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US troops STILL expendable,experimental animals to Pentagon

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  • L.R. <wordspeak@yahoo.com>
    http://thewinds.arcsnet.net/arc_features/medical/medical_experiments01 -98.html GOVERNMENT ALLEGED TO HAVE USED MILITARY AND CIVILIAN POPULATIONS AS GUINEA
    Message 1 of 1 , Dec 21 9:26 PM
      http://thewinds.arcsnet.net/arc_features/medical/medical_experiments01
      -98.html


      GOVERNMENT ALLEGED TO HAVE USED MILITARY AND CIVILIAN POPULATIONS AS
      GUINEA PIGS

      GULF WAR SYNDROME -- TIP OF THE ICEBERG
      If your highest ambition in life is to become a highly evolved
      medical guinea pig, the U.S. Army has a slogan for you, "Be all that
      you can be". It has become evident that many who join the ranks of
      Uncle Sam's military are viewed by their superiors in the Pentagon as
      just that: experimental animals to be used for secret inoculation and
      non-consensual medical research.

      Dr. Larry Goss, a Lawton, Oklahoma physician who has worked in
      Veterans Administration hospitals and clinics, caring for Gulf War
      veterans, had little regard for the rumors surrounding the origin of
      the supposed Gulf War Illness (GWI). That is, until he contracted the
      disease, himself, from the veterans he was treating. When his wife
      and son also became sick with the "fantasy" illness, as the
      government has attempted to label it, he became a staunch believer.

      His patriotic identity, Dr. Goss told The WINDS, "was the
      American flag and the Constitution. I should have been born on the
      Fourth of July," Goss said. "I came from a military family, I was for
      the military--and," Goss added, "I'm thoroughly disgusted and
      disillusioned."

      Evidence indicates that the government has experimented with a
      very large percentage of the veterans participating not only in
      Operation Desert Storm, but currently with those in Bosnia as well.
      The American Gulf War Veteran's Association* (AGWVA) claims that 40%
      (280,000) of the veterans participating in the Persian Gulf
      hostilities have contracted some form of neuromuscular or skin
      disorders. Among the most prominent are:

      Guillain-Barré, syndrome (acute idiopathic polyneuritis)
      Lou Gerig's Disease (ALS - amyotrophic lateral sclerosis)
      multiple sclerosis
      Scleroderma
      lupus
      The AGWVA, founded by retired U.S. Army Captain, Joyce Riley Von
      Kleist, RN, was established to provide aid and an information for
      veterans who have contracted GWI, also referred to as the Gulf War
      Syndrome (GWS). Von Kleist claims to have substantial evidence
      supporting allegations that GWS comes from the "one thing we all have
      in common--vaccinations." Capt.Von Kleist engages in what seems to be
      well-founded speculation when she states her belief that much of the
      problems suffered by Gulf War veterans stem from secret inoculations
      intended as experimental HIV vaccines.

      Dr. Garth L. Nicolson, Ph.D., is a Professor of Internal Medicine
      and Professor of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine at the University
      of Texas Medical School at Houston. He is also the Chief Scientific
      Officer for the Institute for Molecular Medicine in Huntington Beach,
      California, and has personally examined almost two-hundred veterans
      suffering from Gulf War Syndrome.

      During those examinations, Dr. Nicolson found that nearly half of
      the veterans were infected with an unusual microorganism called
      mycoplasma fermentans (incognitus strain). In almost half of the vets
      examined these exceptionally tiny and primitive bacteria were found
      deep within the blood leukocytes--the white blood cells that comprise
      the most aggressive part of the body's immune system machinery. "This
      microorganism," Nicolson explains, "is similar to a bacterium without
      a cell wall and, although mycoplasmas are often found at superficial
      sites in humans, such as in the oral cavity, they are rarely found in
      the blood."

      An even more astonishing discovery was that those same bacteria
      found in the Gulf War veterans' blood also contained a portion of the
      HIV--the virus that causes AIDS. This gene, called the gp120
      or "envelope" gene, only codes for creating the surface protein of
      the virus. This is an important factor in the cell's ability to do
      its nasty work.

      A virus, Dr. Goss explains, can be compared to an M&M candy. The
      sugar coating is the protein shell and the chocolate is the viral
      DNA. The shell tricks the host cell into allowing the virus to
      penetrate its wall and inject its DNA, which then commandeers the
      cell's reproductive machinery to make copies of itself--somewhat like
      a prankster using the church Xerox machine to copy pornographic
      photos--a destructive purpose for which it was never intended. When
      enough of the viral copies are "replicated", they burst through the
      cell wall, destroying the cell and begin the process all over again,
      only with thousands more copies of the virus with which to work.

