Re: [Precolumbian_Inscriptions] Re: book review : von hagen 's 'south america called them' - [my musings]
- 'now for the first time in history, the indian experienced want. the vast engineering feats of aqueducts, roads, terracing, had broken down - mostly from neglect.'spain : 'forbade her colonists to create industries in her possessions.'in 1780 ce : 'tupac amaru, the last of the incas, had revolted in peru and brought his indians down to seek justice, only to be slaughtered.' 20 yrs later revolutionary literature was being openly passed out in quito.chap 5 ascent of chimborazo :'chimborazo is the most magnificent spectacle of the andes.''toward the poles, the mean temperature decreases one degree faranheit with each degree of latitude. but as they ascended pichincha the mean temperature decreased with each 300 feet of altitude.' 'thus he found that 300,000 feet of latitude equal 300 feet of altitude.'rosita caught humboldt's attention for months as he planned his climb.spain executed many intellectuals if they were outspoken about freedom.base camp at calpi. 'the first 6,000 feet were gradual and easy.''in places the ridge that they followed, covered with snow and ice, was no wider than eight to ten inches. on each side were fearful abysses.''the explorers began to grow nauseated and vertiginous. bllod exuded from their lips and gums. small veins in their eyes broke, rained blood.'they came upon a deep chasm, so wide there was no way to span it.' at 19,286 ft they held the altitude record until webb. to the end of his life, humboldt considered the climb his greatest deed.'at canar, the ancient seat of the canari nation, they sought out the ruins of the fortress.''in writing of the structures of the incas, humboldt became the first archaeologist of south america.'they descended the mountains to jaen on the amazon, spending 17 days there corrected la condamine's map, and observing jupiter and the moon.climbing back up, they visited cajamarca, 'higher than either quito or bogota.' son of cacique 'spoke of the great treasure that lay beneath them, of palanquins of gold, of golden birds'.'the only way to get to lima, the city of kings, was to cut through the ceja de la montana, wind down to the ancient town of trujillo on the coast' then along coast 600 miles to lima.'they would see the walled cities of chimu kings'.he gazed out at the pacific from the heights at alto de guangamarca.chanchan is near trujillo. humboldt saw the ruins, impressed, but writing little, unfortunately.he wondered what caused the coastal desert. coastal ecuador gets 100 inches of rain per year, but peru and chile get none. the air was humid, with cloudy dull days threatening rain that never came. ecuador has the best climate and geography.'the entire length of coast was bathed by a cool ocean current', moving northward.smelling guano, 'humboldt climbed over the island of mazorca, which lay a mile or so offshore.' 'guano was the answer to their agricultural system.' he rediscovered the inca use of guano, introduced it to europe, which brought a new industry to peru. it was 35 times more potent as a fertilizer than barnyard manure.'gunao lay hundreds of feet thick on some of the islands.'desertification : 'the relation between temperature of the sea and land were reversed.' sea was 60 degrees, and the land was 73 degrees. 'so in place of condensation, absorption took place.''moving in a stream 150 miles wide, the current lowers the temperature of the air that moves across it'.cotopaxi was in continual eruption then.
- humboldt had a tremendous affect upon the societies that he met in the americas. he did not agitate for revolution, but his ideas moved many, like somon bolivar, to seek freedom and independence.i think humboldt never went to tiwanaku, never saw titicaca. no mention was made of cuzco. how could both la condamine and humboldt fail to explore these great mysterious ruins and places? he was a mining engineer, yet did not go to see potosi's silver mines. macchu pichu was unknown in that time.his work at sealevel, concerning the current and climate was enlightening. his insight on guano changed agriculture, and fed the treasury of peru and bolivia, before chile muscled in.humboldt made observations that we have yet to read on the ruins and relics of the parts he visited. these are given in his 'views of nature', in french i believe. its crazy that nobody has translated this pearl of a book into english. it has many plates of his drawings and lithographs. he was a talented artist. much better than catlin.its so disappointing that we still dont have the observations and ideas of humboldt on the key relics of the andes. its amazing that a young man of 26 yrs could accomplish such great works.he has taken passage to mexico then america, and we take up the tale in the next post.
