Pali Primer - Lesson 17
- A Quick Glance
This lesson covers the following topic:
The Past Tense
3rd Person: [sing.] apaci, paci [plur.] apaci.msu, paci.msu
2nd Person: [sing.] apaci, paci [plur.] apacittha, pacittha
1st Person: [sing.] apaci.m, paci.m [plur.] apacimha, pacimha
3rd Person: [sing.] coresi, corayi [plur.] coresu.m, corayi.msu
2nd Person: [sing.] coresi [plur.] corayitha
1st Person: [sing.] coresi.m, corayi.m [plur.] corayimha
Translate into English:
1. Kassako khetta.m kasitvaa nahaayitu.m udaka.m otari.
kassako = farmer (nom.)
khetta.m = field (acc.)
kasitvaa = having ploughed
nahaayitu.m = to bathe
udaka.m = water (acc.)
otari = descended
Ans: Having ploughed the field, the farmer descended into the water
2. Ugga.nhantaana.m daarakaana.m daatu.m aacariyaa kusumaani
ugga.nhantaana.m = learning
daarakaana.m = children (dat.)
daatu.m = to give
aacariyaa = teachers (nom.)
kusumaani = flowers (acc.)
aahari.msu = brought
Ans: The teachers brought flowers to give to children who are
3. Upaasakaa aasanehi u.t.thahitvaa dhamma.m desetu.m
upasa"nkamanta.m sama.na.m vandi.msu.
upaasakaa = lay devotees (nom.)
aasanehi = seats (abl.)
u.t.thahitvaa = having gotten up
dhamma.m = doctrine (acc.)
desetu.m = to preach
upasa"nkamanta.m = approaching
sama.na.m = monk (acc.)
vandi.msu = saluted
Ans: Lay devotees got up/rose from their seats and saluted/worshipped
the monk approaching/coming to preach the dhamma.
4. Nagaresu kammaani katvaa vetane labhitu.m aaka"nkhamaanaa naraa
nagaresu = cities (loc.)
kammaani katvaa = having worked
vetane = wages (acc.)
labhitu.m = to get
aaka"nkhamaanaa = hoping
naraa = men/people (nom.)
gaamehi = villages (abl.)
nikkhami.msu = left
Ans: People who hoped to work in cities and get wages left the
5. Aacariyo aasana.m dussena chaadetvaa samana.m nisiiditu.m
aacariyo = teacher (nom.)
aasana.m = seat (acc.)
dussena = cloth (ins.)
chaadetvaa = having covered
samana.m = monk (acc.)
nisiiditu.m = to sit
nimantesi = invited
Ans: The teacher covered the seat with cloth and invited the monk to
6. Kumaaro dvaara.m vivaritvaa rukkhamhaa oruhante vaanare passamaano
kumaaro = boy (nom.)
dvaara.m = door (acc.)
vivaritvaa = having opened
rukkhamhaa = tree (abl.)
oruhante = descending
vaanare = monkeys (acc.)
passamaano = looking at
a.t.thaasi = stood
Ans: The boy opened the door and stood looking at monkeys
descending/getting down from the tree.
7. Pa.n.dito go.ne coretvaa akusala.m karonte nare pakkositvaa ovadi.
pa.n.dito = wise man (nom.)
go.ne = oxen (acc.)
coretvaa = having stolen
akusala.m = evil (acc.)
karonte = doing
nare = men/people (acc.)
pakkositvaa = having called
ovadi = advised
Ans: The wise man summoned and advised people who committed evil by
8. Yaacakassa puttaa rukkhehi patantaani phalaani sa.mharitvaa
yaacakassa = beggar's (gen.)
puttaa = sons (nom.)
rukkhehi = trees (abl.)
patantaani = falling
phalaani = fruits (acc.)
sa.mharitvaa = having collected
aapa.nasmi.m = market (loc.)
vikki.ni.msu = sold
Ans: The beggar's sons collected fruits falling from trees and sold
(them) at the market.
9. Kassako dha~n~na.m minitvaa vaa.nijassa vikki.nitu.m pahi.ni.
kassako = farmer (nom.)
dha~n~na.m = corn (acc.)
minitvaa = having measured
vaa.nijassa = merchant (dat.)
vikki.nitu.m = to sell
pahi.ni = sent
Ans: The farmer measured corn and sent (them) to sell to the merchant.
10. Dhamma.m ugga.nhitvaa sama.no bhavitu.m aaka"nkhamaano amacco
aacariya.m pariyesamaano Buddha.m upasa"nkami.
dhamma.m = doctrine (acc.)
ugga.nhitvaa = having learned
sama.no = monk (nom.)
bhavitu.m = to be/become
aaka"nkhamaano = wishing
amacco = minister (nom.)
aacariya.m = teacher (acc.)
pariyesamaano = seeking
Buddha.m = Buddha (acc.)
upasa"nkami = approached
Ans: Wishing to learn the dhamma and become a monk, the minister who
is seeking/looking for a teacher, approached Buddha.
