In the Vinaya's account of the aftermath of the going
forth of Raahula, the Buddha lays down a rule in
response to a request from Suddhodana:
na, bhikkhave, ananu~n~naato maataapituuhi putto
pabbaajetabbo. Yo pabbaajeyya, aapatti dukka.tassa.
Monks, a son must not be given the going forth if not
permitted by his mother and father. Should one do so,
it is an offence of wrong-doing.
-- Vin. i. 83
Yesterday some questions were asked on another list
about this rule. In my reply I turned out a quick and
rough translation of Buddhaghosa's commentary on this
rule. I am forwarding it to this list for those of you
interested in Vinaya.
From the Samantapaasaadikaa (VinA. v. 1011-12)
tattha "maataapituuhii" ti jananijanake sandhaaya
Here, the phrase "by his mother and father" was said
with regard to the man and woman who conceived him.
sace dve atthi, dvepi aapucchitabbaa.
If both are living, then leave must be obtained from
both of them.
sace pitaa mato maataa vaa, yo jiivati so
If the father or mother is deceased, then leave must be
obtained from [the parent] who is still living.
Even if they have themselves gone forth, leave must
still be obtained from them.
aapucchantena saya.m vaa gantvaa aapucchitabba.m,
a~n~no vaa pesetabbo, so eva vaa pesetabbo "gaccha
maataapitaro aapucchitvaa ehii"ti.
When obtaining leave, he may either go and obtain it
himself, or may send another person, saying to him, "Go
to my mother and father and having obtained their leave
sace "anu~n~naatomhii"ti vadati, saddahantena
If he says, "I am one who has obtained permission," he
may be given the going forth by [a monk] who believes
pitaa saya.m pabbajito puttampi pabbaajetukaamo hoti,
maatara.m aapucchitvaava pabbaajetu. maataa vaa
dhiitara.m pabbaajetukaamaa, pitara.m aapucchitvaava
A father has himself gone forth and wishes his son to
go forth; having obtained leave of the mother, let him
go forth; or, a mother wishes her daughter to go forth;
having obtained leave of the father, let her go forth.
pitaa puttadaarena anatthiko palaayi, maataa "ima.m
pabbaajethaa"ti putta.m bhikkhuuna.m deti, "pitaassa
kuhin" ti vutte "cittake.liya.m kii.litu.m palaato"ti
vadati, ta.m pabbaajetu.m va.t.tati.
A father, not concerned for the welfare of his wife and
son, has run away. The mother gives her son to some monks,
saying, "Let him go forth." When asked, "Where has his
father gone?" she replies, "He has run away to disport
himself." -- It is suitable for him [the son] to be
given the going forth.
maataa kenaci purisena saddhi.m palaataa hoti, pitaa
pana "pabbaajethaa"ti deti, etthaapi eseva nayo.
A mother has run away with some man or other. The
father gives [his son to some monks, saying], "Let him
go forth." The principle in this case is just the same
pitaa vippavuttho hoti, maataa putta.m "pabbaajethaa"ti
anujaanaati, "pitaa tassa kuhin" ti vutte "ki.m
tumhaaka.m pitaraa, aha.m jaanissaamii"ti vadati,
pabbaajetu.m va.t.tatiiti kurundiya.m vutta.m.
The Kurundii* states: 'A father is absent. The mother
gives her son permission, saying, "Let him go forth."
When asked, "Where has his father gone?" she replies,
"I shall be responsible for whatever is due to you from
the father." -- It is suitable for him [the son] to be
given the going forth.'
[* Kurundii: the Sinhalese commentary most frequently
cited by Buddhaghosa as the source of his Vinaya
maataapitaro mataa, daarako cuu.lamaataadiina.m santike
sa.mvaddho, tasmi.m pabbaajiyamaane ~naatakaa kalaha.m
vaa karonti, khiyyanti vaa, tasmaa
vivaadupacchedanattha.m aapucchitvaava pabbaajetabbo.
anaapucchaa pabbaajentassa pana aapatti natthi.
The mother and father are deceased. Their boy has grown
up in the company of [relatives] such as his maternal
aunt. When he is being given the going forth, his
relatives start a quarrel or criticize it. Therefore,
in order to stop the quarrel, he should obtain their
leave before being given the going forth. But if given
the going forth without having obtained their leave
there is no offence.
daharakaale gahetvaa posanakaa maataapitaro naama
honti, tesupi eseva nayo. putto attaana.m nissaaya
jiivati, na maataapitaro.
They who undertook to feed him in his childhood are
called "mother" and "father", and with respect to these
the principle is just the same as above. The son [is to be
reckoned as] one living dependent on himself, not on a
mother and father.
sacepi raajaa hoti, aapucchitvaava pabbaajetabbo.
Even if he be a king, he must still obtain leave before
being given the going forth.
maataapituuhi anu~n~naato pabbajitvaa puna vibbhamati,
sacepi satakkhattu.m pabbajitvaa vibbhamati,
aagataagatakaale punappuna.m aapucchitvaava
Being permitted by his mother and father, he goes
forth, but [later] reverts [to being a householder].
