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Composite high resolution panorama alignment help needed

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  • Bernhard Vogl
    Stupid me! I have captured a high resolution panorama from a tower platform (approx. 30m in diameter) by shooting partial panoramas from 4 different spots. I
    Message 1 of 24 , Apr 29, 2009
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      Stupid me!
      I have captured a high resolution panorama from a tower platform
      (approx. 30m in diameter) by shooting partial panoramas from 4 different
      spots. I thought, it would be an even easier job to blend the partial
      panoramas together than with e.g. 4 fisheye images. But apparently, the
      opposite is the case.
      I have 4x133 images with overlapping regions. I have put all 532 images
      in one project, generated the control points and optimized in all
      different variations i can think of - but either the horizon is curved
      or the bottom area never fits. Obviously i forgot to obey something very
      basic...

      Here is a straightened preview:
      http://dativ.at/temp/20090428-full.jpg
      You can easily spot the 4 non-overlapping areas. I think, there should
      be a way to tweak each separate image until they fit.

      Any help would be gratly appreciated!
      Bernhard
    • AYRTON
      ... The guy to ask is Eric Rougier ... remeber his Eiffel Tower flying inside ??? :-) wonderfull best AYRTON ... -- ... + 55 21 9982 6313 http://ayrton360.com
      Message 2 of 24 , Apr 29, 2009
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        On Wed, Apr 29, 2009 at 3:54 PM, Bernhard Vogl <bvogl@...> wrote:

        > Stupid me!
        > I have captured a high resolution panorama from a tower platform
        > (approx. 30m in diameter) by shooting partial panoramas from 4 different
        > spots. I thought, it would be an even easier job to blend the partial
        > panoramas together than with e.g. 4 fisheye images. But apparently, the
        > opposite is the case.
        > I have 4x133 images with overlapping regions. I have put all 532 images
        > in one project, generated the control points and optimized in all
        > different variations i can think of - but either the horizon is curved
        > or the bottom area never fits. Obviously i forgot to obey something very
        > basic...
        >
        > Here is a straightened preview:
        > http://dativ.at/temp/20090428-full.jpg
        > You can easily spot the 4 non-overlapping areas. I think, there should
        > be a way to tweak each separate image until they fit.
        >
        > Any help would be gratly appreciated!



        The guy to ask is Eric Rougier ... remeber his Eiffel Tower flying inside
        ??? :-)
        wonderfull

        best
        AYRTON



        >
        > Bernhard
        >
        >
        > ------------------------------------
        >
        > --
        >
        >
        >
        >


        --
        ------------
        | A Y R |
        | T O N |
        ------------

        + 55 21 9982 6313
        http://ayrton360.com | http://vrfolio.com | http://ayrton.com


        [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
      • Bernhard Vogl
        ... How could i forget? ;-) However, if fear that Eric worked with an ordinary wide angle or fisheye lens, so it wouldn t help in my specific case :-
        Message 3 of 24 , Apr 29, 2009
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          > The guy to ask is Eric Rougier ... remeber his Eiffel Tower flying inside
          > ??? :-)
          > wonderfull
          >
          > best
          > AYRTON
          >
          How could i forget? ;-)
          However, if fear that Eric worked with an "ordinary" wide angle or
          fisheye lens, so it wouldn't help in my specific case :-\

          Bernhard
        • Matthias Taugwalder
          Hi Bernhard I am experiencing a similar issue in PTgui with large images and optimizing control points. It seems that during the optimization process images
          Message 4 of 24 , Apr 29, 2009
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            Hi Bernhard

            I am experiencing a similar issue in PTgui with large images and
            optimizing control points. It seems that during the optimization
            process images start to build kind of clusters. During the
            optimization parts of the final panorama overlap well, but others
            don't. For example the bottom images in a pano align well, but the
            horizon does not match at all...

            After some tries I could solve this problem by deleting "wrong" not
            important control points e.g. in the sky, and after that the horizon
            did match perfectly... Not sure if it is a bug in PTgui, or just a
            general optimization problem... Just out of curiosity... try to render
            the 4 image views seperately, then important those images back into to
            PTgui (e.g. equirectangular format) and set the control points by
            hand.

            I am not sure if increasing/decreasing the number of control points to
            generate would have an affect...


