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Pali Primer - Lesson 18

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  • ypong001
    A Quick Glance This lesson covers the following topic: Declension of feminine nouns ending in -aa. Exercise 18: Translate into English: 1. Sace sabhaaya.m
    Message 1 of 46 , Dec 26, 2001
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      A Quick Glance

      This lesson covers the following topic:
      Declension of feminine nouns ending in -aa.


      Exercise 18:

      Translate into English:

      1. Sace sabhaaya.m ka~n~naayo katheyyu.m aha.m pi kathessaami.
      sace = if
      sabhaaya.m = assembly (loc.)
      ka~n~naayo = girls (nom.)
      katheyyu.m = would speak
      aha.m = I
      pi = too
      kathessaami = will speak
      Ans: If the girls speak at the assembly, I will speak too.

      2. Daarikaayo pupphaani ocinitvaa saalaaya.m nisiiditvaa maalaayo
      kari.msu.
      daarikaayo = girls (nom.)
      pupphaani = flowers (acc.)
      ocinitvaa = having picked
      saalaaya.m = hall (loc.)
      nisiiditvaa = having seated
      maalaayo = garlands (acc.)
      kari.msu = made
      Ans: Having picked flowers, girls sat in the hall and made garlands.

      3. Vanitaa rukkhassa saakhaayo chinditvaa aaka.d.dhi.
      vanitaa = woman (nom.)
      rukkhassa = tree's (gen.)
      saakhaayo = branches (acc.)
      chinitvaa = having cut
      aaka.d.dhi = dragged/pulled
      Ans: The woman cut the tree's branches and dragged/pulled (them).

      4. Bhariyaa ma~njuusaasu vatthaani ca suva.n.na.m ca .thapesi.
      bhariyaa = wife (nom.)
      ma~njuusaasu = boxes (loc.)
      vatthaani = clothes (acc.)
      ca = and
      suva.n.na.m = gold (acc.)
      ca = and
      .thapesi = kept
      Ans: The wife kept clothes and gold in boxes.

      5. Daarikaa paasaadassa chaayaaya.m nisiiditvaa vaalukaaya kii.li.msu.
      daarikaa = girls (nom.)
      paasaadassa = palace's (gen.)
      chaayaaya.m = shadow (loc.)
      nisiiditvaa = having seated
      vaalukaaya = sand (ins.)
      kii.li.msu = played
      Ans: Girls sat in the shadow of the palace and played with sand.

      6. Bhariyaaya katha.m sutvaa pasiiditvaa kassako sappuriso abhavi.
      bhariyaaya = wife's (gen.)
      katha.m = speech (acc.)
      sutvaa = having heard
      pasiiditvaa = having being pleased with
      kassako = farmer (nom.)
      sappuriso = a good man (nom.)
      abhavi = became
      Ans: Having heard and was pleased with his wife's speech, the farmer
      became a good man.

      7. Devataayo pu~n~naani karonte dhammena jiivante manusse rakkhantu.
      devataayo = deities (nom.)
      pu~n~naani = good (acc.)
      karonte = doing
      dhammena = righteously
      jiivante = living
      manusse = men
      rakkhantu = may protect
      Ans: May the deities protect people who live righteously doing
      meritorious deeds

      8. Pabbatasmi.m guhaasu vasantaa siihaa vaalukaaya kii.lante mige
      maaresu.m.
      pabbatasmi.m = mountain (loc.)
      guhaasu = caves (loc.)
      vasantaa = living
      siihaa = lions (nom.)
      vaalukaaya = sand (loc.)
      kii.lante = playing
      mige = deer (acc.)
      maaresu.m = killed
      Ans: Living in caves in the mountain, lions killed deer playing on
      sand.

      9. Ammaa daarikaaya kujjhitvaa hatthena pahari.
      ammaa = mother (nom.)
      daarikaaya = girl (ins.)
      kujjhitvaa = having got angry
      hatthena = hand (ins.)
      pahari = hit
      Ans: Mother got angry with the girl and hit (her) with hand.

      10. Vanitaayo saddhaaya bhatta.m pacitvaa vihaara.m netvaa
      sama.naana.m puujesu.m.
      vanitaayo = women (nom.)
      saddhaaya = faith (ins.)
      bhatta.m = rice (acc.)
      pacitvaa = having cooked
      vihaara.m = monastery (acc.)
      netvaa = having taken
      sama.naana.m = monks (dat.)
      puujesu.m = offered
      Ans: Women cooked the rice through faith, took it to the monastery
      and offered to monks.

