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RMSMC Issue #3183: Military Affairs

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  • RMSMC [Ralph Davis]
    Russian Military and Security Media Coverage #3183 [05 Mar 2004] [Open-source resources compiled by Ralph Davis for the recipient s personal use.] In this
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      Russian Military and Security Media Coverage #3183 [05 Mar 2004]

      [Open-source resources compiled by Ralph Davis for the recipient's personal use.]

      In this issue: Military Affairs
      Updated: March 04, 2004

      01.    ACT, Mar 2004; Putin Boasts About Russian Military Capabilities
      02.    NVO, 02-27-04; Putin's Asymmetric Break-Through
      03.    Voyenno-Promyshlennyy Kuryer, 02-25-04; The Future of the Air and Space Shield
      04.    Rashtriya Sahara, 03-03-04; Russia's Hypersonic to Counter US NMD
      05.    VKO, Feb 2004; The Nucleus of Aerospace Defense
      06.    Vozdushno-Kosmicheskaya Oborona, 02-15-04; Russia's SKKP [Space Surveillance System]: Yesterday, Today, and Tomorrow
      07.    NVO, 02-17-04; Murky Prospects of Cooperation
      08.    AVN, 02-25-04; The RVSN [Strategic Missile Troops] Military Council reviewed the issue of reforming and optimizing occupied housing stocks
      09.    RTR, 03-01-04; Russia's Putin Orders Repeat Missile Test To Eradicate Previous Failure
      10.    Kommersant, 03-02-04; Vladimir Putin Sets Submariners Reexamination
      11.    Moscow Times, 03-02-04; It's a Wonderful Life on TV
      12.    ITAR-TASS, 03-02-04; Russian Defense Chief Says Exercise Necessary To Prevent Shortcomings

      01.    Putin Boasts About Russian Military Capabilities
      Tests Show Both Strengths and Weaknesses
      Wade Boese
      Arms Control Today
      Volume 34 Number 2 -- March 2004
      In February, Russia concluded what it touted as its most extensive military exercises in two decades, revealing both the current weaknesses and the remaining strengths of Russia’s missile arsenal.
      Russian President Vladimir Putin personally witnessed the low and high points. On Feb. 17, Putin watched as a Russian submarine reportedly failed to properly launch two ballistic missiles, although some Russian officials later contended that they were only supposed to be simulations. Another submarine ballistic missile launch went awry the next day. Also on Feb. 18, however, Putin was able to announce the successful launch of a strategic ballistic missile carrying what he described as a “new weapons system.”
      Russia possesses “combat-ready armed forces, and this includes the nuclear forces,” Putin said in an English-language transcript supplied by the Russian Ministry of Foreign Affairs.
      In his statement, Putin emphasized that the recent exercises cleared the way for adding to the Russian arsenal “new hypersound-speed, high-precision…weapons systems that can hit targets at intercontinental distance and can adjust their altitude and course as they travel.” He implied that such weapons would be ideal for penetrating potential missile defense systems.
      Neither Putin nor other top Kremlin officials have shed further light on what the new weapons system is. Most speculation centers on the development of a warhead for a long-range missile that can maneuver after separating from its booster instead of following a ballistic trajectory through space and back to Earth. A warhead that could alter its trajectory would present a much harder target for a missile defense system to hit than a warhead that followed a predictable path.
      Why Russia would need to develop such a sophisticated warhead remains unclear because it currently deploys more than 4,600 strategic warheads on more than 1,000 land- and submarine-based ballistic missiles that could simply overwhelm any missile defense system comprised of a lesser number of interceptors.
      Although he contended that Russian arms modernization plans were “not in any way directed at the United States,” Putin also said, “[A]s other countries increase the number and quality of their arms and military potential, then Russia will also need to ensure it has new-generation arms and technology.” Washington is currently seeking to deploy the initial elements of a rudimentary multilayered missile defense system this fall and is also exploring new nuclear-weapon designs for new missions, such as destroying deeply buried enemy bunkers.
      Still, the earlier submarine missile launch failures detracted from Putin’s upbeat theme. While Russian military officials and press reports went back and forth on whether the tests actually fizzled, Putin confirmed that everything did not go as planned. “Of course, there were pluses and minuses during the course of these exercises,” the president stated.
      Putin further pointedly admitted that Russia’s military budget remains pinched. He dismissed the prospect of Russia trying to match U.S. missile defense work, saying, “We think that the time has not come to invest big money in such a project yet. We do not have this money to spare.”
      Yet, he indicated that Russia would be keeping an eye on the U.S. effort. “We shall see how work moves ahead in other countries,” Putin said.
      Putin is currently campaigning for re-election in March and has been running, in part, on a record of restoring Moscow’s military strength after its dramatic collapse following the end of the Cold War. His re-election is viewed by almost all observers as a certainty.
      02.    Russia: Pundits Speculate About Meaning of New "Hypersonic" Weapons
      Moscow Nezavisimoye Voyennoye Obozreniye in Russian 27 Feb 04

      [Article by Vladimir Ivanov: "Putin's Asymmetric Break-Through; The President Announced a New Russian Hypersonic Weapon"]

      After completing the next stage of the Strategic Command-Staff Exercise (SKShT) in Plesetsk, the President of the Russian Federation Vladimir Putin declared to journalists, that soon Russia will have the most advanced strategic missiles. He said that these missiles will fly at hypersonic speeds and change trajectory by altitude and course to destroy intercontinental strategic targets.

      First Deputy Chief of the General Staff of the Armed Forces (VS) General-Colonel Yuriy Baluevskiy confirmed that during the SKShT, a hypersonic flying vehicle was tested. It flied not only in space on a ballistic trajectory at hypersonic speed, but also within the atmosphere. The trajectory of the vehicle changed arbitrarily while having an elliptical form. According to the General, this will allow the new vehicle to penetrate any anti-missile defense systems, now and in the future.

