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Buddhaghosa on the phrase "ananu~n~naato maataapituuhi"

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  • dhammanando_bhikkhu
    Dear Members, In the Vinaya s account of the aftermath of the going forth of Raahula, the Buddha lays down a rule in response to a request from Suddhodana: na,
    Message 1 of 1 , May 26 6:43 AM
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      Dear Members,

      In the Vinaya's account of the aftermath of the going
      forth of Raahula, the Buddha lays down a rule in
      response to a request from Suddhodana:

      na, bhikkhave, ananu~n~naato maataapituuhi putto
      pabbaajetabbo. Yo pabbaajeyya, aapatti dukka.tassa.

      Monks, a son must not be given the going forth if not
      permitted by his mother and father. Should one do so,
      it is an offence of wrong-doing.
      -- Vin. i. 83

      Yesterday some questions were asked on another list
      about this rule. In my reply I turned out a quick and
      rough translation of Buddhaghosa's commentary on this
      rule. I am forwarding it to this list for those of you
      interested in Vinaya.

      Best wishes,

      Dhammanando
      ____________________________________

      From the Samantapaasaadikaa (VinA. v. 1011-12)

      tattha "maataapituuhii" ti jananijanake sandhaaya
      vutta.m.

      Here, the phrase "by his mother and father" was said
      with regard to the man and woman who conceived him.


      sace dve atthi, dvepi aapucchitabbaa.

      If both are living, then leave must be obtained from
      both of them.


      sace pitaa mato maataa vaa, yo jiivati so
      aapucchitabbo.

      If the father or mother is deceased, then leave must be
      obtained from [the parent] who is still living.


      pabbajitaapi aapucchitabbaava.

      Even if they have themselves gone forth, leave must
      still be obtained from them.


      aapucchantena saya.m vaa gantvaa aapucchitabba.m,
      a~n~no vaa pesetabbo, so eva vaa pesetabbo "gaccha
      maataapitaro aapucchitvaa ehii"ti.

      When obtaining leave, he may either go and obtain it
      himself, or may send another person, saying to him, "Go
      to my mother and father and having obtained their leave
      come back."


      sace "anu~n~naatomhii"ti vadati, saddahantena
      pabbaajetabbo.

      If he says, "I am one who has obtained permission," he
      may be given the going forth by [a monk] who believes
      him.


      pitaa saya.m pabbajito puttampi pabbaajetukaamo hoti,
      maatara.m aapucchitvaava pabbaajetu. maataa vaa
      dhiitara.m pabbaajetukaamaa, pitara.m aapucchitvaava
      pabbaajetu.

      A father has himself gone forth and wishes his son to
      go forth; having obtained leave of the mother, let him
      go forth; or, a mother wishes her daughter to go forth;
      having obtained leave of the father, let her go forth.


      pitaa puttadaarena anatthiko palaayi, maataa "ima.m
      pabbaajethaa"ti putta.m bhikkhuuna.m deti, "pitaassa
      kuhin" ti vutte "cittake.liya.m kii.litu.m palaato"ti
      vadati, ta.m pabbaajetu.m va.t.tati.

      A father, not concerned for the welfare of his wife and
      son, has run away. The mother gives her son to some monks,
      saying, "Let him go forth." When asked, "Where has his
      father gone?" she replies, "He has run away to disport
      himself." -- It is suitable for him [the son] to be
      given the going forth.


      maataa kenaci purisena saddhi.m palaataa hoti, pitaa
      pana "pabbaajethaa"ti deti, etthaapi eseva nayo.

      A mother has run away with some man or other. The
      father gives [his son to some monks, saying], "Let him
      go forth." The principle in this case is just the same
      as above.


      pitaa vippavuttho hoti, maataa putta.m "pabbaajethaa"ti
      anujaanaati, "pitaa tassa kuhin" ti vutte "ki.m
      tumhaaka.m pitaraa, aha.m jaanissaamii"ti vadati,
      pabbaajetu.m va.t.tatiiti kurundiya.m vutta.m.