      "This gp120 is how the HIV virus gets into cells," Dr. Nicolson
      explains. "When you put this protein onto cells like the mycoplasma
      fermentans, which already has the ability to enter some cells, it
      greatly increases its ability to enter a variety of different cells."
      The new protein, functioning as a key to give it the capacity to act
      like the AIDS virus, "can now go to virtually any cell, any tissue,
      any organ and enter cells and interfere with metabolism and kill
      them."

      Doctors Goss and Nicolson both claim that the result of this
      marriage of a portion from the AIDS virus with a primitive bacteria
      has created a powerful pathogen that causes system-wide infection and
      cell damage from the kidneys to the brain, and nearly everything in
      between. The chilling part of this concept is that this microscopic
      matrimony could only be accomplished by artificial genetic
      engineering whereby the gp120 gene was severed from live HIV virus
      with an enzyme "knife" and then implanted into the mycoplasma giving
      the bacterium its destructive power.

      Damning evidence for the fact that this is an artificial, man-
      made infection, according to Dr. Nicolson, "is the fact that
      antibodies against synthetic squalene, which is only used in
      experimental vaccines, has been found in the blood of soldiers. There
      are very few experimental vaccines that have this type of adjuvant in
      them--and one of them is an HIV vaccine."

      THE FRENCH CONNECTION
      In personal research stimulated by his illness and perceived
      betrayal by his country, Dr. Larry Goss has pieced together
      information about the Gulf War and its pursuant illness that paints a
      startling and ominous, but believable, picture.

      Of the twenty-eight Gulf War coalition forces, Goss said, the
      military cadre of twenty-seven of those nations have contracted GWI.
      The only country that claims no infected personnel is France. Is it
      just coincidence that France is also the only member of the coalition
      that refused to allow their soldiers to receive vaccinations?

      DR. GOSS, IN TREATING GULF WAR VETERANS WITH GWI, DISCOVERED THAT
      A ONE-TWO PUNCH OF THE ANTI-VIRAL DRUG, FAMVIR AND THE ANTIBIOTIC
      DOXYCYCLINE WAS QUITE EFFECTIVE IN THEIR TREATMENT--SO MUCH SO THAT
      DR. NICOLSON'S INSTITUTE FOR MOLECULAR MEDICINE HAS INCLUDED IT IN
      ITS RECOMMENDED THERAPY. What else Goss uncovered was that the
      French, "before their military even left their ports to go to the
      theater, were giving their troops Doxycycline--500mg twice a day.
      They were giving them so much that these guys were vomiting and
      messing their pants" from reaction to the drug.

      Were the French the "control group" in an insidious study?

      "What did they know," Goss questioned, "how did they know it and
      when did they learn it?" In addition, he said, "some U.S. units were
      ordered to take Cipro--an appropriate antibiotic for mycoplasma."
      Veterans told Dr. Goss that "the medics in their units pulled up in
      the back of their Humm-Vs and started shoveling out cases of Cipro,
      and said 'fill your pockets and start taking it twice a day.' The
      next day they got hit with their first Scud attack--and then two
      weeks later they were told to turn in any remaining Cipro. Other U.S.
      units in the theater," Goss added, "got no Cipro. Double-blind study--
      perhaps?"

      Goss confessed that he didn't understand their reasoning in all
      this until he realized he was "thinking like an altruistic physician
      who follows the Hippocratic oath." The ones doing this, he said, have
      such a scientific clinical mindset that "they don't care if they kill
      you. I had to get past this."

      Goss realized that their reasoning behind using mycoplasmas comes
      from the fact that they would be undetectable without the use of DNA-
      PCR tests--the same ones used to try to convict O. J. Simpson--and
      very few labs have that capability. As it happened, Dr. Nicolson's
      laboratory has the equipment and was able to determine the presence
      of the little carrier bacterium.

      AWashington Times article claims that, "Dale Vesser, a retired
      Army general, was the first Pentagon spokesman to admit...that the
      Department of Defense had squalene and used it in recent experimental
      medical tests on about fifty soldiers to test an antimalaria
      vaccination. At the time, mid-August, Vesser claimed that was the
      only Pentagon usage of squalene." (The Washington Times, Oct. 16,
      1997).

      The cover-up aspect of this scenario becomes even more plausible
      when it is considered, according to Dr. Nicolson, that "the NIH
      [National Institutes of Health] and the military were jointly testing
      an HIV vaccine before the Gulf War.

      "The NIH and military researchers refused to provide the
      Institute for Molecular Medicine with any samples of their
      experimental vaccine so that IMM could determine what they were
      dealing with in the treatment of veterans with GWS. They also refused
      to give the institute any shot records of the vets to aid in their
      diagnosis."