      The announcement of a new missile weapon system prompted many questions and comments. The former Chief of the Fourth Central Scientific Research Institute (TsNII) of the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation, General-Major (Retired) Vladimir Dvorkin, ventured to guess that this innovation could carry over into ballistic missile warheads. Even during Soviet times, there were proposals to put several supersonic cruise missiles on heavy ballistic missiles instead of nuclear warheads. The ballistic missile would release the warhead [or reentry vehicle] in the proposed target location, and there the cruise missiles would locate and attack the targets. This idea, however, was rejected due to the extremely high costs.

      Full-fledged Academy of Astronautics member, Valentin Belokon, told correspondents the term "hypersonic" more aptly applies to cruise missiles, and not to ballistic missiles. He believes that if the new missiles can accomplish maneuvers in both altitude and course, and their maneuvering is regulated by a random number generator, then any anti-missile defense system is powerless against it.

      The Los Angeles Times cited statements by a Pentagon representative who declared, that Russia since long ago possessed the potential capability of overcoming anti-missile systems built in the United States, because it possesses a large quantity of ballistic missiles. He also noted that the appearance of new Russian technology will make little change in the prevailing situation.

      The work on creating a hypersonic cruise missile (KR) in Russia began in the late 1950's, to early 1960's. Increasing the speed of flying vehicles has always been one of the key areas to increase their effectiveness. Developers on the average spent 10 years to increase [the speed] by one Mach (M) unit. During the 1960's, Mach 1.0 through 1.5 was achieved; in the 1970's Mach 2.5 to 3; and in the 1980's Mach 3 to 4. Each unit of M [represents] new aerodynamics, corresponding with the requirements of "Stealth" technology: new design-circuit schematics, new methods of calculations, new materials and a new experimental base for checking the received results. The ultimate value of flying vehicles with a speed of Mach 5 is the strengthening of national defense in the XXI century.

      The work on creating a hypersonic vehicle became public knowledge in 1997 at the International Aviation and Space Salon near Moscow, when the Zhukovsky Mechanical Engineering Design Bureau "Raduga" demonstrated a new product: the X-90 hypersonic experimental flying vehicle. NATO designated the vehicle the AS-19 Koala. After launch of the X-90, the triangular-collapsible wing and the vertical stabilizer both open and the solid-fuel engines, situated in the combustion chamber of the hypersonic direct-flow air-breathing engine, ignite. This accelerates the missile to supersonic speed. Next, the mid-flight engine is initiated and provides hypersonic cruise flight at Mach 4 to 5.

      According to a source from the Defense Industrial Complex (OPK), the modified Tu-160M bomber, with a lengthened fuselage, is planned to carry two cartridges of six X-90 cruise missiles each. This missile had high power-to-weight indices. The professionalism of the developers also allowed for a very good level of its cost characteristics.

      During the Mikhail Gorbachev administration, this missile (by someone's malicious will) was included on the list of weapon systems that fell under the umbrella of the START-2 treaty. The project, nearing its actual state test phase, was stopped in 1992 when Americans did not initiate similar weapon development.

      Currently, there are no real analogues of this system anywhere. At the same time, inconsistent messages by the Americans on their hypersonic flying vehicle, known as the "Aurora", is proof of [their] work in this direction. A number of projects marketed in the USA have created a number of flight laboratories, such as the specialized hypersonic flying laboratories (GLL), now based on Intercontinental Ballistic Missiles (MBR) removed from strategic weapon [lists]. Thus, the cost of carrying out one flying experiment makes tens-of-millions of dollars for the MBR and up to $4.5 million for the specialized (GLL). The total cost of the program to create a 50-ton GLL X-34 is estimated at more than $175 million. Americans consider the creation of such a cruise missile as too expensive; therefore, they are developing and producing a subsonic cruise missile.

      An NVO correspondent managed to contact the General Designer of the Mechanical Engineering Design Bureau (MKB) "Raduga" who created the X-90, academician and Hero of Socialist Work, Igor Seleznev. Responding to our request to comment on the President's statement about the new weapon, the academician answered that he does not understand the discussion.

      Some experts believe that Vladimir Putin's statement showed an asymmetric answer to the anti-missile challenge of America. Besides this, Russia simply does not have the means to construct an anti-missile defense (PRO) system, and has no intention of creating one now. The Ministry of Defense has made an official announcement about this.

      From the NVO file.

      The basic tactical-technical characteristics of the X-90 cruise missile:

      Length: approximately 12 meters. Wingspan: 6.8 to 7 meters; number and [nuclear] power of the warheads: 2 / 200 kilotons. The engine is hypersonic direct-flow air-breathing jet. The accelerator is a solid-fuel rocket engine. Flight speed is four to five Mach (In the air mach equals 332 meters per second.) Altitude of launch: 7,000 meters; flight altitude: 7,000 to 20,000 meters. Range: 3,000 kilometers. The control system is inertial and radio command. The carrier is the Tu-160M.
      03.    Russia: Roundtable Debates Need, Future Look of Air-Space Defense
      Moscow Voyenno-Promyshlennyy Kuryer in Russian 25 Feb 04

      [Article by Mikhail Khodarenok: "The Future of the Air and Space Shield"]

          Proposals to formulate the look of the VKO [air and space defense] system of Russia continue to be devised

          The first deputy minister of defense and chairman of the State Committee for the State Defense Order of the RF Ministry of Defense, General of the Army Vladimir Matyukhin, and the co-chairman of the Extradepartmental Expert Council for the Problems of VKO, Russian Academy of Sciences Academician and Almaz NPO [Scientific Production Association] Scientific Supervisor Boris Bunkin

          The Extradepartmental Expert Council for the Problems of VKO held a roundtable discussion at the Congress-Center of the RF Chamber of Trade and Industry on 18 February 2004.   It discussed topical issues of the functioning of the VKO of Russia, and defined the basic guidelines for its development.   Taking part in the roundtable, which was held under the aegis of the first deputy minister of defense and chairman of the State Committee for the State Defense Order of the RF Ministry of Defense, Vladimir Matyukhin, were more than 70 representatives of the State Duma, the government of the RF, the Security Council, defense agencies, the Ministry of Defense, General Staff, branches and arms of the Armed Forces, the leading scientific-research organizations of the Ministry of Defense, the Academy of Military Sciences, and executives of leading enterprises in the defense-industrial complex.