            Good luck,

            Matthias

            --
            Matthias Taugwalder
            matthias.taugwalder@...
          • Erik Krause
            ... Did you try APClean to remove bad control points? It sometimes works wonders, but you need more than enough points of course. -- Erik Krause
            Message 5 of 24 , Apr 29, 2009
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              Bernhard Vogl wrote:

              > I have put all 532 images
              > in one project, generated the control points and optimized in all
              > different variations i can think of

              Did you try APClean to remove bad control points? It sometimes works
              wonders, but you need more than enough points of course.

              --
              Erik Krause
              http://www.erik-krause.de
            • crane@ukonline.co.uk
              ... I would have thought the way was to make 4 pictures from each viewpoint and then try to get them to blend together with a bit of fiddling ? I can see one
              Message 6 of 24 , Apr 29, 2009
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                Quoting Bernhard Vogl <bvogl@...>:

                > Hello Matthias,
                > > [...] Just out of curiosity... try to render
                > > the 4 image views seperately, then important those images back into to
                > > PTgui (e.g. equirectangular format) and set the control points by
                > > hand.
                > >
                > Oh, well - i hoped to omit the step to create the 4 separate panoramas.
                > I have tried lately with 2 similar large panoramas and PTGui refused to
                > load correctly, so i even may have to trick PTGui by working on smaller
                > versions.
                > > I am not sure if increasing/decreasing the number of control points to
                > > generate would have an affect...
                > >
                > >
                > I have tried both - with a large number and vice versa. Maybe there's
                > really a bug in PTGui optimizer as i can see "good" image links with
                > large errors. Even when i emphasize those links with additional control
                > points, the panorama won't "pop" into correct alignment. I would need a
                > way to find out if there are some images that have wrong CPs but a good
                > optimization... (not sure, maybe such pairs even don't exist?)
                >

                I would have thought the way was to make 4 pictures from each viewpoint and then
                try to get them to blend together with a bit of fiddling ? I can see one street
                that would be a candidate.
                regards

                mick


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              • crane@ukonline.co.uk
                ... that is because digital cameras like to photograph straight lines. regards mick ... This mail sent through http://www.ukonline.net
                Message 7 of 24 , Apr 29, 2009
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                  Quoting Juergen Schrader <panorama@...>:

                  > While you are at it try berserk mode in PTGUI.
                  > (Liberately delete all controlpoints from the list which are above a certain
                  > average). On some occasions that can be of tremendous help.
                  > Nice crisp picture btw ;)
                  that is because digital cameras like to photograph straight lines.
                  regards

                  mick

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                • Bernhard Vogl
                  Hello Matthias, ... Oh, well - i hoped to omit the step to create the 4 separate panoramas. I have tried lately with 2 similar large panoramas and PTGui
                  Message 8 of 24 , Apr 29, 2009
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                    Hello Matthias,
                    > [...] Just out of curiosity... try to render
                    > the 4 image views seperately, then important those images back into to
                    > PTgui (e.g. equirectangular format) and set the control points by
                    > hand.
                    >
                    Oh, well - i hoped to omit the step to create the 4 separate panoramas.
                    I have tried lately with 2 similar large panoramas and PTGui refused to
                    load correctly, so i even may have to trick PTGui by working on smaller
                    versions.
                    > I am not sure if increasing/decreasing the number of control points to
                    > generate would have an affect...
                    >
                    >
                    I have tried both - with a large number and vice versa. Maybe there's
                    really a bug in PTGui optimizer as i can see "good" image links with
                    large errors. Even when i emphasize those links with additional control
                    points, the panorama won't "pop" into correct alignment. I would need a
                    way to find out if there are some images that have wrong CPs but a good
                    optimization... (not sure, maybe such pairs even don't exist?)

                    Bernhard
                  • Juergen Schrader
                    While you are at it try berserk mode in PTGUI. (Liberately delete all controlpoints from the list which are above a certain average). On some occasions that
                    Message 9 of 24 , Apr 29, 2009
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                      While you are at it try berserk mode in PTGUI.
                      (Liberately delete all controlpoints from the list which are above a certain average). On some occasions that can be of tremendous help.
                      Nice crisp picture btw ;)