      This refusal on the part of the government appears somewhat
      unusual considering that the military will soon be sending scientists
      from organizations like the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology and
      Walter Reed Army Medical Center to Dr. Nicolson's institute so the
      government scientists can receive training in the identification of
      these deep-cell infections.

      The government, it seems, should have been aware of the danger
      posed by the little bacterium. Among other studies, the University of
      Alabama School of Medicine reported, "Four silver leaf monkeys
      inoculated with mycoplasma fermentans (incognitus strain) showed
      wasting syndromes and died in 7-9 months." In fact, the government
      did know of the powerful nature of this organism. The study
      referenced the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Washington D.C.

      There is even more evidence that the government scientists were
      well aware of the pathogenicity (dangerous infectious nature) of the
      mycoplasma incognitus bacteria before ever using it as a vehicle for
      an alleged HIV vaccine. The aforementioned Armed Forces Institute of
      Pathology maintains a training program for medical personnel on
      infectious diseases in which was taught:

      Mycoplasma fermentans [incognitus] are the mycoplasma organisms that
      are known to be transmitted sexually....Results obtained in-vitro
      suggests that mycoplasmas act as cofactors with the Human
      Immunodifficiency Virus (HIV) in the development of AIDS and
      mycoplasmas have been isolated from HIV-infected individuals. These
      mycoplasmas have the capacity to invade cells and to be potent
      immunomodulators [altering the immune system].

      The most serious presentation of M. fermentans is that of a fulminant
      [violent] systemic disease that begins as a flu-like illness.
      Patients rapidly deteriorate, developing severe complications
      including adult respiratory distress syndrome, disseminated
      intravascular coagulation, and/or multiple organ failure.

      The organs of patients with...M. fermentans infection exhibit
      extensive necrosis [dead tissue]. Necrosis is most pronounced in
      lung, liver, spleen, lymph nodes, adrenal glands, heart and brain.

      Lo and associates demonstrated M. fermentans infection in the tissues
      of 70% of AIDS patients....No other microorganisms were present in
      these lesions of these AIDS patients. (1)

      The WINDS has obtained a copy of a letter to a Gulf War veteran
      from the Uniformed Services University, dated June of 1997, in which
      they stated that, "In 1995, the University dropped lectures
      discussing mycoplasma fermentans due to a curriculum reform." This
      presents serious questions as to why studies on such a virulent, and
      apparently widespread disease-causing bacterium would be excluded
      from lectures on pathology--the very medical discipline that focuses
      on such studies.

      In addition, this reporter has received copies of medical reports
      of tests conducted on several veterans of the Gulf War suffering from
      GWS indicating infection with M. fermentans. One official examination
      record makes another interesting observation. It claims, "The veteran
      has been exposed to chemicals during the Gulf War and a mycoplasma ---
      with 6mm war agent was found."(sic). The vet was given a
      determination of 50% disability--from a war zone in which the
      government and the commanding general, Norman Schwarzkopf, claimed
      there was no exposure to such agents.

      Indeed, the government seems to have been playing a form of
      biological roulette with its service members' well-being and medical
      history. In an article published on December 21st, the Cleveland
      Plain Dealer claimed that a U.S. Army ethics review board, just prior
      to the Gulf War, insisted that it would be a breach of medical ethics
      to test an unapproved vaccine on military personnel without issuing a
      warning as to its potential effects. That ruling, however, "by the
      ethics committee at the army's biological research station at Fort
      Detrick, Md., was overridden after the Defense Department cited
      national security concerns."


      The army admits to 8,000 troops having received the vaccine,
      according to the Plain Dealer, which was designed to counteract the
      effects of a possible botulism attack by the Iraqis. They are also
      looking into the possibility that involuntary vaccinations might
      explain the Gulf War Syndrome that has afflicted an estimated 200,000
      military personnel stationed in the Middle East during the war.

      A Pentagon spokesman for the Secretary of Defense told The WINDS
      that the Defense Department objected to the Cleveland newspaper's use
      of the term "experimental". "It is what is known as an
      investigational new drug," he said, [government speak] claiming that
      the drug in contention is perfectly safe. Questions present
      themselves as to what is the difference between an "experimental"
      drug and an "an investigational new drug"? (I didn't say "old", I
      said "antique".) Scientists routinely use the term "investigation"
      when referring to experimental research. If the drug is deemed safe,
      why is the government investigating it as a possible cause of GWS?

      When asked specifically about the newspaper's allegation that the
      Gulf War vets were given these drugs involuntarily and without being
      informed of the nature of the vaccines, the Secretary of Defense's
      office flatly stated, "That's not true...even though permission was
      given by the FDA to give these drugs without consent, Central Command
      decided to make it voluntary and I have evidence," the DOD spokesman
      continued, "that shows that the informed consent information was made
      available to the Central Command and was disseminated to the lower
      ranks for use."