          About a year ago the leading scientists and designers creating the weapons for antiaircraft, missile and space, and air and space defense, as well as former managers of command and control elements of the RF Armed Forces, created an expert consulting advisory body -- the Extradepartmental Expert Council for the Problems of VKO -- at the initiative of Igor Ashurbeyli, general director of the Almaz NPO imeni Academician A.A. Raspletin.   They were united by the desire to enhance the security of the nation and the effectiveness of the activity of the OPK [defense industrial complex] of Russia.   Air and space defense is one of the basic strategic components of nuclear security, and its role is constantly rising.

          The Threats

          Doctor of Engineering Sciences Professor Anatoliy Sumin presented the report "Development Trends in the Offensive Air and Space Forces and Assets of Foreign Countries, and the Forms and Methods of Their Combat Application" at the roundtable.   He noted in particular that one characteristic feature of programs for the development of air and space offensive weapons (SVKN) is the stepped-up work on advanced technologies, including in the areas of hypersonic and Stealth technologies, the modular principle in design, and the utilization of the latest achievements of on-board electronics.   This will make it possible to create a fundamentally new generation of arms at the beginning of the 21st century.

          As Sumin noted, research shows that the most advanced prototypes of air and space hardware for the third millennium will be hypersonic airframes (GZLA) able to operate at speeds of Mach 5 to 25 at altitudes of 30-120 kilometers, which is poorly monitored by present-day PVO [air defense] systems.   Work is currently underway in the United States on the creation of a hypersonic reconnaissance aircraft, a hypersonic cruise missile (GZKR), a strategic missile with a gliding warhead (SR PGCh), an air and space aircraft (VKS), and a hypersonic passenger transport aircraft.

          It may be asserted with confidence, Anatoliy Sumin noted, that if the trends in the development of arms continue, the groups of SVKN and VKO forces that are created will increase the capabilities of the most highly developed countries by no less than one and a half to two times at the beginning of the third millennium.

          Doctor of Economic Sciences Professor Vladimir Litvinov dwelled on possible ways that the RF VKO forces and assets could develop as the basic components of a system of strategic deterrence.   He emphasized that the basic directions of the work to create VKO should be structured with a regard for the existing threats, the scientific and technical work that is already underway, and economic factors in the RF; the creation of the RF VKO would this best be done in stages.   During this period of gradual creation, it will be necessary to develop a systemic plan for the VKO system through the cooperation of leading NITs [scientific research centers] of the Ministry of Defense and the scientific research and scientific production enterprises of industry, with its approval at the leadership level of the Ministry of Defense; develop a comprehensive model for the RF VKO; carry out partial field testing on the basis of the scientific and technical work that is already underway in the complex, aimed at confirming and working out in practice the engineering solutions that are adopted in the area of integrating the heterogeneous forces and assets of the RF Armed Forces into the operations of the VKO; develop schematic designs for the first stage of development of the system for the RF VKO; and, incorporate the measures for the creation of the RF VKO into the Plan for the Organizational Development of the RF Armed Forces for 2006-2010 and the long term, and into the State Arms Program for 2006-2015.

          Academician Anatoliy Savin dwelled in his presentation on ways of achieving parity in VKO systems as the foundation for ensuring the country's defensive capability in the long run through the year 2030.   In his opinion, the fighting ability of all the systems created to effect the strategy of nuclear deterrence -- preserving the potential for guaranteed retribution -- must be restored immediately for that purpose.   They must be modernized with a regard for the appearance of new technologies that make it possible to enhance the TTKh [tactical performance characteristics] of "open systems," and operating and energy expenditures must be reduced.

          We must ensure the reliable protection of ballistic missile launches against high-precision weaponry.   This problem is closely associated with the problem of eliminating possible threats from local and large-scale wars using conventional weapons.

          The role of mobile nuclear missile launchers must also be increased in the State Arms Program.

          The Debates

          The President of the Academy of Military Sciences, General of the Army Makhmut Gareyev, noted that the roundtable discussion touched on one of the most important problems of the Armed Forces.   That military commander emphasized that we must take domestic experience and the experience of other armies, and first and foremost the United States, into account.   But we cannot blindly copy NATO, "which certain forces are pushing us to do," stressed Makhmut Gareyev, "as that could lead to disaster."   The battle against SVKN is the basic substance of any armed struggle.   The air and space expanse should be a unified one for us.   But that will require not just one branch of the Armed Forces, in the opinion of this commander, but rather the interaction of all branches and arms of the service -- the RVSN [Strategic Missile Troops], the KV [Space Troops], the Air Force, Navy, and VDV [Airborne Assault Troops].

          Aleksey Shulunov noted that experience in reforming the Armed Forces and analysis of defense legislation testifies that "we are preparing for past wars, rather than looking ahead."

          Future wars mean new weapons, and that is a challenge that must be met.   The task arises of whether to create a new branch of the Armed Forces -- the VKO -- or not.   This is clearly a systemic task, and must be accomplished using systemic methods.   The task thus consists of three major aspects:   1) devising technical solutions; 2) organizational aspects; and 3) personnel solutions (whether a new formation of managers is needed).   But a fundamental economic problem exists -- there is no money in the budget, like there is in the United States.

