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Race records

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  • Mordechai Litzman
    Race Records After reading all the interesting posts a thought occurred to me: According to many of the accounts cited, musicians like Dodds played for white
    Message 1 of 5 , Feb 26, 2009
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      Race Records
      After reading all the interesting posts a thought occurred to me: According to many of the accounts cited, musicians like Dodds played for white audiences in the 20's on Chicago's south side, but the records that we all cherish were made mainly for a black audience and issued as race records. Is what we hear a version of Dodds' artistry geared to a black audience, in contrast to perhaps a different style performing for white audiences?

      The following article sheds some light on the magnitude of the race records business:

      Primarily excerpted from Jazz: A History of America's Music with contributions by Loren Schoenberg, Saxophonist and Conductor





      Okeh Race Records
      Image courtesy of Frank Driggs Collection

      After the Victor Talking Machine Company introduced the Victrola � one
      of the first phonographs � in 1901, the recording industry became big
      business. But, before 1915, no one had thought of recording jazz. Then,
      that December, a spokesman from the Victor Talking Machine Company
      approached Creole trumpeter Freddie Keppard and his Original Creole
      Orchestra about recording their music. But first, he explained, they
      would have to hold a try out to see if the firm's primitive recording
      device could pick up the sound of the band's bass player. Keppard
      turned them down, insulted that the spokesman was asking them to
      audition without pay. His clarinetist George Baquet recalled him
      saying, "Nothing doing, boys. We won't put our stuff on records for
      everybody to steal." Within two years, the all-white Original Dixieland
      Jazz Band would sell over a million copies of their version of New
      Orleans jazz � outselling best-selling artists such as tenor Enrico
      Caruso and the composer/bandleader John Phillip Sousa.
      By the 1920s, records were big business. Despite the popularity of
      African-American bands and musicians, record producers felt that white
      audiences would be more inclined to buy jazz recordings made by white
      musicians. Other specialty record labels, offering recordings aimed at
      a particular audience, began when record companies discovered an
      untapped market in new immigrants yearning for the sounds of home.
      Special catalogs of ethnic records included both re-pressed recordings
      from Europe, and new recordings by American immigrant artists marketed
      directly to various ethnic (Polish, Jewish, Italian, Irish)
      communities, where they sold prodigiously. While many of these
      performances traffic in stereotypes that make them difficult to listen
      to today, the term race, in this context, was not used or understood as
      a pejorative at the time.

      Victor Race Records
      Image courtesy of Institute of Jazz Studies

      During the Great Migration � the northern exodus of southern blacks
      that began in 1917 � approximately 1.5 million African-Americans left
      the South in search of a better life in the economically thriving
      North. Record companies such as Okeh, Paramount, Vocalion, and Columbia
      soon began to market special labels of "race records" � music by and
      for an African-American audience, especially recent migrants longing
      for Southern sounds. Blues singer Bessie Smith's 1923 recording of Down Hearted Blues was Columbia Records first popular hit and race record. This new genre
      of recordings allowed many African Americans artists to reach a
      national audience for the first time. "There's 14 million Negroes in
      our great country and they will buy records if recorded by one of their
      own," said the pioneering black record producer Perry Bradford in 1920,
      "because we are the only folks that can sing and interpret hot jazz
      songs just off the griddle."
      Harry Pace established the first black owned record company, called
      Black Swan, whose pointedly ironic slogan was "The Only Genuine Colored
      Records � Others Are Only Passing for Colored." Sales of race records
      soon reached five million copies a year.
      A large segment of race records were marketed directly to an
      African-American audience, and soon became part of the black
      community's culture. The Chicago Defender encouraged "lovers of
      music everywhere and those who desire to help in the advance of the
      Race" to purchase these records. Listening to and enjoying these
      recordings not only unified the listener with the artist, but also with
      African-Americans in other communities across the country, giving them
      a voice and a place within the chaos of urban life. Newsboys sold blues
      records. So did door-to-door salesmen. Pullman porters carried copies
      south with them and peddled them at whistlestops. The records that
      singer Bessie Smith and her rivals made were a sensation in black
      communities all over the country. Smith sold so many records, got so
      famous that she was cast in an early sound film � one of the first to
      feature black performers.