      The WINDS obtained a Department of Defense document entitled
      simply "DOC_208_BIOLOGICAL_WARFARE VAC", addressing the
      administration of experimental vaccines. The Pentagon told this
      office that military personnel were informed of the experimental
      nature of the drug. This contrasts with security instructions on the
      document stating, "The vaccine is to be administered in an enclosed
      area. No media is to be present. No photographs are permitted."--Of a
      simple vaccination? Why the secrecy? "The concept is to keep this
      program as low key as possible."

      A vaccination record of a Gulf War vet who has contracted GWS was
      also obtained by this office. At the bottom of the record are the
      cryptic words that seem to contradict the above statement by the
      Defense Department: "Received Immunization "B" classified secret
      while participation in Operation Desert Storm."(sic).

      In direct contradiction to DOD's position is the report submitted
      to the president by the Presidential Advisory Committee on Gulf War
      Veteran's Illness in which is stated:

      In the Gulf War, DOD used two investigational products as
      prophylactic measures against CBW agents....Under normal
      circumstances, neither could have been administered without the
      informed consent of the individuals who received them. In December
      1990, FDA issued (at DOD's request) an interim Final Rule permitting
      DOD to use investigational products without informed consent during
      military exigencies; FDA granted waivers of informed consent.

      With respect to the Gulf War, DOD has acknowledged that it did not
      comply with the letter or spirit of its agreement with FDA....

      This report from a Presidential Advisory Committee carries
      considerable impact when it states that:

      ...the issue of accurate medical and vaccination records is central
      to the concerns of many ill veterans, and the absence of records has
      been suggested by some as evidence that the government is engaging in
      a cover-up of its own predeployment practices.

      Lies are not confined to lower ranking policy members of the
      Department of Defense, however. General Norman Schwarzkopf, commander
      of Desert Storm, admitted lying to Congress "about a chemical weapons
      case involving an Ohio soldier.

      "Unpublished battlefront reports showing that Schwarzkopf knew
      about the soldier in 1991 raised questions about why he told Congress
      this year that he had no knowledge of anyone being exposed to
      chemical weapons." USA TODAY,(Sept. 15, 1997).

      In a process of apparent "reverse evolution"--i.e., getting worse-
      -not better--as time progresses, is it surprising that the government
      is doing precisely with its troops now stationed in Bosnia as it did
      with Gulf War personnel?

      The same presidential committee includes in its report:

      DOD's performance in Bosnia with the investigational TBE vaccine has
      been an abysmal failure....As determined by FDA, DOD's use of TBE
      vaccine during Operations Joint Endeavor/Joint Guard has violated
      federal regulations pertaining to investigational products on several
      accounts, including...failure to ensure safety and efficacy;
      promotion of safety and efficacy for the investigational product; and
      failure to obtain institutional Review Board approval of informed
      consent documents.

      The committee then recommended that the DOD obtain "independent
      evaluation" of "the role of troops as human research subjects."
      (emphasis supplied).

      "Since the 1950s, regulations have prohibited the military from
      giving experimental drugs to troops without their knowledge. However,
      in 1964 the Department of Defense and the FDA negotiated a memorandum
      of understanding that allowed the contingent use of experimental
      drugs to protect against battlefield exposure without following all
      the FDA rules, including informed consent." (Cleveland Plain Dealer,
      Dec. 21, 1997).

      A-POX-ALYPSE NOW
      A horrifying footnote to current events on the subject of human
      experimentation comes in the way of multinational goals in massive
      population reduction and the manner they may conceivably have in mind
      to accomplish those goals.

      Dr. Larry Goss shared with this reporter that he has discovered
      that many of the Gulf War veterans he has examined have been given
      smallpox vaccinations. One could not help but wonder why they would
      do this since the last case of naturally acquired smallpox was
      reported from Somalia in 1977. Because the virus cannot remain viable
      for long without expressing itself in a host, the World Health
      Organization (WHO) declared the disease to be extinct in 1980.

      In studying events surrounding GWI, Dr. Goss discovered that, not
      some, but nearly all of the vaccination records of the 700,000
      Persian Gulf vets are missing--and the ones that remain have no
      record of the soldiers having received any smallpox vaccinations.

      There are two repositories maintaining live variola (smallpox)
      virus cultures, kept for "research purposes". According to the WHO
      they are the "Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in Atlanta,
      Georgia, United States of America and in the Institute for Viral
      Preparations in Moscow, Russian Federation."