         The first deputy minister of defense and chairman of the State Committee for the State Defense Order of the RF Ministry of Defense, General of the Army Vladimir Matyukhin, emphasized that he largely agrees with these remarks and suggestions.   "I like the organizer of this roundtable   -- the Extradepartmental Expert Council for the Problems of VKO -- very much," noted Vladimir Matyukhin in particular, "and we are thinking of creating an association of similar councils under our own State Committee for various areas."

          The Conclusions

          A final resolution was adopted based on the results of the roundtable.   It noted that the geopolitical climate that has taken shape requires the development of concrete steps aimed at solving political, organizational, military-theoretical, scientific-technical, and design-technological problems, and the deployment and functioning of the air and space defense of the Russian Federation within the context of the reforms in the Armed Forces and the defense industrial complex of Russia.

          Taking into account the importance of this problem and in order to formulate the look of a prospective air and space defense system to counter existing and prospective threats with a regard for the provisions of the Military Doctrine of Russia, a consolidation of all forces aimed at the development of a dedicated state program is essential, and it should envision:

          -- the choice of regional forms and methods for the organization of the air and space defense of Russia;

          -- substantiation of the principles for building a unified system of air and space defense;

          -- a military-economic analysis of the capabilities of the country and its defense industrial complex to create a VKO system;

          -- an assessment of opportunities for the application of prototype arms and military hardware, be they existing, under development, or prospective, to accomplish the tasks of air and space defense;

          -- analysis of the scientific and design work in progress that is currently at the leading developer enterprises of Russia's defense industrial complex.

          The Extradepartmental Expert Council for the Problems of VKO should be expanded in accordance with prevailing legislation, bringing into it both individuals and organizations specializing in the area of the problems of the VKO or with experience in this realm.

          Taking into account the potential of the Extradepartmental Expert Council for the Problems of VKO, we must appeal to the appropriate state administrative authorities, ministries, and agencies to use the Council as a consultative body on matters of air and space defense.

          The participants in the roundtable consider it essential to forward their recommendations to the presidential administration, the deputy chairman of the RF government, the Security Council, the minister of defense, the deputy minister of defense and chief of armaments of the RF Armed Forces, the chief of the General Staff, the commanders-in-chief of the branches of the Armed Forces, and a number of other officials.

          An item inserted into the final resolution at the suggestion of Almaz NPO General Director Igor Ashurbeyli called for petitioning the State Duma to develop a Federal Law on the Air and Space Defense of the Russian Federation.

          The participants in the roundtable emphasized their readiness to assist to the utmost the creation and development of the VKO of Russia, and supported the policy of President Vladimir Putin to build the Armed Forces of the future able to accomplish complex and crucial tasks of the defensive capability of the nation, including tasks of air and space defense.
      04.    India: Russia Said Developing Hypersonic Missile Capable of Destroying US NMD
      New Delhi Rashtriya Sahara in Hindi 03 Mar 04 p 10

      [Report by Sindhu Jha/Sahara News Bureau: "Russia's Hypersonic to Counter US NMD"]

          New Delhi, 2 March: After Russia's announcement to develop hypersonic missiles, there is an apprehension that the arms race between Russia and the United States may again hot up.   India has not yet reacted on this issue.   Foreign Ministry officials are maintaining silence in this regard.   Regarding the hypersonic missile, Russia claims that it will be able to destroy the US National Missile Defense [NMD] while Russia's friend, India, has supported NMD despite all criticism.

          Russia has increased the pace of technological testing process to counter the NMD, the result of which has come in the form of the hypersonic missile.   In the past, Russian President Vladimir Putin shocked the world by announcing the development of this missile.   It is being said that this missile would render the NMD system completely invalid or destroy it.   This missile is five times faster than the speed of sound and is capable of striking any target by turning about in air.   Foreign affairs experts say that Putin made the announcement of this secret missile system at a time when he is on way to become the Russian president for a second term.   Besides, Putin is eager to give an unmatched gift of the new century to the people of Russia and its allied countries.   This will strengthen his credit and position.

          Disarmament expert Professor T.T. Palush says, "The proverb that no matter how thin the elephant grows, it can never become a donkey applies to Russia."   In terms of both numbers and quality, Russia has always been ahead of the United States in the field of rockets and missile systems.   The number of missiles may have come down after the dissolution of the Soviet Union but in quality even now, there is no match in the world to the Russian supersonic cruise missile.

          Putin's announcement can be taken as a concrete evidence of this statement.   It is necessary to mention here that Russia's new ally, China, has already invested 50 to 60 percent in the defense sector in CIS countries, including Russia.   This process is continuing.  

          Besides Ukraine and Belarus, central Asian countries of Kirgizystan, Kazakhstan etc are attracting investment from China in the defense sector on a large scale.   In a way, this process has been going on in a well-planned manner.   Now it is being speculated that the invention of the latest missile system being announced to counter George Bush's NMD could be a joint effort by Russia and China.

          Experts believe that the growing friendship between Russia and China and the talks of including India into this triangle may not have taken concrete shape but it could become a reason for concern for US President George Bush.   Now that Bush is trying to get reelected as President, the announcement of a new Russian missile system is not a pleasant message for him.   Bush's opponents could say that the result of spending billions of Dollars on the NMD is that one Russian missile could destroy the entire NMD.   Only one warhead of the Russian missile would be capable of piercing the US defense shield.