11. Sace tumhe gaama.m paapu.neyyaatha mitte olokeyyaatha.
sace = if
tumhe = you
gaama.m = village (acc.)
paapu.neyyaatha = would reach
mitte = friends (acc.)
olokeyyaatha = would see
Ans: If you reach the village, you would see friends.
12. Pa.n.ditamhaa pa~nhe pucchitvaa sacca.m jaanitu.m maatulo ussahi.
pa.n.ditamhaa = wise man (abl.)
pa~nhe = questions (acc.)
pucchitvaa = having asked
sacca.m = truth (acc.)
jaanitu.m = to know
maatulo = uncle (nom.)
ussahi = tried
Ans: Having asked questions from the wise man, uncle tried to know
13. Paasaa.namhi .thatvaa aja.m khaadanta.m siiha.m disvaa vaanaraa
paasaa.namhi = rock (loc.)
.thatvaa = having stood
aja.m = goat (acc.)
khaadanta.m = eating
siiha.m = lion (acc.)
disvaa = having seen
vaanaraa = monkeys (nom.)
bhaayi.msu = got frightened
Ans: Seeing a lion eating a goat standing on the rock, monkeys got
14. Rukkhamuule nisiiditvaa gitaani gaayantaana.m kumaaraana.m
kaayesu pa.n.naani ca pupphaani ca pati.msu.
rukkhamuule = foot of a tree (loc.)
nisiiditvaa = seated
gitaani = songs (acc.)
gaayantaana.m = singing
kumaaraana.m = boys' (gen.)
kaayesu = bodies (loc.)
pa.n.naani = leaves (nom.)
ca = and
pupphaani = flowers (nom.)
ca = and
pati.msu = fell
Ans: Leaves and flowers fell on bodies of boys seated at the foot of
a tree singing songs.
15. Tumhe dhana.m sa.mharamaanaa maa samudda.m taritvaa diipa.m
tumhe = you
dhana.m = wealth (acc.)
sa.mharamaanaa = collecting
maa = not
samudda.m = sea (acc.)
taritvaa = having crossed
diipa.m = island (acc.)
gacchatha = may go
Ans: Do not cross the sea and go to the island collecting wealth.
16. Aapa.nasi.m bha.n.daani vikki.nantassa vaa.nijassa ratho atthi.
aapa.nasi.m = shop (loc.)
bha.n.daani = goods (acc.)
vikki.nantassa = selling
vaa.nijassa = merchant's (gen.)
ratho = vehicle (nom.)
atthi = (to be)
Ans: The merchant who sells goods at the shop has a vehicle.
17. Aha.m puttassa daatu.m dussa.m sibhanto giita.m gaayi.m.
aha.m = I
puttassa = son (dat.)
daatu.m = to give
dussa.m = clothe (acc.)
sibhanto = sewing
giita.m = song (acc.)
gaayi.m = sang
Ans: I sang the song while sewing clothe to give to my son.
18. Suukaraa ca sunakhaa ca khette aavaate kha.ni.msu.
Ans: Pigs and dogs dug pits in the field.
19. Purisaa rukkhamuule nisiiditvaa taapasena bhaasamaana.m su.ni.msu.
Ans: People sat at the foot of a tree and listened to the speech by
20. Luddakena saddhi.m vane aahi.n.dante putte aamantetvaa kassakaa
Ans: Farmers called and scolded the sons who were wandering in the
forest with the hunter.
21. Maa tva.m suva.n.napatta.m vikki.nitvaa khagge ki.naahi.
Ans: Do not sell the golden bowl and buy swords.
22. So bha.n.daani ca khetta.m ca go.ne ca puttaana.m da.tvaa geha.m
pahaaya sama.no bhavitu.m cintesi.
Ans: Having given goods, the field and oxen to his sons, he thought
of leaving the household to be a monk.
23. Dhammena jiivantaa sappurisaa mige na maaresu.m.
Ans: Good men living righteously did not kill deer.
24. Aha.m sopaana.m aaruhi.m, te sopaanamhaa oruhi.msu.
Ans: I climbed the stairway, they descended from the stairway.
25. Sahaayakaa udaka.m otaritvaa nahaayantaa padumaani ocini.msu.
Ans: Having descended into the water, friends who were bathing picked
Translate into Paali:
1. The child sprinkled the lotuses with water and honoured the Buddha
Ans: Daarako udakena padumaani aasi~ncitvaa tehi Buddha.m puujesi.