- his life 'was an uninterrupted course of triumphs' henceforth.they saw the silver mines at taxco.'spent the night in the ancient palace of hernan cortez.'he visited tula.mexico : 'he climbed its mountains, collected its ancient mexican codices, studied its people, drawn and worked among the ruins of its civilization.' for 11 months, after three years in south america.in march 1804 humboldt left hispanic america, never to return.letter from jefferson reached him in havana, and they were invited to the usa capitol. [what a meeting it must have been.] of 8 weeks in america, 3 weeks were at monticello. nice to know i crossed the path of humboldt already, at the mansion.] sounds like jefferson planned to incorporate mexico and south america into the union. it was vague.after their brief visits, they sailed down the delaware for france.'fremont, the explorer who scattered humboldt's name on counties, cities, rivers and mountains throughout the northwest.'even before publishing, humboldt arrived in europe as an idol.they traveled 40,000 miles, and collected 60,000 plants.'humboldt whose complete works on the americas number twenty-nine volumes of immense folios, quartos, and octavos, illustrated with upwards of 1,426 maps and plates.'he paid for the publishing with his own money.king of prussia prudently employed him as court chamberlain, for 15 yrs while he was in paris. he refused the honor of prince of realm.simon bolivar joined him on a climb of vesuvius.'napoleon, with whom he was compared in greatness, made a point of open resentment.'he got his partner bonpland an appointment to a good position for 10 years, and got napoleon to grant him an annual pension of 3,000 francs.[looking at a map, it seems that the ancient traders would have been highly interested in the islands at the mouth of the amazon, right on the equator. navigation to and from the estuary would have been easy from europe, africa, or asians rounding the cape of good hope. this latter route was used by the phoenicians employed by solomon.][entering and leaving the orinoco would have been very difficult. the gulfstream favors the entry, but not the departure. the great discharge current also makes entry a problem.][the atlantic coast above and below the amazon mouth offer the possibility for ancient ports and colonies. it has highlands, plus rivers for commerce. the section north of the amazon on the coast was labeled 'ofir' on old maps. its possible ofir was the port, and the gold mines or diggings were inland.][it seems quite possible that tiwanaku and the inca may have utilized the amazon tributaries nearest their lands. after the uplift and climate change the andeans had to trade with amazonia for the feathers and other tropical commodities.
- humboldt remembered to take care of his friend bonpland for the remainder of his life.'stephens, discoverer of the mayas of yucatan, whose 'incidents of travel' provoked the renaissance of archaeology, came to see him.' prescott wrote him.part 3 darwin :darwin was humboldt's most fervent admirer.[darwin should have listened to werner and cuvier, and ignored lyell.]'he had just discovered a perfect catacomb for monsters of extinct races.' in a reddish clay bank at punta alta near bahia blanca.'toxodon, perhaps one of the strangest animals ever discovered, seeming a cross between a sloth and an elephant'.'the tehuelches - the large-footed patagonians' held the south of argentina in 1832.darwin for quite a while never realized his ostriches were rheas. males sit on nests.[humboldt failed to describe the frequent wind storms of the orinoco, and darwin suffered the pamperos of the platte without discovering the causes.][sorry for my drifting off for a moment, but its a shame humboldt's parents were not around to see what a son they sired. sadly, his teachers acted as parents, but what a benefit they gave to the world. such an individual could never be an ophan. the very universal-mind of man, the one place we all call home, would adopt such a one. no doubt humboldt was gifted, heaven sent. homer was blind, but this sensory deprivation allows one to approach deity. mean spirited managers cause workers to have stress, but such stress sometimes uplifts the self or soul. its a pleasant thought. lol]
