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  • ParanormalGhostSociety@yahoogroups.com
    Disclaimer: The Paranormal & Ghost Society its Pictures, Videos, EVP s, AngelOfThyNight Radio, Theories, Satire, Articles, Content, and Features are for
    Message 1 of 80 , Jul 1, 2013
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      Disclaimer: The Paranormal & Ghost Society its Pictures, Videos, EVP's,
      AngelOfThyNight Radio, Theories, Satire, Articles, Content, and Features are for
      Entertainment Purposes and Research Only. DO NOT try this at home! DO NOT try
      this away from home. Donations received are to help pay for Lord Rick's Aka
      AngelOfThyNight the founder/webmaster/editor/talk show hosts time creating,
      coding, maintaining, updating and web mastering this website
      www.paranormalghostsociety.org as well as time spent researching paranormal
      articles for the Paranormal & Ghost Societies mailing list throughout the web!
      By browsing our pages you agree to this disclaimer which is found at various
      locations including our main page.

      Disclaimer & Fair Use Act Of Educational Material

      Fair Use
      FAIR USE NOTICE. Many of the stories on this site contain copyrighted material
      whose use has not been specifically authorized by the copyright owner. We are
      making this material available in its efforts to advance the understanding of
      environmental issues and sustainability, human rights, economic and political
      democracy, paranormal science, Ufology, parapsychology, Cryptozoology and issues
      of social justice. We believe this constitutes a 'fair use' of the copyrighted
      material as provided for in Section 107 of the US Copyright Law. If you wish to
      use such copyrighted material for purposes of your own that go beyond 'fair
      use'...you must obtain permission from the copyright owner. By joining our
      forums you agree not to hold us accountable or liable. You also agree to follow
      the Fair Use Notices Below. If there are finds of you Tossing (Lord Rick)
      Illegally....our attorneys will be in touch with you for violating the
      disclaimer below!

      FAIR USE NOTICE. This site contains copyrighted material the use of which has
      not always been specifically authorized by the copyright owner. We are making
      such material available in our efforts to advance understanding of
      environmental, politica, human rights, economic, democracy, scientific, and
      social justice issues, etc.. We believe this constitutes a 'fair use' of any
      such copyrighted material as provided for in section 107 of the US Copyright
      Law. If you wish to use copyrighted material from this site for purposes of your
      own that go beyond 'fair use', you must obtain permission from the copyright
      owner.

      In accordance with Title 17 U.S.C. Section 107, the material on this site is
      distributed without profit to those who have expressed a prior interest in
      receiving the included information for research and educational purposes. For
      more information go to: http://www.law.cornell.edu/uscode/17/107.shtml

      United States Code: Title 17, Section 107
      http://www4.law.cornell.edu/uscode/unframed/17/107.html

      Notwithstanding the provisions of sections 106 and 106A, the fair use of a
      copyrighted work, including such use by reproduction in copies or phonorecords
      or by any other means specified by that section, for purposes such as criticism,
      comment, news reporting, teaching (including multiple copies for classroom use),
      scholarship, or research, is not an infringement of copyright. In determining
      whether the use made of a work in any particular case is a fair use the factors
      to be considered shall include - (1) the purpose and character of the use,
      including whether such use is of a commercial nature or is for nonprofit
      educational purposes; (2) the nature of the copyrighted work; (3) the amount and
      substantiality of the portion used in relation to the copyrighted work as a
      whole; and (4) the effect of the use upon the potential market for or value of
      the copyrighted work. The fact that a work is unpublished shall not itself bar a
      finding of fair use if such finding is made upon consideration of all the above
      factors.

      United States Code: Title 17, Section 106 Chapter 1 - Subject Matter And Scope
      of Copyright http://www4.law.cornell.edu/uscode/unframed/17/106.html

      Subject to sections 107 through 120, the owner of copyright under this title has
      the exclusive rights to do and to authorize any of the following: (1) to
      reproduce the copyrighted work in copies or phonorecords; (2) to prepare
      derivative works based upon the copyrighted work; (3) to distribute copies or
      phonorecords of the copyrighted work to the public by sale or other transfer of
      ownership, or by rental, lease, or lending; (4) in the case of literary,
      musical, dramatic, and choreographic works, pantomimes, and motion pictures and
      other audiovisual works, to perform the copyrighted work publicly; (5) in the
      case of literary, musical, dramatic, and choreographic works, pantomimes, and
      pictorial, graphic, or sculptural works, including the individual images of a
      motion picture or other audiovisual work, to display the copyrighted work
      publicly; and (6) in the case of sound recordings, to perform the copyrighted
      work publicly by means of a digital audio transmission.