                      Cheers
                      J├╝rgen

                      --- In PanoToolsNG@yahoogroups.com, Matthias Taugwalder <matthias.taugwalder@...> wrote:
                      >
                      > Hi Bernhard
                      >
                      > I am experiencing a similar issue in PTgui with large images and
                      > optimizing control points. It seems that during the optimization
                      > process images start to build kind of clusters. During the
                      > optimization parts of the final panorama overlap well, but others
                      > don't. For example the bottom images in a pano align well, but the
                      > horizon does not match at all...
                      >
                      > After some tries I could solve this problem by deleting "wrong" not
                      > important control points e.g. in the sky, and after that the horizon
                      > did match perfectly... Not sure if it is a bug in PTgui, or just a
                      > general optimization problem... Just out of curiosity... try to render
                      > the 4 image views seperately, then important those images back into to
                      > PTgui (e.g. equirectangular format) and set the control points by
                      > hand.
                      >
                      > I am not sure if increasing/decreasing the number of control points to
                      > generate would have an affect...
                      >
                      >
                      > Good luck,
                      >
                      > Matthias
                      >
                      > --
                      > Matthias Taugwalder
                      > matthias.taugwalder@...
                      >
                    • Bernhard Vogl
                      Hello Erik, ... I don t use APClean any more as PTGui offers the same functionality with CP cleaning and by sorting the control points by distance. As i wrote
                      Message 10 of 24 , Apr 29, 2009
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                        Hello Erik,
                        > Did you try APClean to remove bad control points? It sometimes works
                        > wonders, but you need more than enough points of course.
                        >
                        I don't use APClean any more as PTGui offers the same functionality with
                        CP cleaning and by sorting the control points by distance.
                        As i wrote to Matthias, the bad control points aren't really bad, just
                        "optimized wrong" and with my usual methods (putting weight on good
                        links), the optimizer didn't "pop" into a new optimum. Normally, you
                        know that you are on the right way, if you see the good CPs also
                        appearing as good links and the CP cleaner finding several 100s of
                        statistical outlers.

                        As known from fisheye tower panoramas, the bottom area has too much
                        overlap and the final panorama tends to "curve upwards". This is also
                        the situation in my panorama. However, the singe images only cover a
                        very small FOV and i have allowed optimization for each single image. In
                        my understanding, this should "squeeze" the bottom images for better
                        fit. But this doesn't happen.
                        Even stranger, each partial panorama keeps a good optimization "inside",
                        but the overlap regions show large optimization errors. I don't
                        understand, why CP errors aren't evenly distributed over the whole
                        bottom area.

                        Bernhard
                      • Bernhard Vogl
                        ... Reducing the output size to 1/10th of the original image helps a lot to make it look crisp ;-) Bernhard
                        Message 11 of 24 , Apr 29, 2009
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                          > Nice crisp picture btw ;)
                          >
                          Reducing the output size to 1/10th of the original image helps a lot to
                          make it look crisp ;-)

                          Bernhard
                        • Bernhard Vogl
                          ... Fiddling 4 750Mpix panoramas together is a good thing for long winter nights.... ;-) Bernhard
                          Message 12 of 24 , Apr 29, 2009
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                            > I would have thought the way was to make 4 pictures from each viewpoint and then
                            > try to get them to blend together with a bit of fiddling ? I can see one street
                            > that would be a candidate.
                            >
                            >
                            Fiddling 4 750Mpix panoramas together is a good thing for long winter
                            nights.... ;-)

                            Bernhard
                          • crane@ukonline.co.uk
                            ... in that case I suppose you want to think about fiddling a small thing together you can translate to the bigger one ? regards mick ... This mail sent
                            Message 13 of 24 , Apr 29, 2009
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                              Quoting Bernhard Vogl <bvogl@...>:

                              >
                              > > I would have thought the way was to make 4 pictures from each viewpoint and
                              > then
                              > > try to get them to blend together with a bit of fiddling ? I can see one
                              > street
                              > > that would be a candidate.
                              > >
                              > >
                              > Fiddling 4 750Mpix panoramas together is a good thing for long winter
                              > nights.... ;-)
                              in that case I suppose you want to think about fiddling a small thing together
                              you can translate to the bigger one ?
                              regards

                              mick

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                            • Bernhard Vogl
                              Hello Mick ... To some extent - yes. What i definitely know is, that having a well aligned panorama in PTGui us much better than any extensive rework after
                              Message 14 of 24 , Apr 29, 2009
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                                Hello Mick
                                > in that case I suppose you want to think about fiddling a small thing together
                                > you can translate to the bigger one ?
                                >
                                >
                                To some extent - yes. What i definitely know is, that having a well
                                aligned panorama in PTGui us much better than any extensive rework after
                                stitch. It sometime happens that i'm finding a major problem in the
                                panorama at a later step in my workflow (e.g. after creating the tiles
                                and webpage. This is the moment where you can easily browse the final
                                image for the first time). Correcting the error in PTGui and simply
                                re-stitching the panorama is much easier than having to cope with a lot
                                of imaging work that would be lost at that moment.