      Child playing phonograph
      Image courtesy of Schomberg Center for Research in Black Culture, New York Public Library

      Soon, these race records intended for the African-American community
      went on to expand beyond just jazz and blues. Record companies were
      eager to increase their markets, and even developed some non-musical
      recordings, including recorded sermons, gospel music, spirituals and
      comedy routines.
      Eventually, white record producers recognized the appeal of
      African-American bands and made a deliberate attempt to market them to
      white audiences. But the chronic idiocies of race among the men who ran
      the recording industry decided what music was appropriate for each
      audience. Sweet and sentimental tunes should remain the dominion of
      white bands, while black orchestras had better stick with the blues and
      stomp numbers that supposedly came to them "naturally" and would be the
      kind of race records African-Americans would want to buy.
      The booming record industry nearly collapsed with the onset of the Great Depression,
      when the Stock Market Crash of 1929 brought the so-called Jazz Age to
      an end. After selling more than 100 million records a year in the
      mid-1920s, record company sales dropped to six million. Okeh, Gennett
      and Paramount Records all when out of business.



      ________________________________
      From: David Brown <johnhaleysims@...>
      To: RedHotJazz@yahoogroups.com
      Sent: Thursday, February 19, 2009 5:00:00 AM
      Subject: RE: [RedHotJazz] Re: The Anxiety of Influence was The Influence of Anxiety


      'Kelly's was packed every night. There were special nights, one for
      theatrical entertainers and another for the college crowd. The band played
      for dancing and backed the Club's singing waiters. They played pop music
      with a jazz twist but hardly ever blues for the strictly white
      tronage.' --- Baby Dodds Story

      From Kelly's, Dodds moved to the K-Nine from 1931-34 --- 'for floor shows
      and dancing. Mostly they played for white audiences and had to know the
      latest pop tunes --- classics like Faust and the Hungarian Rhapsodies.'

      Thereafter jobs got scarcer and meaner, like The New Stables, an amusement
      park, where the band played for floor shows and dancing. Eventually Dodds
      was playing alone at the One Cent Club where Bill Russell found him.

      So Dodds was playing a wide repertoire in the 30s without any blues bias,
      probably even with an anti-blues bias. I don't know whether this was
      freedom.

      I also don't know whether a black audience would have demanded more blues
      but I suspect so. There was a large market in Chicago for the proto-urban
      blues of Broonzy et al. Odell Rand and Arnett Nelson worked in this milieu
      but Dodds never did. I wonder why.

      [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]