      FAIR USE NOTICE: This site contains copyrighted material the use of which has
      not always been specifically authorized by the copyright owner. We are making
      such material available in our efforts to advance understanding of
      environmental, political, human rights, economic, democracy, scientific, and
      social justice issues, etc. We believe this constitutes a 'fair use' of any such
      copyrighted material as provided for in section 107 of the US Copyright Law. In
      accordance with Title 17 U.S.C. Section 107, the material on this site is
      distributed without profit to those who have expressed a prior interest in
      receiving the included information for research and educational purposes. For
      more information go to: http://www.law.cornell.edu/uscode/17/107.shtml


      FAIR USE NOTICE. Many of the stories on this site contain copyrighted material
      whose use has not been specifically authorized by the copyright owner. We are
      making this material available in its efforts to advance the understanding of
      environmental issues and sustainability, human rights, economic and political
      democracy, and issues of social justice. We believe this constitutes a 'fair
      use' of the copyrighted material as provided for in Section 107 of the US
      Copyright Law. If you wish to use such copyrighted material for purposes of your
      own that go beyond 'fair use'...you must obtain permission from the copyright
      owner.


      FAIR USE NOTICE. This site contains copyrighted material the use of which has
      not always been specifically authorized by the copyright owner. We are making
      such material available in our efforts to advance understanding of
      environmental, politica, human rights, economic, democracy, scientific, and
      social justice issues, etc.. We believe this constitutes a 'fair use' of any
      such copyrighted material as provided for in section 107 of the US Copyright
      Law. If you wish to use copyrighted material from this site for purposes of your
      own that go beyond 'fair use', you must obtain permission from the copyright
      owner.

      In accordance with Title 17 U.S.C. Section 107, the material on this site is
      distributed without profit to those who have expressed a prior interest in
      receiving the included information for research and educational purposes. For
      more information go to: http://www.law.cornell.edu/uscode/17/107.shtml

      United States Code: Title 17, Section 107
      http://www4.law.cornell.edu/uscode/unframed/17/107.html

      Notwithstanding the provisions of sections 106 and 106A, the fair use of a
      copyrighted work, including such use by reproduction in copies or phonorecords
      or by any other means specified by that section, for purposes such as criticism,
      comment, news reporting, teaching (including multiple copies for classroom use),
      scholarship, or research, is not an infringement of copyright. In determining
      whether the use made of a work in any particular case is a fair use the factors
      to be considered shall include - (1) the purpose and character of the use,
      including whether such use is of a commercial nature or is for nonprofit
      educational purposes; (2) the nature of the copyrighted work; (3) the amount and
      substantiality of the portion used in relation to the copyrighted work as a
      whole; and (4) the effect of the use upon the potential market for or value of
      the copyrighted work. The fact that a work is unpublished shall not itself bar a
      finding of fair use if such finding is made upon consideration of all the above
      factors.

      United States Code: Title 17, Section 106 Chapter 1 - Subject Matter And Scope
      of Copyright http://www4.law.cornell.edu/uscode/unframed/17/106.html

      Subject to sections 107 through 120, the owner of copyright under this title has
      the exclusive rights to do and to authorize any of the following: (1) to
      reproduce the copyrighted work in copies or phonorecords; (2) to prepare
      derivative works based upon the copyrighted work; (3) to distribute copies or
      phonorecords of the copyrighted work to the public by sale or other transfer of
      ownership, or by rental, lease, or lending; (4) in the case of literary,
      musical, dramatic, and choreographic works, pantomimes, and motion pictures and
      other audiovisual works, to perform the copyrighted work publicly; (5) in the
      case of literary, musical, dramatic, and choreographic works, pantomimes, and
      pictorial, graphic, or sculptural works, including the individual images of a
      motion picture or other audiovisual work, to display the copyrighted work
      publicly; and (6) in the case of sound recordings, to perform the copyrighted
      work publicly by means of a digital audio transmission.