      11. Tumhe maa sura.m pivatha, maa gilaanaa bhavitu.m ussahatha.
      tumhe = you
      maa = no/not
      sura.m = liqour
      pivatha = may drink
      maa = no/not
      gilaanaa = sick
      bhavitu.m = to be
      ussahatha = may try
      Ans: Do not drink liqour, do not try to be sick/fall ill.

      12. Dhammena dhana.m sa.mharamaanaa pa~n~naaya putte posentaa naraa
      manussaloke sukha.m vindanti.
      dhammena = righteously/by fair means
      dhana.m = wealth (acc.)
      sa.mharamaanaa = collecting
      pa~n~naaya = wisdom (ins.)
      putte = sons (acc.)
      posentaa = nurturing/bringing up
      naraa = people (nom.)
      manussaloke = human world (loc.)
      sukha.m vindanti = experience joy/happiness
      Ans: People collecting wealth righteously/by fair means and bringing
      up sons with wisdom experience joy/happiness in the human world.

      13. Sace tumhe naavaaya ga"nga.m tareyyaatha diipasmi.m vasante
      taapase disvaa aagantu.m sakkissatha.
      sace = if
      tumhe = you
      naavaaya = boat (ins.)
      ga"nga.m = river 9acc.)
      tareyyaatha = would cross
      diipasmi.m = island (loc.)
      vasante = living
      taapase = hermits (acc.)
      disvaa = having seen
      aagantu.m = to come
      sakkissatha = will be able
      Ans: If you cross the river by boat, you will be able to come after
      seeing hermits living on the island.

      14. Parisa.m parivaaretvaa paasaadamhaa nikkhamanta.m bhuupaala.m
      disvaa vanitaayo modanti.
      parisa.m = retinue (ins.)
      parivaaretvaa = having accompanied
      paasaadmahaa = palace (abl.)
      nikkhamanta.m = leaving
      bhuupaala.m = king (acc.)
      disvaa = having seen
      vanitaayo = women (nom.)
      modanti = are happy/pleased
      Ans: Women are pleased on seeing the king leaving the palace
      accompanied by his retinue.

      15. Ka~n~naayo saalaaya.m sannipatitvaa kumaarehi saddhi.m
      sallapi.msu.
      ka~n~naayo = girls (nom.)
      saalaaya.m = hall (loc.)
      sannipatitvaa = having assembled
      kumaarehi = boys (ins.)
      saddhi.m = with
      sallapi.msu = engaged in conversation
      Ans: Girls assembled in the hall and chatted with boys.

      16. Khudaaya pii.lenta.m gilaana.m yaacaka.m disvaa ammaa bhatta.m
      adadi/adaasi.
      khudaaya = hunger (ins.)
      pii.lenta.m = oppressing
      gilaana.m = sick
      yaacaka.m = beggar (acc.)
      disvaa = having seen
      ammaa = mother (nom.)
      bhatta.m = rice (acc.)
      adadi/adaasi = gave
      Ans: Mother gave rice seeing a beggar oppressed with hunger.

      17. Guhaaya.m niliiyitvaa sura.m pivantaa coraa siiha.m passitvaa
      bhaayi.msu.
      guhaaya.m = cave (loc.)
      niliiyitvaa = having hidden
      sura.m = liquor (acc.)
      pivantaa = drinking
      coraa = theives (nom.)
      siiha.m = lion (acc.)
      passitvaa = having seen
      bhaayi.msu = were frightened
      Ans: Thieves hiding in a cave and drinking liqour saw a lion and were
      frightened.

      18. Varaahe maaretvaa jiivanto naro gilaano hutvaa dukkha.m vindati.
      Ans: Being ill, the man who lives on killing pigs experiences
      suffering.

      19. Vaa.nijassa aapa.ne ma~njuusaaya.m muula.m atthi.
      Ans: There is money in the box in the merchant's shop.

      20. Sama.naa manusse paapaa nivaaretvaa sappurese kaatu.m vaayamanti.
      Ans: Monks try to make people good by preventing (them) from evil.