      WHAT MORE EFFECTIVE WAY OF DRASTICALLY REDUCING THE HUMAN
      POPULATION THAN TO DECLARE A DISEASE, THAT IS SO VIRULENT THAT IT HAS
      TAKEN MILLIONS OF LIVES, TO BE ERADICATED--THEN RAISE UP A GENERATION
      WITH NO INOCULATED IMMUNITY TO THAT DISEASE AND RELEASE IT BACK INTO
      THAT POPULATION? IT IS, AS SCIENTISTS LIKE TO PUT IT, AN ELEGANT
      SOLUTION.

      The Bulletin for Experimental Treatment for AIDS (BETA), a
      publication of the San Francisco AIDS Foundation, lists some of the
      companies involved in the search for an AIDS vaccine. Among
      them "Bristol-Myers Squibb of New York City is developing a
      recombinant vaccine made by inserting fragments of gp160, a protein
      on the envelope of the virus, into live but weakened smallpox
      virus...."

      Does Iraq's accusation, reported by ABC News, now seem quite as
      unrealistic, that "'America is likely to launch military strikes on
      these sites and others, using mass destruction weapons which contain
      chemical and biological elements, so that it can say, after the
      strikes, that its allegations were right,' an official spokesman told
      the Iraqi news agency INA. 'It is quite necessary to warn against
      such a wicked American conspiracy, which is confirmed by well-
      informed sources," the spokesman said.

      Warn against "such a wicked American conspiracy"? How could they
      think such a thing? Does the Iraqi government know more than the
      American public?

      YOU MEAN I DON'T HAVE TO JOIN THE MILITARY
      TO QUALIFY AS A GOVERNMENT GUINEA PIG?

      That the United States Government has been performing secret
      medical experiments on its own citizens (civilian as well as
      military) without their permission or knowledge is not only an
      historically proven fact, known by many, but it is obvious that it is
      not confined to history. What most do not know is that U.S. law
      actually provides for the government's use of its own citizens as
      experimental test subjects without their permission or prior
      knowledge.

      Federal law 50 USC 1520 entitled, "WAR AND NATIONAL DEFENSE,
      CHAPTER 32 - CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL WARFARE PROGRAM" begins with the
      ominous, almost Mengelian prologue:

      Use of human subjects for testing of chemical or biological agents by
      Department of Defense; accounting to Congressional committees with
      respect to experiments and studies; notification of local civilian
      officials...

      The only provision contained in the law for challenging such
      experiments is in the obliquely worded paragraph one of
      subsection 'b' which says:

      The Secretary of Defense may not conduct any test or experiment
      involving the use of any chemical or biological agent on civilian
      populations unless local civilian officials in the area in which the
      test or experiment is to be conducted are notified in advance of such
      test or experiment...

      This necessarily applies to peacetime civilian populations. There
      would be no permission asked, or granted, of a foreign government
      with which this nation were at war, for permission to experiment on
      their citizens.

      and such test or experiment may then be conducted only after the
      expiration of the thirty-day period beginning on the date of such
      notification.

      It should be noted that no definition exists within that law
      which defines who or what constitutes "local civilian officials".
      Under this wording compliance could be satisfied by the notification
      of an off-duty meter maid.

      The reality of 50 USC 1520 is that it is, on the face of it,
      unconstitutional. The fourth article of amendment to the U.S.
      Constitution clearly states, "The right of the people to be secure in
      their persons...shall not be violated."

      The most prominent application of the federal law, with which
      most people are familiar, is the infamous Tuskegee Experiments. These
      were studies performed by the United States Public Health Service
      (USPHS) upon 412 black American citizens infected with syphilis,
      depriving them of a proven cure for the purpose of a 40-year study of
      the disease's effect--which, untreated, is nearly always death.

      More recently has come to light experiments being performed,
      again on black people, by the United States government; this time
      outside the restrictions of U.S. law.

      A September 18 article in the New York Times reveals that "...for
      the past two years, the United States has been conducting experiments
      on pregnant women infected with HIV in Africa, Thailand and the
      Dominican Republic, in which some women are given drugs that can
      prevent transmission of the deadly AIDS virus to their babies and
      some receive only dummy pills. (emphasis supplied).

      "The study is so controversial," theTimes article
      continues, "that even some of the government's own scientists have
      questioned whether it is ethical."

      In an editorial by Dr. Marcia Angell, executive editor for the
      New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM ), Dr. Angell opens with a
      powerful argument against the ethics of these studies. "An essential
      ethical condition for a randomized clinical trial, comparing two
      treatments for a disease is that there be no good reason for thinking
      one is better than the other....If there is," says theJournal
      editorial, "...the investigators would be guilty of knowingly giving
      inferior treatment to some participants in the trial."

      Angell goes on to quote the World Health Organization, who she
      identifies as being "widely regarded as providing the fundamental
      guiding principles of research involving human subjects."