      TO: Members of the Faculty, Hoover Institution Fellows,
      Academic Staff, and Library Directors

      FROM: Condoleezza Rice, Provost

      RE: Copyright Reminder

      October 30, 1998

      This memorandum provides a general description of the applicability of the
      copyright law and the so-called "fair use" exemptions to the copyright law's
      general prohibition on copying. It also describes "safe harbor" guidelines
      applicable to classroom copying.

      The federal copyright statute governs the reproduction of works of authorship.
      In general, works governed by copyright law include such traditional works of
      authorship as books, photographs, music, drama, video and sculpture, and also
      software, multimedia, and databases. Copyrighted works are protected regardless
      of the medium in which they are created or reproduced; thus, copyright extends
      to digital works and works transformed into a digital format. Copyrighted works
      are not limited to those that bear a copyright notice. As a result of changes in
      copyright law, works published since March 1, 1989 need not bear a copyright
      notice to be protected under the statute.

      Two provisions of the copyright statute are of particular importance to teachers
      and researchers:

      * a provision that codifies the doctrine of "fair use," under which limited
      copying of copyrighted works without the permission of the owner is allowed for
      certain teaching and research purposes; and

      * a provision that establishes special limitations and exemptions for the
      reproduction of copyrighted works by libraries and archives.

      The concept of fair use is necessarily somewhat vague when discussed in the
      abstract. Its application depends critically on the particular facts of the
      individual situation. Neither the case law nor the statutory law provides bright
      lines concerning which uses are fair and which are not. However, you may find it
      helpful to refer to certain third party source materials. Guidelines for
      classroom copying by not-for-profit educational institutions have been prepared
      by a group consisting of the Authors League of America, the Association of
      American Publishers, and an ad hoc committee of educational institutions and
      organizations. In addition, fair use guidelines for educational multimedia have
      been prepared by a group coordinated by the consortium of College and University
      Multimedia Centers (CCUMC). These guidelines describe safe harbor conditions,
      but do not purport to define the full extent of "fair use."

      The guidelines, as well as other source material, are available through a
      variety of resources, including through the world wide web site
      http://fairuse.stanford.edu Stanford University Libraries & Academic
      Information Resources, in collaboration with the Council on Library Resources
      and FindLaw Internet Legal Resources, are sponsors of this web site. The site
      assembles a wide range of materials related to the use of copyrighted material
      by individuals, libraries, and educational institutions.

      I hope that the discussion below helps to clarify further the nature of "fair
      use."

      I. Fair Use for Teaching and Research

      The "fair use" doctrine allows limited reproduction of copyrighted works for
      educational and research purposes. The relevant portion of the copyright statue
      provides that the "fair use" of a copyrighted work, including reproduction "for
      purposes such as criticism, news reporting, teaching (including multiple copies
      for classroom use), scholarship, or research" is not an infringement of
      copyright. The law lists the following factors as the ones to be evaluated in
      determining whether a particular use of a copyrighted work is a permitted "fair
      use," rather than an infringement of the copyright:

      * the purpose and character of the use, including whether such use is of a
      commercial nature or is for nonprofit educational purposes;

      * the nature of the copyrighted work;

      * the amount and substantiality of the portion used in relation to the
      copyrighted work as a whole, and

      * the effect of the use upon the potential market for or value of the
      copyrighted work.

      Although all of these factors will be considered, the last factor is the most
      important in determining whether a particular use is "fair." Where a work is
      available for purchase or license from the copyright owner in the medium or
      format desired, copying of all or a significant portion of the work in lieu of
      purchasing or licensing a sufficient number of "authorized" copies would be
      presumptively unfair. Where only a small portion of a work is to be copied and
      the work would not be used if purchase or licensing of a sufficient number of
      authorized copies were required, the intended use is more likely to be found to
      be fair.

      A federal appeals court recently decided an important copyright fair use case
      involving coursepacks. In Princeton University Press, et.al. v. Michigan
      Document Services, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit concluded
      that the copying of excerpts from books and other publications by a commercial
      copy service without the payment of fees to the copyright holders to create
      coursepacks for university students was not fair use. The size of the offending
      excerpts varied from 30 percent to as little as 5 percent of the original
      publications. Although the opinion in this case is not binding in California, it
      is consistent with prior cases from other courts, and there is a reasonable
      likelihood that the California federal courts would reach a similar conclusion
      on similar facts.