      [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
    • jtdyamond
      ... The answer is a simple one: Johnny Dodds was a respectable man of fastidious personal habits. His outlook on life was careful and thrifty. He had invested
      Message 2 of 5 , Mar 30, 2009
      • 0 Attachment
        --- In RedHotJazz@yahoogroups.com, Mordechai Litzman <folke613@...> wrote:
        >
        > Race Records
        > After reading all the interesting posts a thought occurred to me: According to many of the accounts cited, musicians like Dodds played for white audiences in the 20's on Chicago's south side, but the records that we all cherish were made mainly for a black audience and issued as race records. Is what we hear a version of Dodds' artistry geared to a black audience, in contrast to perhaps a different style performing for white audiences?
        >
        > The following article sheds some light on the magnitude of the race records business:
        >
        > Primarily excerpted from Jazz: A History of America's Music with contributions by Loren Schoenberg, Saxophonist and Conductor
        >
        >
        >
        >
        >
        > Okeh Race Records
        > Image courtesy of Frank Driggs Collection
        >
        > After the Victor Talking Machine Company introduced the Victrola � one
        > of the first phonographs � in 1901, the recording industry became big
        > business. But, before 1915, no one had thought of recording jazz. Then,
        > that December, a spokesman from the Victor Talking Machine Company
        > approached Creole trumpeter Freddie Keppard and his Original Creole
        > Orchestra about recording their music. But first, he explained, they
        > would have to hold a try out to see if the firm's primitive recording
        > device could pick up the sound of the band's bass player. Keppard
        > turned them down, insulted that the spokesman was asking them to
        > audition without pay. His clarinetist George Baquet recalled him
        > saying, "Nothing doing, boys. We won't put our stuff on records for
        > everybody to steal." Within two years, the all-white Original Dixieland
        > Jazz Band would sell over a million copies of their version of New
        > Orleans jazz � outselling best-selling artists such as tenor Enrico
        > Caruso and the composer/bandleader John Phillip Sousa.
        > By the 1920s, records were big business. Despite the popularity of
        > African-American bands and musicians, record producers felt that white
        > audiences would be more inclined to buy jazz recordings made by white
        > musicians. Other specialty record labels, offering recordings aimed at
        > a particular audience, began when record companies discovered an
        > untapped market in new immigrants yearning for the sounds of home.
        > Special catalogs of ethnic records included both re-pressed recordings
        > from Europe, and new recordings by American immigrant artists marketed
        > directly to various ethnic (Polish, Jewish, Italian, Irish)
        > communities, where they sold prodigiously. While many of these
        > performances traffic in stereotypes that make them difficult to listen
        > to today, the term race, in this context, was not used or understood as
        > a pejorative at the time.
        >
        > Victor Race Records
        > Image courtesy of Institute of Jazz Studies
        >
        > During the Great Migration � the northern exodus of southern blacks
        > that began in 1917 � approximately 1.5 million African-Americans left
        > the South in search of a better life in the economically thriving
        > North. Record companies such as Okeh, Paramount, Vocalion, and Columbia
        > soon began to market special labels of "race records" � music by and
        > for an African-American audience, especially recent migrants longing
        > for Southern sounds. Blues singer Bessie Smith's 1923 recording of Down Hearted Blues was Columbia Records first popular hit and race record. This new genre
        > of recordings allowed many African Americans artists to reach a
        > national audience for the first time. "There's 14 million Negroes in
        > our great country and they will buy records if recorded by one of their
        > own," said the pioneering black record producer Perry Bradford in 1920,
        > "because we are the only folks that can sing and interpret hot jazz
        > songs just off the griddle."
        > Harry Pace established the first black owned record company, called
        > Black Swan, whose pointedly ironic slogan was "The Only Genuine Colored
        > Records � Others Are Only Passing for Colored." Sales of race records
        > soon reached five million copies a year.
        > A large segment of race records were marketed directly to an
        > African-American audience, and soon became part of the black
        > community's culture. The Chicago Defender encouraged "lovers of
        > music everywhere and those who desire to help in the advance of the
        > Race" to purchase these records. Listening to and enjoying these
        > recordings not only unified the listener with the artist, but also with
        > African-Americans in other communities across the country, giving them
        > a voice and a place within the chaos of urban life. Newsboys sold blues
        > records. So did door-to-door salesmen. Pullman porters carried copies
        > south with them and peddled them at whistlestops. The records that
        > singer Bessie Smith and her rivals made were a sensation in black
        > communities all over the country. Smith sold so many records, got so
        > famous that she was cast in an early sound film � one of the first to
        > feature black performers.
        >
        > Child playing phonograph
        > Image courtesy of Schomberg Center for Research in Black Culture, New York Public Library
        >
        > Soon, these race records intended for the African-American community
        > went on to expand beyond just jazz and blues. Record companies were
        > eager to increase their markets, and even developed some non-musical
        > recordings, including recorded sermons, gospel music, spirituals and
        > comedy routines.
        > Eventually, white record producers recognized the appeal of
        > African-American bands and made a deliberate attempt to market them to
        > white audiences. But the chronic idiocies of race among the men who ran
        > the recording industry decided what music was appropriate for each
        > audience. Sweet and sentimental tunes should remain the dominion of
        > white bands, while black orchestras had better stick with the blues and
        > stomp numbers that supposedly came to them "naturally" and would be the
        > kind of race records African-Americans would want to buy.
        > The booming record industry nearly collapsed with the onset of the Great Depression,
        > when the Stock Market Crash of 1929 brought the so-called Jazz Age to
        > an end. After selling more than 100 million records a year in the
        > mid-1920s, record company sales dropped to six million. Okeh, Gennett
        > and Paramount Records all when out of business.
        >
        >
        >
        > ________________________________
        > From: David Brown <johnhaleysims@...>
        > To: RedHotJazz@yahoogroups.com
        > Sent: Thursday, February 19, 2009 5:00:00 AM
        > Subject: RE: [RedHotJazz] Re: The Anxiety of Influence was The Influence of Anxiety
        >
        >
        > 'Kelly's was packed every night. There were special nights, one for
        > theatrical entertainers and another for the college crowd. The band played
        > for dancing and backed the Club's singing waiters. They played pop music
        > with a jazz twist but hardly ever blues for the strictly white
        > tronage.' --- Baby Dodds Story
        >
        > From Kelly's, Dodds moved to the K-Nine from 1931-34 --- 'for floor shows
        > and dancing. Mostly they played for white audiences and had to know the
        > latest pop tunes --- classics like Faust and the Hungarian Rhapsodies.'
        >
        > Thereafter jobs got scarcer and meaner, like The New Stables, an amusement
        > park, where the band played for floor shows and dancing. Eventually Dodds
        > was playing alone at the One Cent Club where Bill Russell found him.
        >
        > So Dodds was playing a wide repertoire in the 30s without any blues bias,
        > probably even with an anti-blues bias. I don't know whether this was
        > freedom.
        >
        > I also don't know whether a black audience would have demanded more blues
        > but I suspect so. There was a large market in Chicago for the proto-urban
        > blues of Broonzy et al. Odell Rand and Arnett Nelson worked in this milieu
        > but Dodds never did. I wonder why.
        >
        > [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
        >
        >
        >
        >
        >
        >
        >
        > [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]