      "'In research on man,'" she excerpts from the WHO's Declaration
      of Helsinki, "'the interest of science and society should never take
      precedence over considerations related to the well-being of the
      subject,' and 'in any medical study, every patient -- including those
      of a control group, if any -- should be assured of the best proven
      diagnostic and therapeutic method.'" (ibid.)

      Could it not be logically questioned why not conduct the research
      in this country which, outside of Africa and Haiti, has about the
      highest incidence of HIV infection in the world?

      That question is forcefully answered by the director of the
      Center for Bioethics at the University of Pennsylvania, Dr. Arthur
      Caplan. "If you tried to do this study in the U.S.," Dr. Caplan
      said, "you would have to do it through a throng of demonstrators and
      a sea of reporters." (NYT, Sept. 18, 1997).

      The research, using non-American black women, is founded on
      studies that show that women with HIV infections that are treated
      with the drugs under study are two-thirds less likely to pass the
      disease on to their unborn children. "But the drug regimen costs
      about $1,000 per mother, so public health officials want to know if
      there are less expensive ways to use AZT to achieve the same
      benefit." (ibid.). [Note the ubiquitous references to money as a
      motivational factor in human "compassion".]


      "Half the foreign women in the experiments receive AZT," says the
      Times article, "at varying levels that differ from the amounts used
      in the United States. The other half get the dummy, or placebo,
      pills."

      The condemnation of this clinical act of God-playing lies in the
      fact that more than 1,000 children, critics say, will acquire the HIV
      infections of their mothers and, as a result, will die from AIDS --
      which could have been prevented. (ibid).

      Dr. Angell also makes a strong comparison of the AZT program to
      the syphilis study mentioned earlier. "A textbook example of
      unethical research is the Tuskegee Study of Untreated Syphilis. In
      that study... from 1932 to 1972, [the subjects] were followed and
      compared with 204 men free of the disease to determine the natural
      history of syphilis."

      The Tuskegee studies were terminated in 1970, just two years shy
      of its 40-year goal, when public outcry erupted following news
      reports revealing their existence. By that time, it is estimated,
      nearly a quarter of the men involved had died of the disease.

      "The only lament," Dr. Angell noted, "seemed to be that many of
      the subjects inadvertently received treatment by other doctors," thus
      denying the researchers the full benefit of observing the disease's
      ultimate expression in those individuals. Indeed, they had taken
      extraordinary precautions to prevent their test subjects from
      receiving treatment. In order to assure that this virile and violent
      disease went unchecked in USPHS's human guinea pigs, a comprehensive
      list of all participants was provided every agency, physician, every
      venereal disease treatment program with whom they might come in
      contact--even draft boards."

      It appears that the same ethic is being plied upon the Gulf War
      veterans by the Defense Department when they decreed that all vets
      suffering from GWS be treated only in VA hospitals, according to the
      American Gulf War Veterans Association. They have the choice to seek
      private treatment, but at their own expense, because the VA will not
      issue chits for such care as they have done under different
      instances. This makes the military a research scientist's dream--the
      perfect, isolated, test population. They have engineered
      circumstances much the same as with the Tuskegee experiments,
      ensuring that there is little or no outside interference with their
      studies.

      A BRIEF HISTORY
      The case histories are numerous of involuntary, secret
      experiments being performed on American citizens by their government.
      As testimonial to the extreme likelihood that such violations of
      personal rights by this government will continue covertly, the
      following historical citations are presented:

      The Green Run 2 - This experiment was carried out by the Atomic
      Energy Commission (now the Nuclear Regulatory Agency) in December,
      1949 which expelled 28,000 curies of radioactive material into the
      atmosphere at Hanford, Washington to test the effects and their
      ability to detect foreign bomb-making production. This was knowingly
      done upwind from local residents whose health was secretly monitored
      to observe any effects the release might have- -apparently as a
      fringe benefit to researchers of the primary purpose of the release.
      These residents were not informed of the release--national security,
      of course.
      To place in perspective the enormous quantity of radiation
      represented by 28,000 curies -- ONE curie, alone, is radiation
      equaling 22,200,000,000,000 (22.2 trillion) atomic disintegrations
      per minute. When that one curie is multiplied by the 28,000 ejected
      during the Green Run tests it becomes more than an incomprehensible
      amount of radiation.

      Plutonium Injection Studies 3 of the late 1940's and early 1950's.
      Case-in-point - a 53-year-old "colored male" as the report refers to
      him, named Ebb Cade who was hospitalized by an automobile accident.
      He was subsequently injected with plutonium for the purpose of
      testing its long-term effects, because he was, except for his
      injuries, in excellent physical condition, and would be expected to
      live for another twenty to thirty years. Mr. Cade died thirteen years
      later.
      In the DOE's official report on the matter it is recorded that the
      army doctor who administered the injection, Dr. Joseph Howland, "told
      AEC investigators in 1974 that..."there was, he recalled, no consent
      from the patient. He acted, he testified, only after his objections
      were met with a written order to proceed from his superior, Dr.
      Friedell."