          A senior officer in the disarmament department of the Defense Ministry said that even today, Russia and Ukraine together are capable of destroying the United States and its allies with their missiles.   Despite the financial crunch, Russia has not ignored its defense interests.   Russian scientists are quite expert at renewing their defense equipment.   The Russian aircraft Ilyosin [IL-76] has no equal, and India has agreed to install the Israeli Falcon radar on this aircraft.   Russia is ahead of everyone in making cryogenic (rocket) engines.   It is very pleasing for India that Russia can destroy the NMD.   This would help in equating the power balance on the world level.
      05.    RF Space Troops play expanded role in national defense
      Moscow Vozdushno-Kosmicheskaya Oborona in Russian 15 Feb 04

      [Commentary by Colonel-General of Aviation Volter Kraskovskiy, former commanding general of the Missile-Space Defense Troops (in 1986-1991): "The Nucleus of Aerospace Defense. The Russian Federation Space Troops Can Become It"]

          The Space Troops, which consolidated in its composition the Military-Space Forces (VKS) and the Missile-Space Defense (VKO) Troops, were created on March 24, 2001.   Space Troops Commanding General Colonel-General Anatoliy Perminov stressed that this "was caused by an objective need, which proceeds from world trends toward the expansion of the role of space in insuring the defense of vitally important state interests in the economic, political and military spheres".   Today the strengthening of global strategic stability in the world is impossible without an Armed Forces military-space component.

          The development and deployment of orbital constellations of space systems in circumterrestrial space and ground-based systems for the conduct of reconnaissance and monitoring of outer space, the strategic level of the missions that are being accomplished with their use, the appearance of weapons that are capable of having an active impact on potential targets and the space, within which space infrastructure objects are deployed, such as the sphere of military operations -- all of that has predetermined the evolution of space as an independent sphere of the joint operations of the Military-Space Forces and the Missile-Space Defense Forces.

          We can consider the formation of the Space Troops as the most successful decision during the course of the conduct of Russian military reforms.   The Space Troops' three-year period of existence confirms that.   Today their complexes and systems are successfully handling a broad spectrum of missions both in support of all of the RF Armed Forces branches and types of troops, and also socioeconomic and scientific tasks.   The trend of the restoration of the native orbital constellation of spacecraft has acquired a stable nature.

          In short, the successes in the formation of the Space Troops are irrefutable.   The legitimacy of their formation and the correct selection of the key personnel of this type of troops are decisive factors in that.   Its contribution first of all is the fact that it could scrape together, in a very short period of time, effective command and control from the command and control agencies of RKO [Military-Space Defense] and the VKS [Military-Space Forces] that "were depleted" during the reorganization.   The newly created headquarters, ordnance services and rear services, and the other services and departments have managed to provide solid and uninterrupted command and control of the grouping of troops which, based upon the complexity of the weapons and the volume of the accomplishment of the assigned missions on land and in space, does not have an equivalent deployment.  

          Along with the accomplishment of combat readiness maintenance tasks, jointly with defense industrial complex enterprises, advanced multifaceted technical projects are being realized along the entire spectrum of weapons:   Launch vehicles of various classes, ground-based missile attack warning systems, spacecraft, the improvement of the cosmodromes and the creation of a Unified State Spacecraft and Measurement Command and Control Complex.

          While imparting the predominant role to the military-space component in increasing the efficiency and effectiveness of the RF Armed Forces, without which it is impossible to strengthen global strategic stability in the world, Russian Federation President Vladimir Putin and Minister of Defense Sergey Ivanov are devoting constant attention to the Space Troops (KV).   That attitude toward the troops by the leaders of the State and the Armed Forces promotes the effective resolution of their problems and future development.


          When we talk about increasing the role of space in providing Russia's security, we assume the men and equipment that form missile-space defense, - the Missile-Space Defense Troops and the constellation of spacecraft, which are designated to support Armed Forces combat operations with reconnaissance and command and control information.

          Hence, [we have assigned] a priority to their development.

          We can also explain the relevance of the increase of attention and requirements toward missile-space defense at the contemporary stage by the fact that, since withdrawing from the 1972 ABM Treaty, the United States has stepped up its activities in the sphere of the development of a territorial national missile defense (NMD).   However, the list of weapons that is being developed based upon the Pentagon's orders and their deployment on Earth and in circumterrestrial space permits us to call the American missile defense system a global [system].   We are actually standing on the threshold of a new era -- the era of the development of weapons not only to repel a first strike, but also to conduct it.   Plans exist for the militarization of space and total domination in it as a needed condition of the achievement of world supremacy.

          Essentially, a new round of the arms race has started, convincing evidence of which -- is the U.S. 2004 military budget in the amount of $401.3 billion.   In it, $9.1 billion has been allocated for NMD alone.

          Unfortunately, the mass media is either entirely silent or talks very little about the profound qualitative changes in Washington's military aspirations.   Although, until the United States unilaterally withdrew from the ABM treaty, Russia's mass media actively presented the RF leadership's point of view, which for several years now has forcefully argued the entire perniciousness of that step, which disrupts the strategic balance on the planet.   But now all of the conversations on this topic have suddenly ceased.

          After September 11, 2001, the entire world became convinced that national security is very highly dependent on aerospace defense.   Unfortunately, an analysis of our country's PVO [air defense] system shows that we do not have a full-fledged defense from terrorist acts like those that were committed in the United States two and a half years ago and, consequently, will not be able to preserve our vitally important facilities, the destruction of which could result in a disaster for the state.   The corresponding systems are required to combat criminal operations, which are similar to "Black Tuesday's" terrorist acts.

          However, a surge of terrorist activity by no means removes the nuclear missile threat from the agenda.


          If we turn to the recent past, it is impossible to reject the fact that the ABM Treaty served for a prolonged period (30 years) as that foundation, on which our country's defense was built.   While it existed, we didn't feel a special need for the development of elements of our own territorial missile defense.   But then again, the buildup of an arsenal of missiles of various classes and the improvement of the missile attack warning system (SPRN), which was a powerful deterrent factor of the emergence of a nuclear war, proceeded at rapid rates in this period.   The nuclear missile shield permitted us to reduce tension in the space sphere and at times even to halt work in the missile-space defense sphere at certain stages.