      The Kurundii* states: 'A father is absent. The mother
      gives her son permission, saying, "Let him go forth."
      When asked, "Where has his father gone?" she replies,
      "I shall be responsible for whatever is due to you from
      the father." -- It is suitable for him [the son] to be
      given the going forth.'

      [* Kurundii: the Sinhalese commentary most frequently
      cited by Buddhaghosa as the source of his Vinaya
      exegesis.]


      maataapitaro mataa, daarako cuu.lamaataadiina.m santike
      sa.mvaddho, tasmi.m pabbaajiyamaane ~naatakaa kalaha.m
      vaa karonti, khiyyanti vaa, tasmaa
      vivaadupacchedanattha.m aapucchitvaava pabbaajetabbo.
      anaapucchaa pabbaajentassa pana aapatti natthi.

      The mother and father are deceased. Their boy has grown
      up in the company of [relatives] such as his maternal
      aunt. When he is being given the going forth, his
      relatives start a quarrel or criticize it. Therefore,
      in order to stop the quarrel, he should obtain their
      leave before being given the going forth. But if given
      the going forth without having obtained their leave
      there is no offence.


      daharakaale gahetvaa posanakaa maataapitaro naama
      honti, tesupi eseva nayo. putto attaana.m nissaaya
      jiivati, na maataapitaro.

      They who undertook to feed him in his childhood are
      called "mother" and "father", and with respect to these
      the principle is just the same as above. The son [is to be
      reckoned as] one living dependent on himself, not on a
      mother and father.


      sacepi raajaa hoti, aapucchitvaava pabbaajetabbo.

      Even if he be a king, he must still obtain leave before
      being given the going forth.


      maataapituuhi anu~n~naato pabbajitvaa puna vibbhamati,
      sacepi satakkhattu.m pabbajitvaa vibbhamati,
      aagataagatakaale punappuna.m aapucchitvaava
      pabbaajetabbo.

      Being permitted by his mother and father, he goes
      forth, but [later] reverts [to being a householder].
      Even if he goes forth and reverts seven times, on each
      occasion that he comes [to go forth] again he must
      obtain leave [from his mother and father] before he may
      be given the going forth.


      sace eva.m vadanti -- "aya.m vibbhamitvaa geha.m aagato
      amhaaka.m kamma.m na karoti, pabbajitvaa tumhaaka.m
      vatta.m na puureti, natthi imassaapucchanakicca.m,
      aagataagata.m pabbaajeyyaathaa" ti eva.m nissa.t.tha.m
      puna anaapucchaapi pabbaajetu.m va.t.tati.

      If [his mother and father] say: "This [son of ours],
      having reverted and come home, does not do any work for
      us; having gone forth he will not fulfil his duty to
      you; there is no point in him obtaining leave; whenever
      he comes to you, just give him the going forth." When
      [a son] has been disowned in this way, it is suitable
      for him to be given the going forth again without even
      obtaining leave.


      yopi daharakaaleyeva "aya.m tumhaaka.m dinno, yadaa
      icchatha, tadaa pabbaajeyyaathaa"ti eva.m dinno hoti,
      sopi aagataagato puna anaapucchaava pabbaajetabbo.

      He who when only in his childhood had been given away
      [by his mother and father, saying], "This is a gift for
      you; give him the going forth whenever you want; may be
      given the going forth whenever he comes [to ask for
      it], without even obtaining leave.


      ya.m pana daharakaaleyeva "ima.m bhante
      pabbaajeyyaathaa" ti anujaanitvaa pacchaa
      vu.d.dhippattakaale naanujaananti, aya.m na anaapucchaa
      pabbaajetabbo.