      "I was only following orders"--Does this contain a slight echo of
      Nuremberg?

      "...in Mr. Cade's case," the DOD document states, "the risk of a
      plutonium-induced cancer could not be ruled out." TRANSLATION: let's
      shoot the guy up and see if he gets cancer.
      The Department of Energy was thrown into a maelstrom of spin control
      in 1994 when an Albuquerque Tribune reporter revealed extensive
      radiation experiments over a number of years by DOD on individuals
      without their consent. "They included," the report stated, "235
      babies in five states who were injected with radioactive iodine, 100
      retarded Massachusetts children [deja vu Nuremberg again] who had
      been fed radioactive cereal, 800 pregnant Tennessee women who had
      been exposed to radioactive substances and eight people injected with
      various isotopes of strontium at the University of California
      Hospital at San Francisco."
      On the last day of 1997 CNN and the Associated Press published a
      story claiming: "A group of former students who ate radioactive
      oatmeal [in the 1940's and 50's] as unwitting participants in a food
      experiment will share a $1.85 million settlement from Quaker Oats and
      the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

      The Department of Energy's web site that addresses its "Human
      Subjects Research" program opens with the header, "PROTECTING HUMAN
      SUBJECTS". After what has been revealed of their past record of
      safeguarding the welfare of their experimentees, one might well be
      advised to forego their "protection". Perhaps their motto should
      read, "PROTECTING HUMAN SUBJECTS--if we must."

      WILLOWBROOK 4 - "[Through] 1972 Dr. Saul Krugman of New York
      University led a study team at the Willowbrook State School for the
      Retarded, on Staten Island, New York....[T]he residents of the
      school, [were] nearly all...profoundly mentally impaired children and
      adolescents....The Armed Forces Epidemiological Board...approved and
      funded the research, and the executive faculty of the New York
      University School of Medicine...approved the research. Krugman and
      his colleagues injected some of them with a mild form of hepatitis
      serum. The researchers justified their work on the grounds that the
      subjects probably would have become infected anyway." They had told
      the parents that the children would be given a vaccine when, in fact,
      none existed.
      Most people believe that the concept of the American government
      performing harmful medical experiments on their own citizens is
      preposterous. That is precisely the approach taken by Senator John
      Glenn (D.Ohio) when he introduced Senate Bill S.193 in January of
      1997. In his oral introduction of the bill to the Senate floor he
      began with a hypothetical scenario:


      "If I approached any Senator here and I said, 'You did not know it,
      but the last time they went to the doctor or went to the hospital,
      your wife or your husband or your daughter or your son became the
      subject of a medical experiment that they were not even told about.
      They were given medicine, they were given pills, they were given
      radiation, they were given something and were not even told about
      this, were not even informed about it, yet they are under some
      experimental research that might possibly do them harm--maybe some
      good will come out of it, but maybe it will do them harm also--but
      they do not know about it,' people would laugh at that and say that
      is ridiculous. That cannot possibly happen in this country. Yet, that
      very situation is what this piece of legislation is supposed to
      address."

      Senator Glenn goes on to ask, rhetorically, "What law prohibits
      experimenting on people without their informed consent? What I found,
      when I looked into it," Glenn shares his surprise, "is there is no
      law on the books requiring that informed consent be obtained."

      Glenn also stated instances of what he called, "sad examples of
      unethical research conducted in the United States...well after the
      Nuremberg Code was issued [and] adopted...."

      The very first sentence of the ten articles of the Nuremberg
      Code, embraced after WWII in response to Nazi atrocities,
      states, "The voluntary consent of the human subject is absolutely
      essential." The United States is a signatory of the Nuremberg Code,
      which apparently has become to this government the equivalent of its
      treaties with Native Americans, of which this nation has kept none.

      Glenn's bill still sits in committee and has yet to be acted upon.

      Dr. Marcia Angell, in her earlier quoted editorial, observes
      that, "There appears to be a general retreat from the clear
      principles enunciated in the Nuremberg Code and the Declaration of
      Helsinki as applied to research in the Third World. Why is that?" she
      asks, then presents, among her answers, "Clinical trials have become
      a big business [money, again]....To survive, it is necessary to get
      the work done as quickly as possible, with a minimum of obstacles.
      When these considerations prevail, it seems as if we have not come
      very far from Tuskegee after all."