- attached marked patagonians, may be more exact to say fuegians. very strange looking savages. three natives were taken to england for an audience with the king, and some education, before being returned to their land of fire and ice.'the tehuelches, called patagones, were the mainland tribe and held sway over most of the southern portion of patagonia.' 3 other tribes further south.curiously, magellan discovered the strait a century before cape horn was discovered and rounded.natives had no means to restart a fire so kept the hills ablaze continually. giving the region its name.one of the natives taken to england : 'in three years he had forgotten his own tongue'.'yammerschooner' meant 'give it to me'. the fuegians are bad thieves and beggars. [any skipper passing thru the straits solo, should sprinkle carpet tacks topside to get some sleep.] the beagle landed a missionary near the horn outfitted for london. two weeks later they returned : 'they found matthews with a fuegian sitting on his chest pulling out his whiskers.' most of his goods carried off.the returned native says : 'my people very bad, great fool know nothing at all.' his fine london clothes all torn and ragged. loldarwin had hatred for the 'very sound of their voices.''in 1859 a group of missionaries were massacred by the yahgans, led by jemmy button's son' one of the others returned, had become a whore.the sea was filled with fish.'few fossils in the fire-land'darwin after reading lyell : 'to merely think of the andean system, and the infinities of geologic time needed to create it, gave him a wonderful feeling.' [befuddlement i imagine.]strait of magellan : 'amid squalls and gales they fought through the tangled confusion of bays and inlets and entered the pacific.'many fell ill after reaching valpariso.[its unfortunate that lyell rushed his new volume on geology to darwin just before he came to the andes. instead of fresh eyes, he saw the andes with conditioned eyes.]
- p210[darwin was mainly into the animal life. humboldt was more the scientist and geologist, while bonpland was the botanist. la condamine contributed greatly in many fields, preparing the way for the others.]'as soon as he could, he got his gear and his guides together and began the trek into the mountainous hinterland.'chile : 'in the north, the atacama desert and the nitrate fields; in the central part the fertle valleys, the sites of the growing cities, ....in the south, a region of tarns and lakes, thickly treed and still held by the fierce araucanian indians.' [it was admitted in early colonial times that these indians were frisians.][now we see why the fuegians continue in their terrible land. imho, the only reason people would be in such inhospitable country is they were there before the climate change, and adjusted over time, or they were driven there or contained there by a warlike neighbor. they had the araucanians and the giant patagones, between them and the wide pampas.][what if the strait of magellan had been created in recent geological time by a deviant course of the humboldt current? what would be the effects of such upon the climate of coastal south america? perhaps the warm tropical currents would continue beyond guayaquil, warming the entire coast with humid air. this may have been the era that ica, paracas, and nazca thrived. this continent is much more mysterious than the others.][if we accept the mystics, as i do, being unable to find proof of errors over many decades of study, we must dismiss the 'out of africa' for the cradle and origin of humanity. there were high cultures in places like ica and tiwanaku before africa was the continent we see today. it had only a small fraction of its land above the sea. the black race occupied only the north western portion. four other races were centered on four other continents, including the four corners of america for the red, and the brown in peru. the andes are new comers, long after the advent of man in peru 10.5 million years ago. the 44 great laws formulated just after that origin were given only in part by cayce, but they were profound, and beyond our present age to fathom. after reviewing the work of cabrera with the thousands of pictured rocks, and seeing the great thickness of patina on some of the monuments, and the finds of human bones fossilzed alongside those of 'dinosaurs', it seems reasonable for me to continue to believe cayce. the andes and the relics present a completely different picture to me, than they did for darwin.]