        The answer is a simple one: Johnny Dodds was a respectable man of fastidious personal habits. His outlook on life was careful and thrifty. He had invested the money he made from the boom times of the 1920s wisely. He owned an apartment building and was involved with his brothers in running a taxi company. He had no need in the Depression years of playing music for kitty contributions in sleazy non-union bars. Like many others, in middle age he drifted out of music, earning his living by more regular means. Nelson on the other hand was a spendthrift who liked his liquor and enjoyed the company of less reputable individuals.
      • David Brown
        What was the question ? We have seen how Dodds struggled for work in the 30s and the humiliation he sustained as a result, including the super sleazy One Cent
        Message 3 of 5 , Mar 31, 2009
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          What was the question ? We have seen how Dodds struggled for work in the 30s
          and the humiliation he sustained as a result, including the super sleazy
          'One Cent Club'. Fred Ramsey describes in 1938 'Dodds' old clarinet was
          falling apart at the joints and much of the time instead of playing he kept
          lighting matches under it to swell the cork gasketting.' ( Klatzko) This
          does not sound as if Dodds had achieved any degree of financial security let
          alone affluence.

          Dave



          -----Original Message-----
          From: RedHotJazz@yahoogroups.com [mailto:RedHotJazz@yahoogroups.com]On
          Behalf Of jtdyamond
          Sent: Montag, 30. März 2009 13:56
          To: RedHotJazz@yahoogroups.com
          Subject: [RedHotJazz] Re: Race records


          The answer is a simple one: Johnny Dodds was a respectable man of fastidious
          personal habits. His outlook on life was careful and thrifty. He had
          invested the money he made from the boom times of the 1920s wisely. He owned
          an apartment building and was involved with his brothers in running a taxi
          company. He had no need in the Depression years of playing music for kitty
          contributions in sleazy non-union bars. Like many others, in middle age he
          drifted out of music, earning his living by more regular means. Nelson on
          the other hand was a spendthrift who liked his liquor and enjoyed the
          company of less reputable individuals.