      Where questions arise, we suggest that you consult the guidelines for classroom
      copying and other available source material available on the fair use web site,
      cited above. Please note that the guidelines are intended to state the minimum,
      not the maximum, extent of the fair use doctrine. Thus, just because your use is
      not within the guidelines, it is it not necessarily outside the scope of fair
      use. In the absence of a definitive conclusion, however, if the proposed use
      deviates from the guidelines, you should consider obtaining permission to use
      the work from the copyright owner. In instances where the fair use question is
      important and permission would be difficult or expensive to obtain, a member of
      the Fair Use Advisory Group (described below) or the Legal Office can assist in
      analyzing whether a particular proposed use would constitute "fair use."

      Some photocopying services will obtain copyright permission and add the price of
      the royalties, if any, to the price of the materials. A request to copy a
      copyrighted work should generally be sent to the permission department of the
      publisher of the work. Permission requests should contain the following:

      * Title, author, and/or editor, and edition

      * Exact material to be used, giving page numbers or chapters

      * Number of copies to be made

      * Use to be made of the copied materials

      * Form of distribution (classroom, newsletter, etc.)

      * Whether the material is to be sold

      Draft form letters can be obtained from or reviewed by a member of the Fair Use
      Advisory Group or the Legal Office.

      For certain works, permission may also be sought from the Copyright Clearance
      Center (CCC) which will quote a charge for works for which they are able to give
      permission. The Copyright Clearance Center can be contacted at www.copyright.com
      or (978) 750-8400, but it may be easier to go through a copying service that
      deals regularly with the CCC.

      II. Course Reserves

      Some libraries at Stanford will refuse to accept multiple photocopies or to make
      photocopies of copyrighted materials needed for course reserves without first
      having permission from the copyright holder. Other libraries on campus will
      accept a limited number of photocopies for course reserves. Consult individual
      libraries for clarification of their policies.

      While the libraries have blanket permission from dozens of journals, obtaining
      permission sometimes takes a good deal of time. Experience in obtaining
      permission has shown that an inquiry addressed to a journal publisher frequently
      produces information that the copyright is actually held by the author, and four
      weeks is often inadequate to obtain such permission. Four to six weeks is
      considered the norm.

      Permission may be obtained in a number of ways:

      * Upon request, some libraries on campus will obtain materials for course
      reserve. In these cases, the librarian will write to obtain permission to
      photocopy or to purchase reprints. However, most libraries do not provide this
      service.

      * Written permission may be obtained by the academic department.

      * Oral permission may be obtained by faculty members, departmental secretaries,
      or library staff, in which case a written record is needed of that action.

      Note that filling course reserve requirements may require two to three months
      before the quarter begins if the library does not already have a copy of the
      publication, if the publication is out of print, or if the copyright holder is
      not readily available.

      III. Resources

      Additional information on copyright issues may be found on the world wide web
      site http://fairuse.stanford.edu

      Questions about the copyright law as it affects faculty and staff in their
      University capacities should be directed to a member of the Fair Use Advisory
      Group (see attachment) or to Linda Woodward in the Legal Office (3-9751), who
      can put you in touch with the appropriate lawyer to respond to your specific
      question. Questions about library policy and course reserves should be addressed
      to Assunta Pisani, Associate Director, University Libraries (apisani@sulmail or
      3-5553). Information concerning the application of copyright law to computer
      software can be found in the memorandum "Copying of Computer Software"
      distributed by the Library and Information Resources and in Administrative Guide
      Memorandum 62.

      Thank you for your cooperation in ensuring the observation of these guidelines.

      The information comprised on this site in not offered or held to be a
      solicitation of the views, ideas or policies explained or represented in stories, articles and editorials offered. It is being presented as news and news only. Further, the content of PGS does not constitute advice or a recommendation by PGS and should not be relied upon in making(or refraining from making) any decision relating to the material presented
      here.

      Neither Lord Rick Of The Paranormal & Ghost Society nor its staff nor its
      sponsors, its ISP of any contributors to the site can be held liable or
      responsible in any way for any opinions, suggestions, recommendations or
      comments made by any of the contributors to the various materials on this
      site...nor do opinions of contributors necessarily reflect those at PGS, et al.

      In no event shall Lord Rick Of The Paranormal & Ghost Society , its staff, its
      sponsors, its contributors or its ISP be liable for any damages whatsoever,
      including, without limitation, direct, special, indirect, consequential, or
      incidental damages, or damages for lost profits, loss of revenue, or loss of
      use, arising out of or related to the PGS internet site or the information
      contained in it, whether such damages arise in contract, negligence, tort, under
      statute, in equity, at law or otherwise.