Even if he goes forth and reverts seven times, on each
occasion that he comes [to go forth] again he must
obtain leave [from his mother and father] before he may
be given the going forth.
sace eva.m vadanti -- "aya.m vibbhamitvaa geha.m aagato
amhaaka.m kamma.m na karoti, pabbajitvaa tumhaaka.m
vatta.m na puureti, natthi imassaapucchanakicca.m,
aagataagata.m pabbaajeyyaathaa" ti eva.m nissa.t.tha.m
puna anaapucchaapi pabbaajetu.m va.t.tati.
If [his mother and father] say: "This [son of ours],
having reverted and come home, does not do any work for
us; having gone forth he will not fulfil his duty to
you; there is no point in him obtaining leave; whenever
he comes to you, just give him the going forth." When
[a son] has been disowned in this way, it is suitable
for him to be given the going forth again without even
yopi daharakaaleyeva "aya.m tumhaaka.m dinno, yadaa
icchatha, tadaa pabbaajeyyaathaa"ti eva.m dinno hoti,
sopi aagataagato puna anaapucchaava pabbaajetabbo.
He who when only in his childhood had been given away
[by his mother and father, saying], "This is a gift for
you; give him the going forth whenever you want; may be
given the going forth whenever he comes [to ask for
it], without even obtaining leave.
ya.m pana daharakaaleyeva "ima.m bhante
pabbaajeyyaathaa" ti anujaanitvaa pacchaa
vu.d.dhippattakaale naanujaananti, aya.m na anaapucchaa
But [a mother and father], having given permission [to
their son] when he was only in his childhood,
afterwards, when he has reached maturity, do not give
permission; he must not be given the going forth
without obtaining leave.
eko maataapituuhi saddhi.m bha.n.ditvaa "pabbaajetha
man" ti aagacchati, "aapucchitvaa ehii" ti ca vutto
"naaha.m gacchaami, sace ma.m na pabbaajetha, vihaara.m
vaa jhaapemi, satthena vaa tumhe paharaami, tumhaaka.m
~naataka-upa.t.thaakaana.m vaa aaraamacchedanaadiihi
anattha.m uppaademi, rukkhaa vaa patitvaa maraami,
coramajjha.m vaa pavisaami, desantara.m vaa
gacchaamii"ti vadati, ta.m jiivasseva rakkha.natthaaya
A certain one, after quarrelling with his mother and
father, comes [to the sangha, saying], "Let me go
forth." Upon being told, "Come back after you have
obtained leave," he says, "I'm not going! If you don't
let me go forth, I'll burn down the vihaara, or strike
you with a sword, or cause loss to your relatives and
supporters, by cutting down their gardens and suchlike,
or I'll kill myself by jumping from a tree, or join a
gang of robbers, or go to another country." It is
suitable to let him go forth in order to safeguard
sace panassa maataapitaro aagantvaa "kasmaa amhaaka.m
putta.m pabbaajayitthaa"ti vadanti, tesa.m tamattha.m
aarocetvaa "rakkha.natthaaya na.m pabbaajayimha,
pa~n~naayatha tumhe puttenaa"ti vattabbaa.
If his mother and father then come and say, "Why did
you let our son go forth?" they should be informed of
the reason for it, saying, "We let him go forth in
order to safeguard life. You can confirm this with your
"rukkhaa patissaamii"ti aaruhitvaa pana hatthapaade
mu~ncanta.m pabbaajetu.m va.t.tatiyeva.
Then, [one saying] "I will jump from a tree," has
climbed up and is about to let go with his hands and
feet. It is suitable to let him go forth.
ekopi videsa.m gantvaa pabbajja.m yaacati, aapucchitvaa
ce gato, pabbaajetabbo.
A certain one, having gone to another country, requests
the going forth. If he had obtained leave before
departing, he may be given the going forth.
no ce daharabhikkhu.m pesetvaa aapucchaapetvaa
pabbaajetabbo; atiduura~nce hoti, pabbaajetvaapi
bhikkhuuhi saddhi.m pesetvaa dassetu.m va.t.tati.
If he had not obtained leave, having sent a young monk
to get [the parents] to give their leave, he may be
given the going forth. If it is a very distant country,
it is suitable to just give him the going forth and
then send him with other bhikkhus to inform [the
kurundiya.m pana vutta.m -- "sace duura.m hoti maggo ca
mahaakantaaro, 'gantvaa aapucchissaamaa'ti pabbaajetu.m
But the Kurundii states: 'if [the country] is both far
away and the way to it is [across] a great wilderness
(or desert), it is suitable to give him the going
forth, [thinking], "having gone there [later] we shall
obtain leave [of the parents]."'
sace pana maataapituuna.m bahuu puttaa honti, eva~nca
vadanti -- "bhante etesa.m daarakaana.m ya.m icchatha,
ta.m pabbaajeyyaathaa"ti. daarake viima.msitvaa ya.m
icchati, so pabbaajetabbo.
If a mother and father have many sons and speak thus:
"Venerable sir, may you give the going forth to
whichever [one] of these boys you wish," then having
examined the boys, he may give the going forth to the
one he wishes.
sacepi sakalena kulena vaa gaamena vaa anu~n~naata.m
hoti "bhante imasmi.m kule vaa gaame vaa ya.m icchatha,
ta.m pabbaajeyyaathaa"ti. ya.m icchati, so
If an entire [extended] family or an entire village is
given permission [by someone, saying], "Venerable sir,
may you give the going forth to whichever [one of the
boys] in this family or this village you wish," he may
give the going forth to the one he wishes.