      REFERRING TO THE GULF WAR INCIDENTS AND THE CURRENT PRACTICES
      TAKING PLACE IN BOSNIA, A MEMO FROM THE ARMY'S ETHICS COMMITTEE
      CHAIRMAN, COL. ARTHUR O. ANDERSON, ALSO SIGNED BY THE COMMANDER OF
      THE U.S. ARMY MEDICAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE OF INFECTIOUS DISEASES AT
      FORT DETRICK, COL. EARNEST TAKAFUJI, STATED:

      "'...THE GOVERNMENT HAD A MORAL DUTY TO ADHERE TO ITS PRINCIPLES,
      EVEN IN WARTIME, THAT NOBODY WOULD BE SUBJECTED TO AN EXPERIMENTAL
      MEDICATION WITHOUT CONSENT.'"

      "A 'MILITARY' JUSTIFICATION FOR INVOLUNTARY RECEIPT OF
      INVESTIGATIONAL PRODUCTS BECAUSE OF STRATEGIC, DOCTRINE AND
      DISCIPLINE CONCERNS RESEMBLES TOO CLOSELY THE LOGIC USED BY NAZI
      DOCTORS TO RATIONALIZE USING HUMANS IN RESEARCH THAT HAD PREDICTABLY
      DESTRUCTIVE OUTCOMES." (CLEVELAND PLAIN DEALER, DEC. 21, 1997).

      It is a profound and disturbing truth that government never
      relinquishes, voluntarily, any power it has enjoyed over its
      citizens. The idea that the governmental scientific community has
      done so by ceasing such experimentation is unrealistic at best--
      especially when there are laws on the books that permit such behavior-
      -and especially when there exists overwhelming evidence to the
      contrary. The most likely direction is for them to continue as they
      have done, only with increasing power.

      One of the principal indicators found in a society in severe
      moral declension which precedes its demise, is the manner in which it
      treats the elderly and mentally infirmed--in other words--those who
      have severely diminished capacity to help themselves. Such conditions
      were, of course, found in Nazi Germany which subjected certain
      classes of citizens to involuntary medical experiments.

      As power is removed from each strata of society and migrates
      upward, those to whom it accrues tend to look upon those from whom
      they wrested it as subhuman primates or cattle with whom they may do
      as they wish. That wresting of power from the "least significant" of
      society began, in this country, with the Native Americans, after that
      the blacks and Hispanics and will continue its upward spiral until
      there are only two classes: the very rich and the "cattle" who
      support them.

      Why, in this society that seems to be more informed than any
      other on the subject of human rights (it certainly thrusts it in the
      face of other nations quite forcefully), is this hypocrisy permitted?
      It is evident that the invisible, secret hand driving the new order
      are people who know, by arduous observation of human nature and socio-
      cultural analysis, exactly how far they can push the limits of
      American tolerance. They have had their fingers on the apathetic
      moral pulse of this country for over 200 years and there is virtually
      nothing that they have not anticipated--except--intervention by
      Omnipotence.

      They have stated their goals and means to attain them. In the
      much vilified document, The Protocols, is plainly set forth that, "It
      is critical that the people become exhausted with dissension, hatred,
      struggle, envy, even the use of torture, starvation, inoculation of
      diseases, and poverty --leaving the nations no other vision than to
      take refuge in our complete sovereignty which is the control of money
      and all else. But if we give the nations of the world any breathing
      room, the moment we long for will likely never arrive."



      *The American Gulf War Veterans Association provides information and
      instructional material free of charge to veterans of the Persian Gulf
      conflict. They may be contacted at 1-800-231-7631.

      REFERENCES:

      1.) Uniformed Services University, School of Medicine, Department of
      Pathology, Pathology Block VI Syllabus, 1993-1994. p. 91, 92.

      2.) Department of Energy Memorandum to: Advisory Committee on Human
      Radiation Experiments

      3.) Department of Energy document /EH- 0461 - Oral Histories, HUMAN
      RADIATION STUDIESU.S. Department of Energy, Advisory Committee on
      Human Radiation Experiments - Final Report

      4.) Senate Bill s.193, Floor Introduction, Senator John Glenn,
      D.OhioThe Institute for Molecular Medicine, Huntington Beach,
      California

      Additional statistical data from IMM:

      About 45% of GWI patients and ~50% CFS/FMS [Chronic Fatigue
      Syndrome/Fibromyalgia Syndrome] have such infections [mycoplasma
      incognitus] in their blood, and this has also been found by a
      certified commercial diagnostic laboratory, Imunosciences
      Laboratories (~50%), Dr. See of the Department of Medicine, Univ. of
      California, Irvine(~70) and Dr, Lasko of Del Mar, Ca. (~60%).

      Written 1/1/98





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