          [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
        • fearfeasa
          What was the question? On Thursday, February 19, 2009 David Brown ... milieu ... Maybe that s not expressed as a question, but I was providing a possible
          Message 4 of 5 , Mar 31, 2009
          • 0 Attachment
            "What was the question?" On Thursday, February 19, 2009 David Brown
            wrote in this thread:

            >There was a large market in Chicago for the proto-urban
            > blues of Broonzy et al. Odell Rand and Arnett Nelson worked in this
            milieu
            > but Dodds never did. /I wonder why. /[My emphasis]

            Maybe that's not expressed as a question, but I was providing a possible
            solution to the source of your wonderment, David. Everybody struggled
            for work in the 1930s; most suffered humiliation as a result, Music in
            the 1920s had been Dodds' sole occupation. Fortunately for him, he was
            thrifty and got himself not one but two sources of income outside music.
            I certainly did not say he was affluent, nor even that he "had achieved
            any degree of finanial security". His apartment building, in which he
            lived himself, would have provided some income from the flats that were
            rented out (probably no more than two of them), as long as the tenants
            could pay their rent; his taxi would have provided other income,
            provided he could maintain it and get enough customers for a small
            profit. His music - what there was of it - would have occupied him on a
            part-time basis for one. maybe two nights a week, provided he could get
            the rate for the job.

            This report of his lighting matches under his clarinet "to swell the
            cork gasketting" is interesting, but confusing. I suspect that Fred
            Ramsey was not himself a clarinettist. I have a 1930 Selmer clarinet in
            good working order. I've maintained it myself for 30 years, because I
            can't see the point of wasting good money paying someone to do a job I
            can do myself, usually better. Personal pride and thrift born of
            necessity taught me all the tricks of maintaining an ageing instrument
            in playable condition. You can bet that Dodds did the same, through a
            mixture of pride, thrift and, by the mid 1930s, financial necessity.

            I don't know precisely what Ramsey meany by "cork gasketting."
            Certainly Dodds would not have applied a match to the cork seals in the
            joints of his instrument. Cork is inflammable - such a procedure would
            have only acerbated the situation. A temporary measure (how long is
            "temporary"?) would have been to wrap strips of paper around the tenon
            of the leaking joint.

            Except possibly for the pad on the register key (which is only very
            rarely made of cork. and then only on cheap instruments - and Dodds
            played a Selmer himself, judging by the available photographs), all the
            pads on Dodds' clarinet would have been covered with leather - probably
            kid. Oldtime New Orleans clarinettists used to make their own
            replacement pads, cutting the covering from from old kid gloves. Dodds'
            teacher, or older clarinettists no doubt taught him how to do this.

            The pads were (and still are on my instrument) held in their seats by a
            resinous adhesive. I have often, on a job, applied a lighted match to
            the outer side of the metal cup to loosen the pad in order to reseat it
            if I thought it was leaking, and to dry out the pad temproarily. If the
            pad is taking in water, blotting-, news- or lavatory-paper can be good
            to soak up some of the moisture, too. If a spring goes, use a rubber
            band. These are all run-of-the-mill temporary measures that any
            clarinettist worth his salt will apply until he gets a chance to do a
            proper maintenance job. No big deal. Perhaps Ramsey's report smacks of
            white middle-class romanticism?

            Another reason why Dodds didn't work with Broonzy /et al./ is the simple
            one that perhaps they weren' t the crowd he hung out with. Who got him
            the job in the 'One Cent Club'? Was the owner/manager a friend of his?
            Or was it just his way of keeping in practice during a period when he
            was scuffling for a living in areas of employment outside music and
            didn't have time nor energy to do all the depressing doorknocking and
            throw all the tiresome sales pitches required to make money out of his
            music? Did Ramsey or any of his mates organise a real music job for
            Dodds at union scale?