                                Bernhard
                              • Erik Krause
                                ... The PTGui CP cleaning tool is by no means as flexible and effective as APClean. When PTGui has removed all worst controlpoints and the panorama still
                                Message 15 of 24 , Apr 29, 2009
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                                  Bernhard Vogl wrote:

                                  > > Did you try APClean to remove bad control points? It sometimes works
                                  > > wonders, but you need more than enough points of course.
                                  > >
                                  > I don't use APClean any more as PTGui offers the same functionality with
                                  > CP cleaning and by sorting the control points by distance.

                                  The PTGui CP cleaning tool is by no means as flexible and effective as
                                  APClean. When PTGui has removed all "worst controlpoints" and the
                                  panorama still doesn't fit very well APClean can enhance the result in
                                  most cases.

                                  And deleting CP's by distance isn't a good solution either. If in an
                                  image pair most of the CP's have large errors they are probably
                                  optimized wrong not positioned wrong. APClean takes account of this
                                  since it uses the standard deviation as a measure.

                                  best regards
                                  --
                                  Erik Krause
                                  http://www.erik-krause.de
                                • Rodolpho Pajuaba
                                  Hello, Bernhard, I did something very similar some time ago, from an approximately 15mt dia. tower, with appr. 150mt. height:
                                  Message 16 of 24 , Apr 29, 2009
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                                    Hello, Bernhard,
                                    I did something very similar some time ago, from an approximately 15mt
                                    dia. tower, with appr. 150mt. height:
                                    http://www.pajuaba.com.br/curitiba360/panoramica_curitiba_web.jpg . I
                                    shot 7 horizontal "rows" of pictures, with a Zenitar 16mm+Canon D60
                                    combo (coincidentally it's currently my only pano equipment available
                                    now ;-) ) , and I used only 4 of them. I did the hard way: assembled 4
                                    of them ("kind of"cardinally arranged, because the windows weren't
                                    evenly spaced) individually and aligned them in one bigger file. After
                                    optimizing in PTGui I exported the pano in PSD format, with layers and
                                    layer masks, and adited them in PS. If you look (VERY) closely (the
                                    final file has 3000X12000+ pixels) AND you know the neighbourhood you
                                    can spot some mistakes - but not bad stitches.
                                    HTH,
                                    Rodolpho Pajuaba

                                    2009/4/29 Bernhard Vogl <bvogl@...>:
                                    > Stupid me!
                                    > I have captured a high resolution panorama from a tower platform
                                    > (approx. 30m in diameter) by shooting partial panoramas from 4 different
                                    > spots. I thought, it would be an even easier job to blend the partial
                                    > panoramas together than with e.g. 4 fisheye images. But apparently, the
                                    > opposite is the case.
                                    > I have 4x133 images with overlapping regions. I have put all 532 images
                                    > in one project, generated the control points and optimized in all
                                    > different variations i can think of - but either the horizon is curved
                                    > or the bottom area never fits. Obviously i forgot to obey something very
                                    > basic...
                                    >
                                    > Here is a straightened preview:
                                    > http://dativ.at/temp/20090428-full.jpg
                                    > You can easily spot the 4 non-overlapping areas. I think, there should
                                    > be a way to tweak each separate image until they fit.
                                    >
                                    > Any help would be gratly appreciated!
                                    > Bernhard
                                  • Matthias Taugwalder
                                    Hi Bernhard ... Yes, that is the exact same behaviour I am experiencing. I may imagine that this problems could result from many medium bad control points
                                    Message 17 of 24 , Apr 29, 2009
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                                      Hi Bernhard

                                      > I don't use APClean any more as PTGui offers the same functionality with
                                      > CP cleaning and by sorting the control points by distance.
                                      > As i wrote to Matthias, the bad control points aren't really bad, just
                                      > "optimized wrong" and with my usual methods (putting weight on good
                                      > links), the optimizer didn't "pop" into a new optimum.