      But [a mother and father], having given permission [to
      their son] when he was only in his childhood,
      afterwards, when he has reached maturity, do not give
      permission; he must not be given the going forth
      without obtaining leave.


      eko maataapituuhi saddhi.m bha.n.ditvaa "pabbaajetha
      man" ti aagacchati, "aapucchitvaa ehii" ti ca vutto
      "naaha.m gacchaami, sace ma.m na pabbaajetha, vihaara.m
      vaa jhaapemi, satthena vaa tumhe paharaami, tumhaaka.m
      ~naataka-upa.t.thaakaana.m vaa aaraamacchedanaadiihi
      anattha.m uppaademi, rukkhaa vaa patitvaa maraami,
      coramajjha.m vaa pavisaami, desantara.m vaa
      gacchaamii"ti vadati, ta.m jiivasseva rakkha.natthaaya
      pabbaajetu.m va.t.tati.

      A certain one, after quarrelling with his mother and
      father, comes [to the sangha, saying], "Let me go
      forth." Upon being told, "Come back after you have
      obtained leave," he says, "I'm not going! If you don't
      let me go forth, I'll burn down the vihaara, or strike
      you with a sword, or cause loss to your relatives and
      supporters, by cutting down their gardens and suchlike,
      or I'll kill myself by jumping from a tree, or join a
      gang of robbers, or go to another country." It is
      suitable to let him go forth in order to safeguard
      life.


      sace panassa maataapitaro aagantvaa "kasmaa amhaaka.m
      putta.m pabbaajayitthaa"ti vadanti, tesa.m tamattha.m
      aarocetvaa "rakkha.natthaaya na.m pabbaajayimha,
      pa~n~naayatha tumhe puttenaa"ti vattabbaa.

      If his mother and father then come and say, "Why did
      you let our son go forth?" they should be informed of
      the reason for it, saying, "We let him go forth in
      order to safeguard life. You can confirm this with your
      son."


      "rukkhaa patissaamii"ti aaruhitvaa pana hatthapaade
      mu~ncanta.m pabbaajetu.m va.t.tatiyeva.

      Then, [one saying] "I will jump from a tree," has
      climbed up and is about to let go with his hands and
      feet. It is suitable to let him go forth.


      ekopi videsa.m gantvaa pabbajja.m yaacati, aapucchitvaa
      ce gato, pabbaajetabbo.

      A certain one, having gone to another country, requests
      the going forth. If he had obtained leave before
      departing, he may be given the going forth.


      no ce daharabhikkhu.m pesetvaa aapucchaapetvaa
      pabbaajetabbo; atiduura~nce hoti, pabbaajetvaapi
      bhikkhuuhi saddhi.m pesetvaa dassetu.m va.t.tati.

      If he had not obtained leave, having sent a young monk
      to get [the parents] to give their leave, he may be
      given the going forth. If it is a very distant country,
      it is suitable to just give him the going forth and
      then send him with other bhikkhus to inform [the
      parents].


      kurundiya.m pana vutta.m -- "sace duura.m hoti maggo ca
      mahaakantaaro, 'gantvaa aapucchissaamaa'ti pabbaajetu.m
      va.t.tatii"ti.

      But the Kurundii states: 'if [the country] is both far
      away and the way to it is [across] a great wilderness
      (or desert), it is suitable to give him the going
      forth, [thinking], "having gone there [later] we shall
      obtain leave [of the parents]."'


      sace pana maataapituuna.m bahuu puttaa honti, eva~nca
      vadanti -- "bhante etesa.m daarakaana.m ya.m icchatha,
      ta.m pabbaajeyyaathaa"ti. daarake viima.msitvaa ya.m
      icchati, so pabbaajetabbo.

      If a mother and father have many sons and speak thus:
      "Venerable sir, may you give the going forth to
      whichever [one] of these boys you wish," then having
      examined the boys, he may give the going forth to the
      one he wishes.


      sacepi sakalena kulena vaa gaamena vaa anu~n~naata.m
      hoti "bhante imasmi.m kule vaa gaame vaa ya.m icchatha,
      ta.m pabbaajeyyaathaa"ti. ya.m icchati, so
      pabbaajetabboti.

      If an entire [extended] family or an entire village is
      given permission [by someone, saying], "Venerable sir,
      may you give the going forth to whichever [one of the
      boys] in this family or this village you wish," he may
      give the going forth to the one he wishes.
      _______________________
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