- 'smoke-ringed mount aconcagua, the tallest in south america'.'the aruacanians, who since the earliest days, had held the land.'chile : attracted the 'basques, the toughest and most diligent of all iberians.'irishman ambrosio o'higgins 'rose from shopkeeper to be capitan general of chile.'dictators took over right after revolution set them free. the peon majority were no better off than before. [they must learn to ratify a draft of laws and constitution before completing a revolution.]'he made no provision for food or shelter, for he needed none. along the way through the pleasant valleys he could always find haciendas where the stranger was most hospitably given posada.''portillo, the 10,000 foot-high pass between chile and argentina.'[have the geologists examined the foot of the various cordilleras, to see if the accumulated debris of erosion constitutes believing the andes are 200 million years old?][im trying to understand the giant bi-valves of 4,000m in the andes. they are closed, so must have been buried to prevent them opening at death, as they routinely do. they are reported to be fossilized. i guess my best chance of actually seeing them is to ask at the ica museum and closer villages for a guide. i hoping not excessive treking by foot is involved. they need to move some of these down to a museum, and have small fragments of the shells for scholars to study. the bivalves were basking in tropical waters near shore, apparently when a landslide buried them. it could not have been very long before they were uplifted above the sea. its my understanding shells become limestone after prolonged submersion on the seafloor. fossils are formed in soil above the sea. it looks like further uplifts and erosion washed away the soil, leaving the bivalves. yet they certainly do not appear to have sustained millions of years of rain and wind erosion. even granite wears down in millions of years, and these soft shells show much less erosion. it suggests to me that they have not been exposed for over 50,000 years or so.]
- mule : 'that a hybrid should possess more reason, memory, obstinacy, social affection, powers of muscular endurance and length of life than either of its parents seems to indicate that art has here outdone nature.''raging streams poured down beside the narrow mountain path with the roar of the sea.''the valleys filled with stratified alluvium, the utterly bare hills of precipitous porphyry'. [chile]'it was darwin who gave south america its first full geological survey in modern science.''shining, snow-capped peaks, under the intensely turquoise sky, was utterly superb.' condors wheeling overhead.[isnt it strange that such a large vulture-like bird as the condor has persisted until modern times? such scavengers need not be so large, unless their prey is large, or they carry off live game. it appears to be among the megafauna that survived. lets face it, south america seems to be the place where the megafauna persisted longer, or cultured man existed much earlier, and contemporary. i think both are true. the giant patagonians had enough reliable eye-witnesses to accept it down to colonial times. toxodons are represented in art all over tiwanaku. painted stones of ica depict men riding dinosaurs. petroglyphs on the altiplano show men leading dinosaurs on a leash. [large reptiles?] there are legends of a giant race of men in peru and ecuador. plus there is a region at altitude some say has giant men and dinosaurs sculpted on huge rocks. once you accept that there were giants long ago, it seems reasonable to expect it was they who constructed the megaliths. the term meaning constructed of huge stones.]'darwin kept climbing and chipping, collecting and observing, until soroche, mountain sickness, came over him.' natives thought bad water caused altitude sickness.chilean puna : 'thousands of small exposed fossils' shells[it sounds like he located a former seashore on the southern edge of the altiplano. small exposed shells still intact at over 12,000 ft - how can they maintain millions of years for the uplift?]'his guides told him that it takes foreigners a whole year to accustom themselves to the heights. the natives recommended onions' [now they say coca tea]he became ill near village of colina.darwin chose not to explore the humboldt current, probably thinking no more need be said.[the cold humboldt current causes the coastal deserts to lose moisture. farming is a losing proposition without irrigation. the fishery is teeming, and the population must look there for sustenance. unless they can divert the humboldt current, a fast river 150 miles wide. it must have been devastating to an ancient dense population, when during a poleshift, the ocean current reversed direction. if they could keep the el nino current all the time, the coastal plains and valleys would flourish. they should capture these excessive rains in reservoirs and cisterns. those at higher elevation would power irrigation. with better government the andean countries could prosper.]
- 'the miners still used the primitive methods of agricola.''there was scarcely a flealess night.''the more northerly the course, the drier the land.'[incredibly, darwin saw nothing of significance in the atacama.]'darwin suddenly realized that he was coming onto sacred scientific ground - land humboldt had traversed.''a thick garua drizzle, 'peruvian dew' he called it, fell without cease.' [i would expect rising vapors.]revolution and banditry were common even then.darwin found the ladies of lima as alluring as humboldt did those of quito.outside lima : 'came across huacas, ancient mounds of the incas; but with these he was not too impressed'.[darwin spoke not a word on nazca, paracas, or ica.]they reached galapagos :'chatham, he perceived, had been permiated like a sieve by subterranean vapors.''the islands were geologically recent.'giant tortoises are said to be non-swimmers.charles island had 300 population then, banished for political crimes from ecuador. 'living in caves'.melville had written of galapagos before darwin.tagus cove : 'were painted the names of ships that had used the cove.' pirates named the islands.in 1794 capt colnett of the sloop 'rattler' surveyed the islands. 'in the bay at charles island colnett set up a large barrel which became known as 'hathaway's post office''. 'here whalers left their letters'.