      Translate into Paali:

      1. The man stood on the road asking my mother the way to go to the
      monastery.
      Ans: Vihaara.m gantu.m magga.m ammaaya pucchanto naro magge
      a.t.thaasi.

      2. Having prepared rice with faith for the monks, the woman took it
      to the monastery.
      Ans: Saddhaaya sama.naana.m odana.m pa.tiyaadetvaa vanitaa vihaara.m
      nesi.

      3. You can live righteously and seek wealth.
      Ans: Tva.m dhammena jiivanto dhana.m pariyesitu.m sakkosi.

      4. Sitting in the shade of the house the girls cut branches from the
      creeper.
      Ans: Gehassa chaayaaya.m nisiidantiyo daarikaayo lataaya saakhaayo
      chindi.msu.

      5. Wicked men did not advise their sons who drink liquor.
      Ans: Asappurisaa sura.m pivante putte na ovadi.msu.

      6. Taking the basket and money the girl went to the market to buy
      corn.
      Ans: Pi.taka.m ca muula.m ca aadaaya/gahetvaa daarikaa dha~n~na.m
      ki.nitu.m aapa.na.m gacchi.

      7. If you light lamps the lay devotees will see the objects in the
      monastery.
      Ans: Sace tumhe jaaleyyaatha diipe upaasakaa viharasmi.m ruupaani
      passissanti.

      8. O good men, you learn the dhamma and try to live righteously.
      Ans: Sappurisaa tumhe dhamma.m ugga.nhitvaa dhammena jiivitu.m
      ussahatha.

      9. If you try, you can avoid evil and do good.
      Ans: Sace tva.m ussaheyyaasi paapa.m nivaaretvaa pu~n~na.m kaatu.m
      sakkosi.

      10. Having seen the lion sleeping in the cave the women ran.
      Ans: Guhaaya.m sayanta.m siiha.m disvaa vanitaa dhaavi.
    • Kumaara Bhikkhu
      Dear all,I ve been absent since November as I was somewhat busy then for our Kathina day (18 Nov) and after that on some other matters, including a much
      Message 46 of 46 , Feb 22, 2002
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        Dear all,

        I've been absent since November as I was somewhat busy then for our Kathina day (18 Nov) and after that on some other matters, including a much needed meditation retreat. I've also been spending much time in learning and memorizing the Patimokkha under the guidance of my acariya, Ven. Aggacitta Bhikkhu. I'm at the end of Sanghadisesa now. The Pali does appear rather different from what I've learnt in "Pali Primer".

        Anyway, here's my very, very belated comments on Yong Peng's notes.

        As mentioned earlier, Lesson 14 is (relatively) a breeze. This chapter however give us some interesting Pali food for thought.

        At 10:20 PM 13-11-01, Ong Yong Peng wrote:
        >Translate into English:
        >
        >7. Pu~n~na.m kaatu.m icchantaa tumhe sappurisaa paapamitte
        >ovadissatha.
        >pu~n~na.m = merit (acc.)
        >kaatu.m = to do
        >icchantaa = wishing
        >tumhe = you
        >sappurisaa = good men (nom.)
        >paapamitte = evil friends (acc.)
        >ovadissatha = will advise
        >Ans: Wishing to do merit, you good men will advise evil/wicked
        >friends.

        My teacher's answer:
        You good/virtuous men who wish to do merit shall advise evil/wicked friends.

        I think there's an important difference in meaning. If the Pali sentence were to have been
        Tumhe
        pu~n~na.m kaatu.m icchantaa
        sappurisaa paapamitte ovadissatha.
        then the English translation would be as given, i.e.,
        Wishing to do merit, you good men will advise evil/wicked friends.
        or, to put it in a different way,
        You good men, wishing to do merit, will advise evil/wicked friends.


        >14. Buddhe pasiiditvaa upaasako devaputto hutvaa saggaloke uppajjati.
        >....
        >devaputto = deity (acc.)

        Literally, "devaputta" means a deity's son or god's son (Jesus Christ?!). But it's actually just something like saying "Sakyaputta", which means "Sakyan son". I get the idea that it connote something like an "offspring of the Sakyan clan". In the same way, I think "devaputta" carries the idea of "a son of the deva community", and not the literal "son of a deity". Would appreciate any differing opinions.