            David Brown wrote:
            >
            > What was the question ? We have seen how Dodds struggled for work in
            > the 30s
            > and the humiliation he sustained as a result, including the super sleazy
            > 'One Cent Club'. Fred Ramsey describes in 1938 'Dodds' old clarinet was
            > falling apart at the joints and much of the time instead of playing he
            > kept
            > lighting matches under it to swell the cork gasketting.' ( Klatzko) This
            > does not sound as if Dodds had achieved any degree of financial
            > security let
            > alone affluence.
            >
            > Dave
            >
            > -----Original Message-----
            > From: RedHotJazz@yahoogro ups.com
            > <mailto:RedHotJazz%40yahoogroups.com> [mailto:RedHotJazz@yahoogro
            > ups.com <mailto:RedHotJazz%40yahoogroups.com>]On
            > Behalf Of jtdyamond
            > Sent: Montag, 30. März 2009 13:56
            > To: RedHotJazz@yahoogro ups.com <mailto:RedHotJazz%40yahoogroups.com>
            > Subject: [RedHotJazz] Re: Race records
            >
            > The answer is a simple one: Johnny Dodds was a respectable man of
            > fastidious
            > personal habits. His outlook on life was careful and thrifty. He had
            > invested the money he made from the boom times of the 1920s wisely. He
            > owned
            > an apartment building and was involved with his brothers in running a taxi
            > company. He had no need in the Depression years of playing music for kitty
            > contributions in sleazy non-union bars. Like many others, in middle age he
            > drifted out of music, earning his living by more regular means. Nelson on
            > the other hand was a spendthrift who liked his liquor and enjoyed the
            > company of less reputable individuals.
            >
            > [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
            >
            >


            [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
          • Dan Van Landingham
            When I taught myself clarinet,I ultimately,learned how to repair them.I took this several steps further when I started to play sax as well as trumpet and
            Message 5 of 5 , Apr 1 7:16 PM
            • 0 Attachment
              When I taught myself clarinet,I ultimately,learned how to repair them.I took this several steps further when I started to play sax as well as trumpet and trombone.I could not af-
              ford to take my horns into the shop so I learned how to repair them what I hung around
              a couple of musicians who did repair for a living.As for the corks,I would like to know what
              using a lighter to cause the pads to swell.I've heard of such a thing.I used a match along
              with an alcohol lamp to loosen the pad or pads to replace them.I've been guided by the need to do my own work out of financial reasons.What I never got into was how to repair a
              badly mangled bell of either trombone or trumpet.I used an old drumstick to take creases
              in the bell or to remove dents that were nearer to the bell.I didn't know that kidskin was
              used on clarinet.Every clarinet I've ever owned had a thin membranous fiber that was
              clear.The pad itself was a white felt like wafer.That,of course,held true with flutes as well
              as those of the double reed instruments such as the oboe and bassoon.I also learned,on
              my own,to do my own repair work on both violin and guitar as I play those instruments as
              well.Some of it wasn't "kosher" as I had to use carpenter's glue rather than animal hide
              glue which I can't get here as this area is a bit out of the way from the large cities such as
              Portland,Oregon or San Francisco.At any rate,that's how I do it.Call it doing what I do as
              "Necessity being the Mother of Invention".

              --- On Tue, 3/31/09, fearfeasa <fearfeasa@...> wrote:

              From: fearfeasa <fearfeasa@...>
              Subject: Re: [RedHotJazz] Re: Race records
              To: RedHotJazz@yahoogroups.com
              Date: Tuesday, March 31, 2009, 8:43 AM






              "What was the question?" On Thursday, February 19, 2009 David Brown
              wrote in this thread:

              >There was a large market in Chicago for the proto-urban
              > blues of Broonzy et al. Odell Rand and Arnett Nelson worked in this
              milieu
              > but Dodds never did. /I wonder why. /[My emphasis]

              Maybe that's not expressed as a question, but I was providing a possible
              solution to the source of your wonderment, David. Everybody struggled
              for work in the 1930s; most suffered humiliation as a result, Music in
              the 1920s had been Dodds' sole occupation. Fortunately for him, he was
              thrifty and got himself not one but two sources of income outside music.
              I certainly did not say he was affluent, nor even that he "had achieved
              any degree of finanial security". His apartment building, in which he
              lived himself, would have provided some income from the flats that were
              rented out (probably no more than two of them), as long as the tenants
              could pay their rent; his taxi would have provided other income,
              provided he could maintain it and get enough customers for a small
              profit. His music - what there was of it - would have occupied him on a
              part-time basis for one. maybe two nights a week, provided he could get
              the rate for the job.