      Sincerely,

      Lord Rick
      Founder
      Paranormal & Ghost Society
      LordOfThyNight@...
    • ParanormalGhostSociety@yahoogroups.com
      Disclaimer: The Paranormal & Ghost Society its Pictures, Videos, EVP s, AngelOfThyNight Radio, Theories, Satire, Articles, Content, and Features are for
      Message 80 of 80 , Jul 1, 2014
      • 0 Attachment
        Disclaimer: The Paranormal & Ghost Society its Pictures, Videos, EVP's,
        AngelOfThyNight Radio, Theories, Satire, Articles, Content, and Features are for
        Entertainment Purposes and Research Only. DO NOT try this at home! DO NOT try
        this away from home. Donations received are to help pay for Lord Rick's Aka
        AngelOfThyNight the founder/webmaster/editor/talk show hosts time creating,
        coding, maintaining, updating and web mastering this website
        www.paranormalghostsociety.org as well as time spent researching paranormal
        articles for the Paranormal & Ghost Societies mailing list throughout the web!
        By browsing our pages you agree to this disclaimer which is found at various
        locations including our main page.

        Disclaimer & Fair Use Act Of Educational Material

        Fair Use
        FAIR USE NOTICE. Many of the stories on this site contain copyrighted material
        whose use has not been specifically authorized by the copyright owner. We are
        making this material available in its efforts to advance the understanding of
        environmental issues and sustainability, human rights, economic and political
        democracy, paranormal science, Ufology, parapsychology, Cryptozoology and issues
        of social justice. We believe this constitutes a 'fair use' of the copyrighted
        material as provided for in Section 107 of the US Copyright Law. If you wish to
        use such copyrighted material for purposes of your own that go beyond 'fair
        use'...you must obtain permission from the copyright owner. By joining our
        forums you agree not to hold us accountable or liable. You also agree to follow
        the Fair Use Notices Below. If there are finds of you Tossing (Lord Rick)
        Illegally....our attorneys will be in touch with you for violating the
        disclaimer below!

        FAIR USE NOTICE. This site contains copyrighted material the use of which has
        not always been specifically authorized by the copyright owner. We are making
        such material available in our efforts to advance understanding of
        environmental, politica, human rights, economic, democracy, scientific, and
        social justice issues, etc.. We believe this constitutes a 'fair use' of any
        such copyrighted material as provided for in section 107 of the US Copyright
        Law. If you wish to use copyrighted material from this site for purposes of your
        own that go beyond 'fair use', you must obtain permission from the copyright
        owner.

        In accordance with Title 17 U.S.C. Section 107, the material on this site is
        distributed without profit to those who have expressed a prior interest in
        receiving the included information for research and educational purposes. For
        more information go to: http://www.law.cornell.edu/uscode/17/107.shtml

        United States Code: Title 17, Section 107
        http://www4.law.cornell.edu/uscode/unframed/17/107.html

        Notwithstanding the provisions of sections 106 and 106A, the fair use of a
        copyrighted work, including such use by reproduction in copies or phonorecords
        or by any other means specified by that section, for purposes such as criticism,
        comment, news reporting, teaching (including multiple copies for classroom use),
        scholarship, or research, is not an infringement of copyright. In determining
        whether the use made of a work in any particular case is a fair use the factors
        to be considered shall include - (1) the purpose and character of the use,
        including whether such use is of a commercial nature or is for nonprofit
        educational purposes; (2) the nature of the copyrighted work; (3) the amount and
        substantiality of the portion used in relation to the copyrighted work as a
        whole; and (4) the effect of the use upon the potential market for or value of
        the copyrighted work. The fact that a work is unpublished shall not itself bar a
        finding of fair use if such finding is made upon consideration of all the above
        factors.