          There is one more circumstance, which requires an increase of attention to the Space Troops.   It logically proceeds from the draft "Aerospace Defense Blueprint", which the Ministry of Defense developed in 2002.   The creation of a Military-Space Defense is certainly -- a state matter, all the more so of all of the Armed Forces branches and types of troops.

          However, in my opinion, the Space Troops must become one of the key elements of Military-Space Defense.   At the present time, we should not isolate individual elements of the defensive forces and once again get carried away with organizational measures.   Today we must focus on the improvement of the technical aspect of the issue.   Let the experience with the reorganization of the PVO Troops, which ended with the loss of the once powerful and reliable air defense system for the country, serve as an example for military reformers, of how to never set out on the voluntaristic path on these issues.   The time has come to look in a new way at the development of a national Military-Space Defense.

          Now, when PVO has not become an independent branch of troops for a number of reasons, when groupings of PVO forces have undergone to a significant extent changes that are far from the best, it would be logical to seek new paths for the development of Military-Space Defense.   We need to act based upon the principle -- there where success has been highlighted, we need to develop it, and not glance at the ruins, from which systems already are not shaped.


          Such domestic defense industrial complex enterprises as MAK [Interstate Joint-Stock Corporation] "Vympel", the Scientific-Research Institute of Radio Instrument Building (NIIRP), RTI imeni Mints [Radio-Technical Institute imeni Academician A.L. Mints], the Scientific-Research Institute of Long-Range Radio Communications (NIIDAR), TsNPO [Central Science and Production Association] "Kometa" and the lead installation organization GPTP [Main Production-Technical Enterprise] (From the editorial staff:   Interstate Joint-Stock Corporation "Vympel", the Scientific-Research Institute of Radio Instrument Building, and the Central Science and Production Association "KOMETA" "by birth" from KB-1 [Design Bureau-1] -- presently NPO [Science and Production Association] "Almaz" imeni Academician A.A. Raspletin) must be the base of the formation of the Space Troops and the sources for equipping them with new models of weapons and military equipment.

          They represent historically developing cooperation in the missile-space defense sphere, and the main thing -- they managed to persevere during all of the socioeconomic cataclysms of the 1990s.

          Effective management techniques were selected at one time.   So, Central Science and Production Association "Vympel" merged the efforts of several enterprises for the conduct of an entire complex of work on missile-space defense.   The Central Science and Production Association had a science and technical center, which was fulfilling the primary role in the development of the missile attack warning system, the SKKP [Space Monitoring System] and missile defense of the city of Moscow, and a design bureau of systems programming, which was the association's ideological base.   The Scientific-Research Institute of Radio Instrument Building, the Radio-Technical Institute imeni Academician A.L. Mints, and the Scientific-Research Institute of Long-Range Radio Communications were involved with equipment development.   Production was assigned to the plants of DMZ, Kuntsevskiy Mechanical Plant, Gomel Plant, and the Scientific-Research Institute of Long-Range Radio Communications Test Plant.   Main Production-Technical Enterprise carried out the introduction of the equipment.

          A coherent and strict management system of all of the processes is observed in that structure of the allocation of functions.   The advantages of that integration of industrial institutions and enterprises are obvious based upon the result of the formation of Missile-Space Defense and the achievements in the system taken separately.   The essence of the integration consisted of the fact that it was created for the troops and would insure the accomplishment of the integrated missions of Missile-Space Defense to the maximum extent possible.

          At the beginning of the 1990s, a crisis situation developed for well-known reasons (the disintegration of the USSR, a dramatic reduction of financial resources and of the state orders themselves, the concentration of attention of the enterprises' leaders on internal security (survival), and also the weakening of the influence of the central agencies on defense industry state enterprises on the whole), including at Central Science and Production Association "Vympel", which was manifested in the disintegration of integration.

          Today the question is being posed on the formation of RKO Concern from the leading institutions of this sphere.   They are also studying to whom to entrust the role of lead enterprise:   leave "Vympel", which has well-known experience in that management sphere or assign that function to OAO [Open Joint-Stock Company] "RTI Sistemy" [Radio-Technical Institute Systems] (or find another solution).   We will hope that an effective path will be found.   Today the main thing is that all of the key subdivisions are preserving their potential for the time being and are capable of accomplishing specialized tasks.

          For example, over 90 percent of the scientific-technical potential has been preserved at Interstate Joint-Stock Corporation "Vympel".   Here, they are constantly concerned about the influx of young replacements (approximately 30 percent of the workers -- are graduates of MFTI [Moscow Physics-Technical Institute] of recent years).   A good bench-testing facility for the Missile Attack Warning System, Missile Defense and the Space Monitoring System has been created at the corporation.   The Science and Technical Center has a respectable assortment of models for modeling the possible situations of all systems.

          With "Vympel's" leading role, construction of the "Volga" Radar has been completed, which has been placed on alert duty from October 1, 2003, but then again, with a substantial reserve for modernization.

          Under the leadership of the Space Troops command authorities and jointly with other organizations, the "Okno" Optical-Electronic Complex at Nurek and the "Moment" RTK [radio-technical complex] KKP [space monitoring] mobile radiotechnical space monitoring facility have been introduced into the space monitoring system.

          The "Okno" High-Orbital Space Objects Detection Complex was installed at an elevation of 2,200 meters in an area with the best conditions for optical surveillance.   It consists of eight detection and space object angular coordinate and orientation measurement sites and two command and control posts for them.   Research has shown that the OPEK [Optical-Electronic Complex] is capable of "seeing" spacecraft at ranges that significantly exceed 40,000 kilometers.   The orbits of communications, signals intelligence, optical reconnaissance and navigation spacecraft practically end up in the complex's altitude range.