- giant land lizards occupied the low portions of galapagus, while giant tortoises held the high ground. [so far darwin doesnt call them iguanas, or mention the marine variety.] the tortoises were different on each island. [they must have lost the ability or desire to swim thousands of years ago, to develope with marked differences on different islands of the group.][im not a darwin fan, but he was unable to learn foreign languages, so was handicapped greatly from humboldt. this may account for him missing the most important relics and monuments. it would have aided him if he could have had a conversation with local people, and ask them where signs of the ancients can be found. hiring a translator guide may have been smarter. it would be unwise today to walk up the andes solo. im amazed that darwin could get so high an altitude to get ill, in so few days that he was not better acclimatised. even on a mule i would think weeks would be required to reach the puna. we cannot increase our lung capacity by 30 percent to be on a pan with an andean, but at least a few days at intermediate elevations, would better a person's chance to avoid mt sickness, as far as i know. im planning a trip based on that conclusion. should any of my party exhibit signs, i think it best to sleep that night at lower elevation. it seems crazy to me that darwin rushed to lima, and missed paracas, nazca, and ica. by chance maybe he went north thru chile and coastal peru, without coming near these wonders. maybe author left out vital information. he did say darwin wrote 100 pages on chile.]the lizards climbed trees.'the amblyrhyncus sea iguana was endowed with web feet [which curiously, it never used for swimming].''there were no mammals.'[much has changed in opinion in the 60 years since this book was published, few would join the author in saying] 'the work which was to give science the greatest stimulus it had had in two thousand years.''here almost every product of the land and of the waters bears the unmistakable stamp of the american continent.''it is obvious that the galapagos islands would be likely to receive colonists from america, whether by occasional means of transport or [although i do not believe this doctrine] by formerly continuous land ... such colonists would be liable to modifications - the principle inheritance still betraying their original birthplace.'[lets see if this non believer can explain how the land iguanas got 600 miles out to sea.]after the publishing of his third volume darwin became a celebrated author.'he [like humboldt] distributed his collections to specialists, and the journal began to take on all the aspects of an important major contribution.' these reports from the specialists, darwin gathered up and included in his book. for style he used humboldt's 'personal narrative' as a model. ended with 240,000 words. 'in his astonishment over being an author, he signed away his rights' for a pittance to colburn. humboldt was delighted with darwin's books. two of darwin's sons were knighted.[its hard to believe that before darwin the species were thought to be stable. it was well-known how squirrels and such develope differently when separated by a river or canyon.]spruce is the next naturalist to be discussed.
- 'darwin worked on the outline that would one day become 'the origin of species'.alfred russel wallace was at the same time writing 'on the tendency of varieties to depart indefinitely from the original type'. darwin was just a little faster. wallace sent darwin his manuscript, who noted it was almost identical to his work, then it was sent to dr lyell. [probably with a note to delay it. lol][i take back my remark. darwin was honorable.] 'both papers were read at the linnean society on the same evening, and published at the same time.''between spasms of pain [an inheritance from the beagle voyage]'like humboldt, darwin made a life work out of the research conducted in america. after seizures of pain, nausea, and vomiting, he died, and was interred next to isaac newton at westminster abbey.richard spruce headed for the amazon in 1849, when many headed for the gold fields of california. he was a yorkshireman, botanist, and bagpipe player. 'spruce was poor'. 'he was self-taught'. like humboldt his expedition began after visiting spain. he would pay his way by selling dried plants to museums and collectors.when the amazon was planned spruce had eleven subscribers funding him, meaning he had to collect 11 of each plant.