                                      Yes, that is the exact same behaviour I am experiencing. I may imagine
                                      that this problems could result from many "medium bad" control points
                                      that increase the average control point distance. And the really good
                                      controlpoints don't have enough influence anymore on the whole image,
                                      and get missaligned.

                                      It would be nice if PTgui could offer a kind of weighting of control
                                      points, so that for example you could priorize and influence the
                                      optimization process, that you can optimize for example for the
                                      "important images" at the horizon.

                                      Bernhard, you may want to try this: Just optimize for one single row
                                      of pictures (means one row with pictures of all four images), by
                                      selecting/deselecting the other images in the optimizer tab. Just
                                      optimize for the individual yaw/pitch/roll values, don't optimize
                                      globally. Then in a 2nd step only optimize for the 2nd row and so on.
                                      May be you can outflank the optimizer that way...


                                      Have a nice day,

                                      Matthias

                                      --
                                      Matthias Taugwalder
                                      matthias.taugwalder@...
                                    • Bernhard Vogl
                                      ... PTGui also offers CP cleaning by statistical differences, but it isn t that configurable like APClean. so, thanks Erik for pointing out that it is worth
                                      Message 18 of 24 , Apr 30, 2009
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                                        > The PTGui CP cleaning tool is by no means as flexible and effective as
                                        > APClean. When PTGui has removed all "worst controlpoints" and the
                                        > panorama still doesn't fit very well APClean can enhance the result in
                                        > most cases.

                                        PTGui also offers CP cleaning by statistical differences, but it isn't that configurable like APClean. so, thanks Erik for pointing out that it is worth trying!
                                        I have made 2 runs with APClean yesterday. It reminded me why i normally don't use it - it is a good software but re-loading a large panorama afterwards takes ages...
                                        The optimizer run afterwards did change some details but the main problem is still there. I slowly start to believe that my specific optimization problem has no geometric solution.

                                        Bernhard
                                      • Bernhard Vogl
                                        ... That s a common problem i m facing with large panoramas. In that case, i normally sort the CPs by distance. If the CPs are correct but the distance high, i
                                        Message 19 of 24 , Apr 30, 2009
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                                          > Yes, that is the exact same behaviour I am experiencing. I may imagine
                                          > that this problems could result from many "medium bad" control points
                                          > that increase the average control point distance. And the really good
                                          > controlpoints don't have enough influence anymore on the whole image,
                                          > and get missaligned.
                                          >
                                          > It would be nice if PTgui could offer a kind of weighting of control
                                          > points, so that for example you could priorize and influence the
                                          > optimization process, that you can optimize for example for the
                                          > "important images" at the horizon.

                                          That's a common problem i'm facing with large panoramas. In that case, i normally sort the CPs by distance. If the CPs are correct but the distance high, i put weight on that image pair by increasing the number of control points. After repeating this step several times, the panorama usually "pops" into a correct optimization.

                                          > Bernhard, you may want to try this: Just optimize for one single row
                                          > of pictures (means one row with pictures of all four images), by
                                          > selecting/deselecting the other images in the optimizer tab. Just
                                          > optimize for the individual yaw/pitch/roll values, don't optimize
                                          > globally. Then in a 2nd step only optimize for the 2nd row and so on.
                                          > May be you can outflank the optimizer that way...

                                          Phew - there are soo many rows... ;-)
                                          I now took your first advice and started tu build each section separately.
                                          I wonder into what type of horror the final assembly will lead but maybe it's actually easier to handle than 500 mis-aligned images :-)

                                          Bernhard
                                        • Matthias Taugwalder
                                          ... Just an idea: You might want to write a very small script that parses the pts files and generates the images selected in the template file. It should be
                                          Message 20 of 24 , Apr 30, 2009
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                                            > Phew - there are soo many rows... ;-)
                                            > I now took your first advice and started tu build each section separately.
                                            > I wonder into what type of horror the final assembly will lead but maybe
                                            > it's actually easier to handle than 500 mis-aligned images :-)

                                            Just an idea: You might want to write a very small script that parses
                                            the pts files and generates the images selected in the template file.
                                            It should be quite easy to do, that way you can also e.g. specify the
                                            row to select as an argument. So, call the script for row1, open the
                                            generated template, optimize, close, call the script again for row2,
                                            and so on...