              This report of his lighting matches under his clarinet "to swell the
              cork gasketting" is interesting, but confusing. I suspect that Fred
              Ramsey was not himself a clarinettist. I have a 1930 Selmer clarinet in
              good working order. I've maintained it myself for 30 years, because I
              can't see the point of wasting good money paying someone to do a job I
              can do myself, usually better. Personal pride and thrift born of
              necessity taught me all the tricks of maintaining an ageing instrument
              in playable condition. You can bet that Dodds did the same, through a
              mixture of pride, thrift and, by the mid 1930s, financial necessity.

              I don't know precisely what Ramsey meany by "cork gasketting."
              Certainly Dodds would not have applied a match to the cork seals in the
              joints of his instrument. Cork is inflammable - such a procedure would
              have only acerbated the situation. A temporary measure (how long is
              "temporary"? ) would have been to wrap strips of paper around the tenon
              of the leaking joint.

              Except possibly for the pad on the register key (which is only very
              rarely made of cork. and then only on cheap instruments - and Dodds
              played a Selmer himself, judging by the available photographs) , all the
              pads on Dodds' clarinet would have been covered with leather - probably
              kid. Oldtime New Orleans clarinettists used to make their own
              replacement pads, cutting the covering from from old kid gloves. Dodds'
              teacher, or older clarinettists no doubt taught him how to do this.

              The pads were (and still are on my instrument) held in their seats by a
              resinous adhesive. I have often, on a job, applied a lighted match to
              the outer side of the metal cup to loosen the pad in order to reseat it
              if I thought it was leaking, and to dry out the pad temproarily. If the
              pad is taking in water, blotting-, news- or lavatory-paper can be good
              to soak up some of the moisture, too. If a spring goes, use a rubber
              band. These are all run-of-the-mill temporary measures that any
              clarinettist worth his salt will apply until he gets a chance to do a
              proper maintenance job. No big deal. Perhaps Ramsey's report smacks of
              white middle-class romanticism?

              Another reason why Dodds didn't work with Broonzy /et al./ is the simple
              one that perhaps they weren' t the crowd he hung out with. Who got him
              the job in the 'One Cent Club'? Was the owner/manager a friend of his?
              Or was it just his way of keeping in practice during a period when he
              was scuffling for a living in areas of employment outside music and
              didn't have time nor energy to do all the depressing doorknocking and
              throw all the tiresome sales pitches required to make money out of his
              music? Did Ramsey or any of his mates organise a real music job for
              Dodds at union scale?

              David Brown wrote:
              >
              > What was the question ? We have seen how Dodds struggled for work in
              > the 30s
              > and the humiliation he sustained as a result, including the super sleazy
              > 'One Cent Club'. Fred Ramsey describes in 1938 'Dodds' old clarinet was
              > falling apart at the joints and much of the time instead of playing he
              > kept
              > lighting matches under it to swell the cork gasketting.' ( Klatzko) This
              > does not sound as if Dodds had achieved any degree of financial
              > security let
              > alone affluence.
              >
              > Dave
              >
              > -----Original Message-----
              > From: RedHotJazz@yahoogro ups.com
              > <mailto:RedHotJazz% 40yahoogroups. com> [mailto:RedHotJazz@ yahoogro
              > ups.com <mailto:RedHotJazz% 40yahoogroups. com>]On
              > Behalf Of jtdyamond
              > Sent: Montag, 30. März 2009 13:56
              > To: RedHotJazz@yahoogro ups.com <mailto:RedHotJazz% 40yahoogroups. com>
              > Subject: [RedHotJazz] Re: Race records
              >
              > The answer is a simple one: Johnny Dodds was a respectable man of
              > fastidious
              > personal habits. His outlook on life was careful and thrifty. He had
              > invested the money he made from the boom times of the 1920s wisely. He
              > owned
              > an apartment building and was involved with his brothers in running a taxi
              > company. He had no need in the Depression years of playing music for kitty
              > contributions in sleazy non-union bars. Like many others, in middle age he
              > drifted out of music, earning his living by more regular means. Nelson on
              > the other hand was a spendthrift who liked his liquor and enjoyed the
              > company of less reputable individuals.
              >
              > [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
              >
              >

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