          One of the complex's missions -- is monitoring the manmade clogging of circumterrestrial space -- with "space garbage".   Under favorable surveillance conditions, modern optical-electronic systems can detect fragments that are one centimeter in diameter at a distance of up to 1,000 kilometers.   Hence we can judge "Okna's" role in insuring the flight safety of automatic and manned spacecraft under conditions of the permanent presence in space of several tens of thousands of erratic objects, which pose a danger to operating spacecraft.

          The capabilities of the "Krona" space object radiotechnical identification complex at Zelenchuk are being expanded.   It permits the complex to autonomously detect and determine the trajectory parameters of low-orbital space objects, form their appearance based upon the optical images obtained and determine the reflective specifications of the space object in various wavebands, and also identify new artificial earth satellites.   At the present time, active work is being conducted on the completion of the preparation for the placement of the entire complex on alert duty, which will permit it to support the conduct of express and detailed analysis of non-coordinate information.

          All of that will permit the space monitoring system to accomplish the mission of tracking the space situation, while relying on its own specialized systems.

          There is also something positive in "RTI Sistemy" Concern, where they have begun the development of a new technology that permits the development, in a short period of time, of a radar with any assigned specifications with low operating expenditures.   They are carrying out the modernization of radars that are on alert duty.   The transition to microprocessor equipment has begun in the command communications systems sphere.

          Central Science and Production Association "Kometa", in cooperation with other enterprises, is working on equipping space systems with new, higher reliability spacecraft with modern broadband detection equipment onboard and longer guarantee periods of operation.

          The Scientific-Research Institute of Long-Range Radio Communications developed the theory and practice of over-the-horizon radar, which permits the accomplishment of the missions of detecting airborne and naval surface targets throughout the range of altitudes and at long distances, for the first time in the world.   The "Volna", "Podsolnukh" and "Konteyner" type over-the-horizon radars were developed for the first time in our country.   They evoked well-known interest in the world.   Over-the-horizon radars are being disseminated in other countries and are being installed along the coasts to detect airborne and naval surface targets, in particular.   At the present time, Australia is setting up, jointly with our specialists, the development and production of its own over-the-horizon radars for their installation along the entire perimeter of its coast.


          Along with increasing attention to cadres, with the aspiration to interest people in work in the "defense industry", it is long since time to take steps to renew the enterprises' fixed assets and reduce the dependence of our computer chips on foreign firms, because it is impossible to link our prospects in the sphere of space activity with other states' goodwill.   That is impermissible for Russia.

          But perhaps isolation in the context of ideological and technical leadership, which reduces the effectiveness of the accomplishment of the missions which the Space Troops face at the present time, remains the primary problem for defense sector enterprises and is unacceptable in the prospect of their development.   The question is being urgently raised on the preservation of the space systems database, which was developed by the Armed Forces in recent decades.   When we talk about the most important components of the country's national security in the future, it is impossible to reconcile ourselves to the slowing of their development due to various reasons of a primarily, incidentally, subjective origin.

          RASU [Russian Automated Systems] Deputy General Director S. Muravyev recently spoke well on the importance of missile-space defense for the RF on the pages of Voyenno-Promyshlennyy Kuryer Newspaper (No. 3 for 2003):   "...There are only two countries in the world, Russia and the United States, which make super-complex and super-modern defense systems.   These are missile defense systems, missile attack warning systems, and space monitoring systems.   Without false modesty, we can be proud of the fact that we are carrying out the monitoring of the aerospace over our territory using domestically-produced technical systems..."

          And in that same place, he directed attention to the need for "precise, strict and centralized command and control".   That is a high and deserving assessment of the state's property in a strategic, promising type of defensive weapon.

          The duty of contemporary personnel is not only to preserve but also to increase even further under new conditions the inheritance, which was accumulated thanks to the great labor of all of the Russian people.
      06.    Space surveillance systems - past, present, and future
      Moscow Vozdushno-Kosmicheskaya Oborona in Russian 15 Feb 04

      [Commentary by V.D. Anisimov, senior scientific associate, MAK [Interstate Joint-Stock Company] "Vympel" scientific secretary, and candidate of technical sciences; G.S. Batyr, Interstate Joint-Stock Company "Vympel" first vice president, doctor of technical sciences, and professor; A.V. Menshikov, Interstate Joint-Stock Company "Vympel" chief designer, doctor of technical sciences, and professor; and, V.D. Shilin, SKKP [Space Surveillance System] chief designer and a candidate of technical sciences: "Russia's SKKP [Space Surveillance System]: Yesterday, Today, and Tomorrow"]

          In the last issue of "VKO", we discussed the revival of the Space Surveillance System (SKKP) in the country.   In this article, the authors show the contemporary state of the Russian Federation Space Surveillance System.   It is a continuously operating strategic information system, which serves as one of the factors for providing the country's security and plays a very important role in our state's space activity.

          Work on the development of the Space Surveillance System has continued, although with a lag based upon time periods.   In 1992, the "Krona" Radar Complex was successfully tested.   In 1995, state tests were conducted of the PKO [Space Defense] and Outer Space KP [Command Post] Phase 2 of development with a computer complex based upon an "Elbrus-2" Computer.   New capabilities appeared for controlling the Command Post as a result of the exchange of information data between the RF Space Surveillance System and the U.S. space surveillance system (except for data on military spacecraft).   That was achieved as a result of the joint work of the two countries' specialists on the urgent ecological problem of space debris, which posed a real threat for the operation of spacecraft and long-term orbital stations, specifically for the "Mir" Orbital Station and the International Space Station.   The high specifications of the native Space Surveillance System were confirmed as a result of the comparison of information data of Russia and the United States.

          Beginning since 1999, work on the development of the Space Surveillance System received significant acceleration.   The "Krona" Complex (first phase of development) was placed on alert duty after five years of experimental alert duty.