        United States Code: Title 17, Section 106 Chapter 1 - Subject Matter And Scope
        of Copyright http://www4.law.cornell.edu/uscode/unframed/17/106.html

        Subject to sections 107 through 120, the owner of copyright under this title has
        the exclusive rights to do and to authorize any of the following: (1) to
        reproduce the copyrighted work in copies or phonorecords; (2) to prepare
        derivative works based upon the copyrighted work; (3) to distribute copies or
        phonorecords of the copyrighted work to the public by sale or other transfer of
        ownership, or by rental, lease, or lending; (4) in the case of literary,
        musical, dramatic, and choreographic works, pantomimes, and motion pictures and
        other audiovisual works, to perform the copyrighted work publicly; (5) in the
        case of literary, musical, dramatic, and choreographic works, pantomimes, and
        pictorial, graphic, or sculptural works, including the individual images of a
        motion picture or other audiovisual work, to display the copyrighted work
        publicly; and (6) in the case of sound recordings, to perform the copyrighted
        work publicly by means of a digital audio transmission.

        FAIR USE NOTICE: This site contains copyrighted material the use of which has
        not always been specifically authorized by the copyright owner. We are making
        such material available in our efforts to advance understanding of
        environmental, political, human rights, economic, democracy, scientific, and
        social justice issues, etc. We believe this constitutes a 'fair use' of any such
        copyrighted material as provided for in section 107 of the US Copyright Law. In
        accordance with Title 17 U.S.C. Section 107, the material on this site is
        distributed without profit to those who have expressed a prior interest in
        receiving the included information for research and educational purposes. For
        more information go to: http://www.law.cornell.edu/uscode/17/107.shtml


        FAIR USE NOTICE. Many of the stories on this site contain copyrighted material
        whose use has not been specifically authorized by the copyright owner. We are
        making this material available in its efforts to advance the understanding of
        environmental issues and sustainability, human rights, economic and political
        democracy, and issues of social justice. We believe this constitutes a 'fair
        use' of the copyrighted material as provided for in Section 107 of the US
        Copyright Law. If you wish to use such copyrighted material for purposes of your
        own that go beyond 'fair use'...you must obtain permission from the copyright
        owner.


        FAIR USE NOTICE. This site contains copyrighted material the use of which has
        not always been specifically authorized by the copyright owner. We are making
        such material available in our efforts to advance understanding of
        environmental, politica, human rights, economic, democracy, scientific, and
        social justice issues, etc.. We believe this constitutes a 'fair use' of any
        such copyrighted material as provided for in section 107 of the US Copyright
        Law. If you wish to use copyrighted material from this site for purposes of your
        own that go beyond 'fair use', you must obtain permission from the copyright
        owner.

        In accordance with Title 17 U.S.C. Section 107, the material on this site is
        distributed without profit to those who have expressed a prior interest in
        receiving the included information for research and educational purposes. For
        more information go to: http://www.law.cornell.edu/uscode/17/107.shtml

        United States Code: Title 17, Section 107
        http://www4.law.cornell.edu/uscode/unframed/17/107.html

        Notwithstanding the provisions of sections 106 and 106A, the fair use of a
        copyrighted work, including such use by reproduction in copies or phonorecords
        or by any other means specified by that section, for purposes such as criticism,
        comment, news reporting, teaching (including multiple copies for classroom use),
        scholarship, or research, is not an infringement of copyright. In determining
        whether the use made of a work in any particular case is a fair use the factors
        to be considered shall include - (1) the purpose and character of the use,
        including whether such use is of a commercial nature or is for nonprofit
        educational purposes; (2) the nature of the copyrighted work; (3) the amount and
        substantiality of the portion used in relation to the copyrighted work as a
        whole; and (4) the effect of the use upon the potential market for or value of
        the copyrighted work. The fact that a work is unpublished shall not itself bar a
        finding of fair use if such finding is made upon consideration of all the above
        factors.

        United States Code: Title 17, Section 106 Chapter 1 - Subject Matter And Scope
        of Copyright http://www4.law.cornell.edu/uscode/unframed/17/106.html

        Subject to sections 107 through 120, the owner of copyright under this title has
        the exclusive rights to do and to authorize any of the following: (1) to
        reproduce the copyrighted work in copies or phonorecords; (2) to prepare
        derivative works based upon the copyrighted work; (3) to distribute copies or
        phonorecords of the copyrighted work to the public by sale or other transfer of
        ownership, or by rental, lease, or lending; (4) in the case of literary,
        musical, dramatic, and choreographic works, pantomimes, and motion pictures and
        other audiovisual works, to perform the copyrighted work publicly; (5) in the
        case of literary, musical, dramatic, and choreographic works, pantomimes, and
        pictorial, graphic, or sculptural works, including the individual images of a
        motion picture or other audiovisual work, to display the copyrighted work
        publicly; and (6) in the case of sound recordings, to perform the copyrighted
        work publicly by means of a digital audio transmission.