                                            Matthias

                                            --
                                            Matthias Taugwalder
                                            matthias.taugwalder@...
                                          • pedro_silva58
                                            bernhard, not sure what you mean by re-loading a large panorama afterwards takes ages , but this may help: you don t have to quit ptgui to run apclean! what i
                                            Message 21 of 24 , Apr 30, 2009
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                                              bernhard,

                                              not sure what you mean by "re-loading a large panorama afterwards takes ages", but this may help: you don't have to quit ptgui to run apclean!
                                              what i sometimes do is
                                              1- with the project open in ptgui, save under a different name (just in case). keep the project open in ptgui.
                                              2- open apclean, run it on the new project.
                                              3- in ptgui, go file-recent_projects and re/load the same (open) project. since all temp files are the same, this is fast (at least on my projects, which i realize are small by some people's standards). reoptimize, etc.
                                              4- if needed, soap, wash, rinse, etc.

                                              hth,
                                              pedro

                                              --- In PanoToolsNG@yahoogroups.com, "Bernhard Vogl" <bvogl@...> wrote:
                                              ...
                                              > I have made 2 runs with APClean yesterday. It reminded me why i normally don't use it - it is a good software but re-loading a large panorama afterwards takes ages...
                                              ...
                                              > Bernhard
                                            • Jeffrey Martin
                                              bernhard, you should talk to Luca Vascon, he is the TOP WARLOCK in my opinion regarding this type of image. One reason which no one i think mentioned so far
                                              Message 22 of 24 , Apr 30, 2009
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                                                bernhard,

                                                you should talk to Luca Vascon, he is the TOP WARLOCK in my opinion
                                                regarding this type of image.

                                                One reason which no one i think mentioned so far that you might have some
                                                funny problems is that if you shoot a tower pano with many meters away from
                                                the nodal point, you are in fact capturing more than 360 degrees, and so if
                                                you do everything properly, you'll end up with a curved horizon.

                                                for example, this pano which is by no means perfect but is still one of my
                                                favorites :)
                                                http://www.360cities.net/image/venice-skyline-the-magic-view

                                                the final equirect is 7500x3750. Usually with this setup (5d + 10.5) the
                                                final equirect should be less than 7000x3500. I stitched 4 corners and then
                                                joined them manually (with a STRAIGHT horizon).

                                                There are a couple other steps in this process, Bernhard you're a smart guy
                                                and can figure it out, I regret to say that I signed a blood oath with Dr.
                                                Vascon so if anyone wants to learn this particular process, you have to go
                                                to Venice yourself and ask him ;-))

                                                Jeffrey


                                                [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                                              • Bernhard Vogl
                                                ... Oh my God - I ve missed that feature! Thanks Pedro!
                                                Message 23 of 24 , Apr 30, 2009
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                                                  > not sure what you mean by "re-loading a large panorama afterwards takes ages", but this may help: you don't have to quit ptgui to run apclean!
                                                  >
                                                  >
                                                  Oh my God - I've missed that feature!
                                                  Thanks Pedro!
                                                • Ken Warner
                                                  I ve noticed sometimes after adding some CP s manually after optimization. Those CP s can be seen by PTGui as being very far apart even though they are nearly
                                                  Message 24 of 24 , May 1, 2009
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                                                    I've noticed sometimes after adding some CP's manually after
                                                    optimization. Those CP's can be seen by PTGui as being very
                                                    far apart even though they are nearly perfectly placed. And
                                                    optimization doesn't seem to reduce the distance between those
                                                    newly added CP's.

                                                    I don't know what that means. Just thought I'd mention it in
                                                    this conversation.

                                                    Erik Krause wrote:
                                                    > Bernhard Vogl wrote:
                                                    >
                                                    >
                                                    >>>Did you try APClean to remove bad control points? It sometimes works
                                                    >>>wonders, but you need more than enough points of course.
                                                    >>>
                                                    >>
                                                    >>I don't use APClean any more as PTGui offers the same functionality with
                                                    >>CP cleaning and by sorting the control points by distance.
                                                    >
                                                    >
                                                    > The PTGui CP cleaning tool is by no means as flexible and effective as
                                                    > APClean. When PTGui has removed all "worst controlpoints" and the
                                                    > panorama still doesn't fit very well APClean can enhance the result in
                                                    > most cases.
                                                    >
                                                    > And deleting CP's by distance isn't a good solution either. If in an
                                                    > image pair most of the CP's have large errors they are probably
                                                    > optimized wrong not positioned wrong. APClean takes account of this
                                                    > since it uses the standard deviation as a measure.
                                                    >
                                                    > best regards
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