        Also, I don't think this can be rightly taken as an accusative, since it's obviously in the nominative form. In the sense of English grammar, it's an "object". But in terms of Pali grammar, I don't know what it can be called. My teacher calls it a "transferred subject". This is just grammar talk, of course, but if anyone knows of another term for it, I'll be happy to know.


        >20. Paapa.m parivajjetvaa kusala.m karonte sappurise devaa
        >puujessanti.
        >Ans: Deities will honour virtuous men avoiding evil and doing good.

        I prefer to think that "vajjeti" by itself already mean "avoid".
        The prefix "pari" carries the meaning of
        "thorough", e.g.
        "parisuddhi": thorough purity;
        "parinibbana": complete release;
        "paripucchati": interrogate (lit. ask thoroughly),
        or "around", e.g.
        "paribbajati": wander about;
        "paribbaajaka": wondering ascetic;
        "parisiñcati": sprinkle all over.

        So, I think "parivajjeti" is better translated as "completely avoid" or "shun" (which I think carries a stronger connotation than just "avoid").


        >21. Sacca.m bhaasantaa asappurise anusaasantaa pa.n.ditaa upaasakaa
        >bhavissanti.
        >Ans: Wise people who speak the truth and admonish evil men will
        >become lay devotees.

        Don't you find something funny in the meaning of the sentence?

        My teacher says a suitable English translation of that should be:
        The wise people who speak the truth and instruct evil men are probably lay devotees.

        [Note: upaasakaa here probably refers to "lay followers of the Buddha", making the sentence: The wise people who speak the truth and instruct evil men are probably lay followers of the Buddha.]

        Here, the "ssa" future tense is used to convey probability.

        Some of you may have read or heard about a conversation between the Buddha and Do.na the brahmin (AN IV 36):

        “Devo no bhava.m bhavissatii”ti?
        “Na kho aha.m, braahma.na, devo bhavissaamii”ti.
        “Gandhabbo no bhava.m bhavissatii”ti?
        “Na kho aha.m, braahma.na, gandhabbo bhavissaamii”ti.
        “Yakkho no bhava.m bhavissatii”ti?
        “Na kho aha.m, braahma.na, yakkho bhavissaamii”ti.
        “Manusso no bhava.m bhavissatii”ti?
        “Na kho aha.m, braahma.na, manusso bhavissaamii”ti.

        A literal translation:
        'Will you, sir, be a deva?'
        'No, braahmin, I will not be a deva.'
        'Will you, sir, be a gandhabba?'
        'No, braahmin, I will not be a gandhabba.'
        'Will you, sir, be a yakkha?'
        'No, braahmin, I will not be a yakkha.'
        'Will you, sir, be a human?'
        'No, braahmin, I will not be a human.'

        You may find that the above translation does not fit well in the context. A better English rendering of what Do.na the brahmin was saying may be:
        'Would you, sir, be a deva... gandhabba... yakkha... human?'
        or
        'Could you, sir, be a deva... gandhabba... yakkha... human?'

        From the context, we could see that the Buddha purposely answered in the same "ssa" form, so that He could tell the brahmin that he will not become any of those things as He had freed himself from rebirth.

        Passasi, aavuso?


        >Translate into Paali:
        >
        >2. I will advise the king to rule the island righteously with his
        >ministers.
        >Ans: Aha.m amaccehi saha dhammena diipa.m paaletu.m bhuupala.m
        >ovadissaami.

        This answer may give the impression that:
        "I together with the ministers will advise the king to rule the island righteously."

        Would be better to put the "bhuupala.m" after "Aha.m":
        "Aha.m bhuupala.m amaccehi saha dhammena diipa.m paaletu.m ovadissaami."


        >13. Paaniiyena patta.m puuretvaa daarako odana.m bhu~njantaaya
        >yaacakaaya dassati.

        What the book tells us in Chapter 5 gives us the impression that "aaya" and "assa" are interchangeable as singular dative case endings for "-a" masculine nouns. However, from what my teacher told me, "aaya" has a more specific usage, that is "for the sake of", e.g.: Naro puttaaya kamma.m karoti.

        Therefore, it would be better to substitute "bhu~njantaaya yaacakaaya" with "bhu~njantassa yaacakassa".


        >23. Dhammena vasanto/jiivanto tva.m sappuriso hosi.

        "Jiivanto" would be a better choice. "Vasati" means something like "stay, abide, reside (somewhere)".


        As always, I'd appreciate any sharing of differing views.

        vkb


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