        TO: Members of the Faculty, Hoover Institution Fellows,
        Academic Staff, and Library Directors

        FROM: Condoleezza Rice, Provost

        RE: Copyright Reminder

        October 30, 1998

        This memorandum provides a general description of the applicability of the
        copyright law and the so-called "fair use" exemptions to the copyright law's
        general prohibition on copying. It also describes "safe harbor" guidelines
        applicable to classroom copying.

        The federal copyright statute governs the reproduction of works of authorship.
        In general, works governed by copyright law include such traditional works of
        authorship as books, photographs, music, drama, video and sculpture, and also
        software, multimedia, and databases. Copyrighted works are protected regardless
        of the medium in which they are created or reproduced; thus, copyright extends
        to digital works and works transformed into a digital format. Copyrighted works
        are not limited to those that bear a copyright notice. As a result of changes in
        copyright law, works published since March 1, 1989 need not bear a copyright
        notice to be protected under the statute.

        Two provisions of the copyright statute are of particular importance to teachers
        and researchers:

        * a provision that codifies the doctrine of "fair use," under which limited
        copying of copyrighted works without the permission of the owner is allowed for
        certain teaching and research purposes; and

        * a provision that establishes special limitations and exemptions for the
        reproduction of copyrighted works by libraries and archives.

        The concept of fair use is necessarily somewhat vague when discussed in the
        abstract. Its application depends critically on the particular facts of the
        individual situation. Neither the case law nor the statutory law provides bright
        lines concerning which uses are fair and which are not. However, you may find it
        helpful to refer to certain third party source materials. Guidelines for
        classroom copying by not-for-profit educational institutions have been prepared
        by a group consisting of the Authors League of America, the Association of
        American Publishers, and an ad hoc committee of educational institutions and
        organizations. In addition, fair use guidelines for educational multimedia have
        been prepared by a group coordinated by the consortium of College and University
        Multimedia Centers (CCUMC). These guidelines describe safe harbor conditions,
        but do not purport to define the full extent of "fair use."

        The guidelines, as well as other source material, are available through a
        variety of resources, including through the world wide web site
        http://fairuse.stanford.edu Stanford University Libraries & Academic
        Information Resources, in collaboration with the Council on Library Resources
        and FindLaw Internet Legal Resources, are sponsors of this web site. The site
        assembles a wide range of materials related to the use of copyrighted material
        by individuals, libraries, and educational institutions.

        I hope that the discussion below helps to clarify further the nature of "fair
        use."

        I. Fair Use for Teaching and Research

        The "fair use" doctrine allows limited reproduction of copyrighted works for
        educational and research purposes. The relevant portion of the copyright statue
        provides that the "fair use" of a copyrighted work, including reproduction "for
        purposes such as criticism, news reporting, teaching (including multiple copies
        for classroom use), scholarship, or research" is not an infringement of
        copyright. The law lists the following factors as the ones to be evaluated in
        determining whether a particular use of a copyrighted work is a permitted "fair
        use," rather than an infringement of the copyright:

        * the purpose and character of the use, including whether such use is of a
        commercial nature or is for nonprofit educational purposes;

        * the nature of the copyrighted work;

        * the amount and substantiality of the portion used in relation to the
        copyrighted work as a whole, and

        * the effect of the use upon the potential market for or value of the
        copyrighted work.

        Although all of these factors will be considered, the last factor is the most
        important in determining whether a particular use is "fair." Where a work is
        available for purchase or license from the copyright owner in the medium or
        format desired, copying of all or a significant portion of the work in lieu of
        purchasing or licensing a sufficient number of "authorized" copies would be
        presumptively unfair. Where only a small portion of a work is to be copied and
        the work would not be used if purchase or licensing of a sufficient number of
        authorized copies were required, the intended use is more likely to be found to
        be fair.

        A federal appeals court recently decided an important copyright fair use case
        involving coursepacks. In Princeton University Press, et.al. v. Michigan
        Document Services, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit concluded
        that the copying of excerpts from books and other publications by a commercial
        copy service without the payment of fees to the copyright holders to create
        coursepacks for university students was not fair use. The size of the offending
        excerpts varied from 30 percent to as little as 5 percent of the original
        publications. Although the opinion in this case is not binding in California, it
        is consistent with prior cases from other courts, and there is a reasonable
        likelihood that the California federal courts would reach a similar conclusion
        on similar facts.