- reluctantly, spruce decided he must cut down trees to get to the flowers and fruits in their canopy. he would collect in amazonia for 17 years.he met wallace and bates there. bates collected 14,000 insects, 8,000 were new to science. bates 'became the discoverer of protective mimicry'.wallace and spruce became lifelong friends. wallace finished editing spruce's journals late in life. leaving the amazon after four years due to ill health, his ship caught fire off bermuda, and he lost all of his collections.'cashew trees were exceedingly abundant.'spruce recorded the indian names for trees, noting those reported to have medicinal effects. even trying the concoctions on himself, before shipping them off to the pharmacists of kew.in 1850 the river swelled in april instead of the usual june, rising 40 ft in two days.at the mouth of the rio trombetas, 'at the exact place where orellana had insisted that he was attacked by amazons'. 'these women are very white and tall'. [this contradicts that they were indian women, as some posit.]'all the famous authorities on the americas - including la condamine and humboldt - agreed that the amazon tradition had been based on fact.''after the coming of white men, the amazons retired from their villages near the trombetas and the lower river, to a place on the rio negro; moreover, that these amazon villages still existed.'they gave gold and green stones to their lovers. 'in spruce's time they had wholly disappeared' no men wore the green stones. raleigh noted many green stones on the natives of the orinoco. 'spaniards called piedras hijadas'.acting on humboldt's suggestion, prince adalbert of prussia, count bismarck and count oriola, made an expedition to brazil in 1842-3.'the shirt had become a symbol in amazonia'. no naked native could become a christian.he took much trade goods to finance his way along the rio negro, money being of no value in the amazon.[buying first editions sometimes has a drawback. this 60 year old volume is musty or moldy, and tears up my sinus.]after a month on the rio negro they reached rapids.'the celebrated ilhas de pedras, with their gigantic granite rocks scarred with indian picture writing.''the fame of these collections was enough even to bring the venerable baron von humboldt out of his map-cluttered study to inspect them.'spruce quotes humboldt : 'perils elevate the poetry of life'.'he began to make drawings of every example of picture writing he found.' 'his exact drawings, which numbered in the hundreds, laid the basis for the study of primitive rock writing in amazonia.''with a facility for recording the will-o'-the-wisp diphthongs of the arawak language.''dubukavvee - the feast of gifts' 'manioc beer and then the caapi. spruce had heard of caapi; every traveler in the amazon had - caapi, the-drink-that-makes-one-brave; caapi, the vine-of-the-souls; caapi, the soul-thread that contacts drinker with the dead.' 'in two minutes the caapi took effect. the indian turned deadly pale and trembled in every limb; then he was seized by a paroxysm.' in 10 minutes the excitement passed, and the drinker dropped exhausted. two cups was standard dose.spruce tried caapi, almost 'gagging on its bitterness'. then he was brought a 2 ft cigar to puff.'took him to a palm tree on which grew a thick-stemmed vine - caapi'. then in flower, with young fruit. 'it belonged to the order of the malpighiacae'. 'to the genus banesteria' p264 'caapi is a narcotic containing phenol alkaloids which produces powerful reactions in the nervous system of mammals.''spruce collected the plants from which niopo snuff was prepared, and although coming from an acacia, this too, proved to be a narcotic.' pounded seeds were snuffed.'the indians knew the antiblenorrhagic property of pepper, the therapeutic value of yerba mate or guarana; they were acquainted with twilight sleep, which they obtained by using the flowers of the datura, which contain the active principle of scopolamine.' coca was also used in brazil.
- spruce:along the uaupes and rio negro he had food shortages.they readied against a planned massacre of whites at san carlos, that never came.he said indians had a hanging paunch belly. possibly from eating earth, is my guess. tribes in the area are related to arawak.cerre duida along the casiquiare : on top is a round lake inhabited by a giant turtle, say the natives. canal 600 yds wide. he met old natives who remembered humboldt. when the waters changed from black to yellow, the insects became unbearable. duida was climbed in 1928, 200 new plants were found.spruce got malaria, hanging close to death for 38 days. 'his indians did not desert him, but they sold his equipment to buy rum'.after recovering, his knowledge of native languages saved his life, for his crew of four were talking of murdering him. 'heinali' in barre meant man.'the song of the cacadas rose and fell, cutting the air like a saw.'spruce 'learned the vocabularies of twenty-one indian languages.'on his return to manaos he saw that there were now steamboats on the amazon. city had doubled in size. the rubber boom began.