          In that same year, the "Okno" Complex took its place in the first line [of defense] on experimental alert duty and the characteristics of the Space Surveillance System were refined as a result of activation.   The complex is becoming the primary source of information on fixed and high-orbital space objects, and NSOS [Ground-Based Optical Systems Network] information is being used to conduct experimental work and work on spacecraft in distress.   The section of the GKS KKP [Space Surveillance System Main Catalog] on high-orbital space objects was significantly augmented and refined.

          In 2003, the "Moment" Electronic Intelligence Complex was placed on experimental alert duty to monitor spacecraft radio emissions and a preliminary determination of the capabilities of the Space Surveillance System was conducted with the use of its information.

          The installation and preliminary (design) testing of the local computer network (LVS), which is designed to replace the multiprocessor computer complex based upon the "Elbrus-2" Computer, was conducted at the Space Defense and Space Surveillance Complex Command Post.   The local computer network consists of a high-capacity "Elbrus-90 Micro" Server, automated workstations for the operators and the Command Post's command authorities, which were built based upon high-capacity personal computers and connected to a large screen and information transmission and warning equipment.

          At the beginning of 2003, state tests were conducted of a Space Surveillance System component -- the Russian Federation Warning System on flights of special spacecraft (the lead direction).   The introduction of this system's lead direction permitted them to increase the reliability and level of automation of the consumers' warning process.


          Today the system consists of:

          - The Space Defense and Space Surveillance Complex Command Post, which is connected to the Space Surveillance System's sources and information consumers;

          - The "Krona" ROKR Phase I in the North Caucasus consisting of a decimeter-band radar, a centimeter-band radar, and a command-computer facility;

          - The second sequence of the lead model of the "Okno" Optical-Electronic Complex on the territory of Tajikistan consisting of four detection stations, two tracking stations, and a command-computer facility;

          - The "Moment" Electronic Intelligence Complex in the Moscow Region for surveillance of radiating spacecraft;

          The "Krona-N" radar low-orbit space object detection and tracking complex in the Far East (in the process of being activated) and,

          - The RF warning system on flyovers of special space objects.

          The following are included in the composition of the Space Surveillance System's coordinating information systems:

          - "Dnepr" radar sites (Murmansk, Irkutsk -- RF; Mukachevo, Sevastopol -- Ukraine; and, Gulshad -- Kazakhstan);

          - "Daryal" radar sites (Pechora -- RF; Mingechaur -- Azerbaijan);

          - The "Volga" Radar Site (Baranovichi -- Republic of Belarus);

          - "Dunay-3U" radar sites (Moscow Region);

          - The "Don-2N" Multifunction Radar (Moscow Region);

          - The "Azov" Radar (RF MoD 20th ONITs [Experimental Scientific Research Center], Kamchatka Peninsula);

          - Communications and electronic intelligence radiotechnical equipment systems; and,

          - The "Sazhen-S" and "Sazhen-T" optical electronic stations (in the process of adjusting coordination with the Space Defense and Space Surveillance Complex Command Post.

          The Ground-Based Optical Systems Network (NSOS), which is deployed on the territories of the RF, Kazakhstan, and Ukraine, is part of the Space Surveillance System's enlisted resources.

          During the formation of the Space Defense and Space Surveillance Complex Command Post's catalogs and files, they also use information from special sources (COSPAR [Committee on Space Research], the UN, NASA, and others).

          The Space Surveillance System is a peacetime dual-use (for military and for civilian purposes, including to carry out international information cooperation) military system that is continuously on alert and is designed to gather, receive, and [conduct] preliminary processing of information from surveillance systems, the identification of the arriving measurements from the orbits of known space objects, the initial determination of the orbits of newly launched space objects, the refinement of the orbits of space objects and the prediction of the movements of space objects, the selection of space objects in the background of the launch platforms' last stages, fragments and debris, surveillance planning (calculation and issuance of target designations to surveillance systems), the determination of the duration of the existence of a space object, its impact time and possible impact area, space object tracking (the periodic refinement of the orbit of a space object with the required accuracy, which insures the identification of the arriving measurements on a space object) and the management of the Space Surveillance System Main Catalog.

          Furthermore, the system permits them to determine the space object's dimensions, structural index, echoing, and emissions characteristics and the parameters of its movement around the center of mass, carry out the identification of the spacecraft, determine its purpose, state affiliation and international number, and monitor the current state of the spacecraft.

          For military purposes, the Space Surveillance System conducts an assessment of a military spacecraft's combat capabilities and systems, an assessment of the situation in space on the whole, the detection of the signs of the initiation of military operations in space, the formation and issuance of reports on the state and development of the space situation to the highest command and control echelons of the country and the Armed Forces, notification about flyovers of special space objects, an assessment of the situation along the flight route of especially important domestic KA [spacecraft] and KK [space vehicles] and the issuance of a warning about dangerous situations to the command and control centers, the targeted assignment and calculation of a plan for the destruction of dangerous artificial earth satellites-targets, the issuance of target designations on the dangerous artificial earth satellites-targets to missile defense and space defense complexes, and the command and control of the combat functioning of the missile defense and space defense complexes when they receive tasks from the highest command and control echelons of the Armed Forces.


          The Space Surveillance System's accumulated data for military purposes is used directly in support of the coordinating PRN [missile attack warning], PRO [missile defense] and PKO [space defense] systems, and also during a warning about flyovers of special space objects, and must provide information support of operations for repelling an enemy attack from space and through space in the event of the emergence of a prewar situation.

          For civilian purposes, the Space Surveillance System accomplishes information-ballistic support of the launch and functioning process of domestic spacecraft, including especially important spacecraft, space vehicles, and orbital stations, and also accomplishes work on international cooperation during space exploration.

          The Space Surveillance System's entire enormous potential and its capabilities were manifested and are being manifested to the maximum extent during the accomplishment of a series of very complex missions and problems, which arise in the

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