and Edward "Kid" Ory came in
              > and took his place."
              >
              > Kind Regards
              >
              > Bob Smith
              >
              > [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
              >
              >


              [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
            • Howard Rye
              Like it or not, Ory was identified on these sessions by Luis Russell, who was there, and who was played the records by Walt Allen, a man not given to
              Message 6 of 17 , Mar 8, 2012
                Like it or not, Ory was identified on these sessions by Luis Russell, who
                was there, and who was played the records by Walt Allen, a man not given to
                misrepresenting what he had done to validate pet theories.

                Ory identified himself on Deep Henderson and Jackass when played them (I
                can¹t see any sign he was played Too Bad and Snag It and I wonder why not).

                I think it will take more compelling evidence than what anybody thinks they
                hear to set this aside. This is a situation in which speculation is not so
                much fun as a complete waste of time. I suppose one can argue that Ory might
                have misidentified himself to claim some glory, but it¹s hard to see what
                Russell¹s motives might have been.

                >


                Howard Rye, 20 Coppermill Lane, London, England, E17 7HB
                howard@...
                Tel/FAX: +44 20 8521 1098




                [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
              • John McCusker
                Ory claim unearned glory? Perhaps about somethings but I have a 1940 interview with him where he goes out of his way to point out sides he wasn t on.
                Message 7 of 17 , Mar 8, 2012
                  Ory claim unearned glory? Perhaps about somethings but I have a 1940 interview with him where he goes out of his way to point out sides he wasn't on.



                  ________________________________
                  From: Howard Rye <howard@...>
                  To: red hot jazz <RedHotJazz@yahoogroups.com>
                  Sent: Thursday, March 8, 2012 2:03 AM
                  Subject: Re: [RedHotJazz] King Oliver's Dixie Syncopators/George Filhé


                   
                  Like it or not, Ory was identified on these sessions by Luis Russell, who
                  was there, and who was played the records by Walt Allen, a man not given to
                  misrepresenting what he had done to validate pet theories.

                  Ory identified himself on Deep Henderson and Jackass when played them (I
                  can¹t see any sign he was played Too Bad and Snag It and I wonder why not).

                  I think it will take more compelling evidence than what anybody thinks they
                  hear to set this aside. This is a situation in which speculation is not so
                  much fun as a complete waste of time. I suppose one can argue that Ory might
                  have misidentified himself to claim some glory, but it¹s hard to see what
                  Russell¹s motives might have been.

                  >

                  Howard Rye, 20 Coppermill Lane, London, England, E17 7HB
                  howard@...
                  Tel/FAX: +44 20 8521 1098

                  [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]




                  [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                • John McCusker
                  When John said he d seen copies of the Syncopators recordings in Ory s collection, I thought at first he meant he d seen original 78s of all these items; but
                  Message 8 of 17 , Mar 8, 2012
                    "When John said he'd seen copies of the Syncopators recordings in Ory's
                    collection, I thought at first he meant he'd seen original 78s of all
                    these items; but it seems twhat he saw were LP reissues --- presumably
                    the 2-volume Decca Ace of Clubs set from the early 1960s, which had
                    tracks from a number of sessions, some with Ory, some without."

                    I saw 78 reissues, not LPs. If I can find the inventory I did back in 2000 I'll share it with the group.

                    John



                    ________________________________
                    From: fearfeasa <fearfeasa@...>
                    To: RedHotJazz@yahoogroups.com
                    Sent: Wednesday, March 7, 2012 5:45 PM
                    Subject: Re: [RedHotJazz] King Oliver's Dixie Syncopators/George Filhé


                     
                    Thanks, Bob. I can't find my copy of /King Joe Oliver/. That quote is a
                    bit odd, isn't it ? Filhé was 52 in 1925, which is hardly old. And as
                    for having "an understanding with Joe that he would leave when his ear
                    started to go" --- from these words you'd think they'd been playing
                    together for a few decades instead of a few months. Definitely a strange
                    choice of words by the authors. I'd like to find their original source.

                    When John said he'd seen copies of the Syncopators recordings in Ory's
                    collection, I thought at first he meant he'd seen original 78s of all
                    these items; but it seems twhat he saw were LP reissues --- presumably
                    the 2-volume Decca Ace of Clubs set from the early 1960s, which had
                    tracks from a number of sessions, some with Ory, some without. Let me
                    say it again: there is no evidence (apart from dodgy aural
                    identification), that Ory played on the first couple of Syncopators'
                    recording sessions. He may have done --- but then again, he may not
                    have... It's fun to speculate.

                    JT

                    Ar 07/03/12 15:33 :23, scríobh Bob Smith:
                    >
                    > Dear JT,
                    >
                    > " ... by his own admission he couldn't cut it anymore." is probably a
                    > paraphrase of the statement in the 1957 Jazz Book Club edition of
                    > 'King Joe Oliver' p. 17 (Allen / Rust), viz.:
                    > "Filhe - ... - was getting old; he had an understanding with Joe that
                    > he would leave when his ear started to go. So when Filhe felt it was
                    > time to quit, he gave Oliver his notice, and Edward "Kid" Ory came in
                    > and took his place."
                    >
                    > Kind Regards
                    >
                    > Bob Smith
                    >
                    > [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                    >
                    >

                    [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]




                    [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                  • Howard Rye
                    Let’s be clear that I was merely suggesting that this would have to be the fallback position of people who wanted to claim he was not on the sides. I don’t
                    Message 9 of 17 , Mar 9, 2012
                      Let�s be clear that I was merely suggesting that this would have to be the
                      fallback position of people who wanted to claim he was not on the sides. I
                      don�t think they have another one.


                      on 08/03/2012 16:06, John McCusker at ory1886@... wrote:

                      >
                      >
                      >
                      >
                      >
                      > Ory claim unearned glory? Perhaps about somethings but I have a 1940 interview
                      > with him where he goes out of his way to point out sides he wasn't on.
                      >
                      > ________________________________
                      > From: Howard Rye <howard@...
                      > <mailto:howard%40coppermill.demon.co.uk> >
                      > To: red hot jazz <RedHotJazz@yahoogroups.com
                      > <mailto:RedHotJazz%40yahoogroups.com> >
                      > Sent: Thursday, March 8, 2012 2:03 AM
                      > Subject: Re: [RedHotJazz] King Oliver's Dixie Syncopators/George Filh�
                      >
                      >
                      > �
                      > Like it or not, Ory was identified on these sessions by Luis Russell, who
                      > was there, and who was played the records by Walt Allen, a man not given to
                      > misrepresenting what he had done to validate pet theories.
                      >
                      > Ory identified himself on Deep Henderson and Jackass when played them (I
                      > can�t see any sign he was played Too Bad and Snag It and I wonder why not).
                      >
                      > I think it will take more compelling evidence than what anybody thinks they
                      > hear to set this aside. This is a situation in which speculation is not so
                      > much fun as a complete waste of time. I suppose one can argue that Ory might
                      > have misidentified himself to claim some glory, but it�s hard to see what
                      > Russell�s motives might have been.
                      >
                      >> >
                      >
                      > Howard Rye, 20 Coppermill Lane, London, England, E17 7HB
                      > howard@... <mailto:howard%40coppermill.demon.co.uk>
                      > Tel/FAX: +44 20 8521 1098
                      >
                      > [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                      >
                      > [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                      >
                      >
                      >
                      >
                      >


                      Howard Rye, 20 Coppermill Lane, London, England, E17 7HB
                      howard@...
                      Tel/FAX: +44 20 8521 1098




                      [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
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