- rubber went from three cents a pound to three dollars a pound. 40 million dollars of foreign capital poured into manaos. the boom ended after henry wickham smuggled out seeds and seedlings of the rubber tree, to be planted elsewhere.a change of location of one degree produced half new plants.steamer travel was more comfortable, but he lost the freedom of pulling ashore when he sighted new flowers. every 36 hours they had to go ashore to fell trees for fuel. by sail 450 miles took 63 days, by steam 1500 miles in 18 days.[consider a moment that until relatively recently most of amazonia was covered by a shallow sea. one would expect few species. instead there are infinite varieties. how can this be explained?]spruce has 60,000 plants collected thus far.he was ordered by the queen to proceed to ecuador, worst three month trip that he made in amazonia.'they descended the rio huallaga and were caught in its whirlpools.' they almost perished, his dog went mad.rio pastaza is the great arm of the upper amazon toward ecuador, its wide and swift 6 knots. land of the head-shrinking jivaros. [a rich man's son went there last century, hoping to get a shrunken head, and the indians oblidged him. he is the one with the surprised expression. lol]
- 'cotopaxi, the most formidable volcano on the earth's surface.'2 days from canelos they met two jivaros headhunters, 'their skins light'.jivaros used varvascu roots, used to poison waters for fishing. they also used belladonna and caapi.'when an indian receives a present he is never grateful.''the superiority of the jivaro indian to all others was evident.'other indians used moloka as communal village house. [it sounds related to the hawaii island of molokai?] the jivaro community house was called 'hea'.'over the fire, tied to the top of a rack holding dried corn, was a freshly prepared human head, not much larger than one's fist.'[it appears these natives like the others, used caapi alone for its mild narcotic effect, without combining it with another plant to release its full potency. maybe only the shaman knew this secret.][unfortunately, it sounds like the jivaros border closely to the oriente ecuador region of the golden tablets.]rio puyu : 'it was the richest cryptogamic locality on the surface of the globe'. [mosses?]insufferable cold felt at banos, 48 degrees, at 6,000ft. hot sulphur springs.'paramero' storms cause deaths in the region.spruce found ecuador gripped by revolution.the uk wanted his help to transplant quinine trees in india.
- in ambato he met dr james taylor, who 'still retained enough greek to read and enjoy anacreon.'the 'cascarilla roja, the tree whose red bark produces quinine.' the property was owned by general juan jose flores, who reluctantly rented it to him, if he not touch the bark of the trees.as he rode toward the slopes of chimborazo, where the chinchona forests were, the bells of churches tolled all along the line. he learned they honored the death of humboldt in berlin. [honored in death as much as in life. how wisely humboldt had spent his fortune and five years of his youth.]'guayaquil, on the coast, was warring with quito.'spruce received no warm welcome in england. in many ways he had done as much or more than the naturalists before him, but was not known by the people. he got a 50 pound pension from the uk, and the germans did better by granting him an honorary degree of doctor of philosophy.' [he should have taken note of humboldt's ability in public relations. he was slow to get published, and didnt have friends in high places. he more deserved the tomb next to newton than darwin.]'of bolivia's past, of the civilizations of ecuador and columbia, we know little. for the young archaeologists who will brave the puna of the andes there is an inexhaustible intellectual treasure.''there are veritable ossuaries of extinct monsters.''the nimbus of scientific immortality awaits the young geologist who can spend time exploring the textbook of south america's rock-bound face.'much literature : 'is based on pyramiding hypotheses.''this is the province of the young man.' [sadly true]biblio:'when we begin on humboldt's travels, we encounter immediate difficulties, for with the exception of his explorations in venezuela, he never wrote a continuous narrative of his american travels.''travels in peru', by j.j. von tschudi [ny, 1847] said to be an excellent source, particularly his examination of ancient skulls.finis ..