        Where questions arise, we suggest that you consult the guidelines for classroom
        copying and other available source material available on the fair use web site,
        cited above. Please note that the guidelines are intended to state the minimum,
        not the maximum, extent of the fair use doctrine. Thus, just because your use is
        not within the guidelines, it is it not necessarily outside the scope of fair
        use. In the absence of a definitive conclusion, however, if the proposed use
        deviates from the guidelines, you should consider obtaining permission to use
        the work from the copyright owner. In instances where the fair use question is
        important and permission would be difficult or expensive to obtain, a member of
        the Fair Use Advisory Group (described below) or the Legal Office can assist in
        analyzing whether a particular proposed use would constitute "fair use."

        Some photocopying services will obtain copyright permission and add the price of
        the royalties, if any, to the price of the materials. A request to copy a
        copyrighted work should generally be sent to the permission department of the
        publisher of the work. Permission requests should contain the following:

        * Title, author, and/or editor, and edition

        * Exact material to be used, giving page numbers or chapters

        * Number of copies to be made

        * Use to be made of the copied materials

        * Form of distribution (classroom, newsletter, etc.)

        * Whether the material is to be sold

        Draft form letters can be obtained from or reviewed by a member of the Fair Use
        Advisory Group or the Legal Office.

        For certain works, permission may also be sought from the Copyright Clearance
        Center (CCC) which will quote a charge for works for which they are able to give
        permission. The Copyright Clearance Center can be contacted at www.copyright.com
        or (978) 750-8400, but it may be easier to go through a copying service that
        deals regularly with the CCC.

        II. Course Reserves

        Some libraries at Stanford will refuse to accept multiple photocopies or to make
        photocopies of copyrighted materials needed for course reserves without first
        having permission from the copyright holder. Other libraries on campus will
        accept a limited number of photocopies for course reserves. Consult individual
        libraries for clarification of their policies.

        While the libraries have blanket permission from dozens of journals, obtaining
        permission sometimes takes a good deal of time. Experience in obtaining
        permission has shown that an inquiry addressed to a journal publisher frequently
        produces information that the copyright is actually held by the author, and four
        weeks is often inadequate to obtain such permission. Four to six weeks is
        considered the norm.

        Permission may be obtained in a number of ways:

        * Upon request, some libraries on campus will obtain materials for course
        reserve. In these cases, the librarian will write to obtain permission to
        photocopy or to purchase reprints. However, most libraries do not provide this
        service.

        * Written permission may be obtained by the academic department.

        * Oral permission may be obtained by faculty members, departmental secretaries,
        or library staff, in which case a written record is needed of that action.

        Note that filling course reserve requirements may require two to three months
        before the quarter begins if the library does not already have a copy of the
        publication, if the publication is out of print, or if the copyright holder is
        not readily available.

        III. Resources

        Additional information on copyright issues may be found on the world wide web
        site http://fairuse.stanford.edu

        Questions about the copyright law as it affects faculty and staff in their
        University capacities should be directed to a member of the Fair Use Advisory
        Group (see attachment) or to Linda Woodward in the Legal Office (3-9751), who
        can put you in touch with the appropriate lawyer to respond to your specific
        question. Questions about library policy and course reserves should be addressed
        to Assunta Pisani, Associate Director, University Libraries (apisani@sulmail or
        3-5553). Information concerning the application of copyright law to computer
        software can be found in the memorandum "Copying of Computer Software"
        distributed by the Library and Information Resources and in Administrative Guide
        Memorandum 62.

        Thank you for your cooperation in ensuring the observation of these guidelines.

        The information comprised on this site in not offered or held to be a
        solicitation of the views, ideas or policies explained or represented in stories, articles and editorials offered. It is being presented as news and news only. Further, the content of PGS does not constitute advice or a recommendation by PGS and should not be relied upon in making(or refraining from making) any decision relating to the material presented
        here.

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        comments made by any of the contributors to the various materials on this
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        In no event shall Lord Rick Of The Paranormal & Ghost Society , its staff, its
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        contained in it, whether such damages arise in contract, negligence, tort, under
        statute, in equity, at law or otherwise.

        Sincerely,

        Lord Rick
        Founder
        Paranormal & Ghost Society
        LordOfThyNight@...
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