2. Having received the pay the men went to the market and bought
Ans: Purisaa vetana.m labhitvaa aapa.na.m gantvaa bha.n.daani
3. The fisherman brought fish from the sea and sold them to the
Ans: Dhiivaro samuddamhaa macche aaharitvaa kassakaana.m vikki.ni.
4. If you go to bathe wash the clothes of the children.
Ans: Sace tva.m nahaayitu.m gacchasi daarakaana.m vatthaani dhovaahi.
5. The parrots and the crows flew into the sky from the trees.
Ans: Sukaa ca kaakaa ca rukkhehi aakaasa.m u.d.desu.m.
6. Do not scold the children playing under the tree with the dog.
Ans: Rukkhamuule sunakena saha kii.lante daarake maa akkosatha.
7. I spoke to the people sitting in the park having assembled to see
Ans: Aha.m bhuupaala.m passitu.m sannipatitvaa uyyaane
nisiidantaana.m manussaana.m kathesi.m.
8. We got frightened seeing a serpent enter the house.
Ans: Geha.m pavisanta.m sappa.m disvaa maya.m bhaayimha.
9. I gave water to my son eating rice together with his friend.
Ans: Aha.m mittena saha odana.m bhu~njantaaya puttaaya paaniiya.m
10. Maa papa.m karohi, manussalokasmaa cavitvaa sagga.m pavisitu.m
- Dear all,
I've been absent since November as I was somewhat busy then for our Kathina day (18 Nov) and after that on some other matters, including a much needed meditation retreat. I've also been spending much time in learning and memorizing the Patimokkha under the guidance of my acariya, Ven. Aggacitta Bhikkhu. I'm at the end of Sanghadisesa now. The Pali does appear rather different from what I've learnt in "Pali Primer".
Anyway, here's my very, very belated comments on Yong Peng's notes.
As mentioned earlier, Lesson 14 is (relatively) a breeze. This chapter however give us some interesting Pali food for thought.
At 10:20 PM 13-11-01, Ong Yong Peng wrote:
>Translate into English:My teacher's answer:
>7. Pu~n~na.m kaatu.m icchantaa tumhe sappurisaa paapamitte
>pu~n~na.m = merit (acc.)
>kaatu.m = to do
>icchantaa = wishing
>tumhe = you
>sappurisaa = good men (nom.)
>paapamitte = evil friends (acc.)
>ovadissatha = will advise
>Ans: Wishing to do merit, you good men will advise evil/wicked
You good/virtuous men who wish to do merit shall advise evil/wicked friends.
I think there's an important difference in meaning. If the Pali sentence were to have been
pu~n~na.m kaatu.m icchantaa
sappurisaa paapamitte ovadissatha.
then the English translation would be as given, i.e.,
Wishing to do merit, you good men will advise evil/wicked friends.
or, to put it in a different way,
You good men, wishing to do merit, will advise evil/wicked friends.
>14. Buddhe pasiiditvaa upaasako devaputto hutvaa saggaloke uppajjati.Literally, "devaputta" means a deity's son or god's son (Jesus Christ?!). But it's actually just something like saying "Sakyaputta", which means "Sakyan son". I get the idea that it connote something like an "offspring of the Sakyan clan". In the same way, I think "devaputta" carries the idea of "a son of the deva community", and not the literal "son of a deity". Would appreciate any differing opinions.
>devaputto = deity (acc.)
Also, I don't think this can be rightly taken as an accusative, since it's obviously in the nominative form. In the sense of English grammar, it's an "object". But in terms of Pali grammar, I don't know what it can be called. My teacher calls it a "transferred subject". This is just grammar talk, of course, but if anyone knows of another term for it, I'll be happy to know.
>20. Paapa.m parivajjetvaa kusala.m karonte sappurise devaaI prefer to think that "vajjeti" by itself already mean "avoid".
>Ans: Deities will honour virtuous men avoiding evil and doing good.
The prefix "pari" carries the meaning of
"parisuddhi": thorough purity;
"parinibbana": complete release;
"paripucchati": interrogate (lit. ask thoroughly),
or "around", e.g.
"paribbajati": wander about;
"paribbaajaka": wondering ascetic;
"parisiñcati": sprinkle all over.
So, I think "parivajjeti" is better translated as "completely avoid" or "shun" (which I think carries a stronger connotation than just "avoid").
>21. Sacca.m bhaasantaa asappurise anusaasantaa pa.n.ditaa upaasakaaDon't you find something funny in the meaning of the sentence?
>Ans: Wise people who speak the truth and admonish evil men will
>become lay devotees.
My teacher says a suitable English translation of that should be:
The wise people who speak the truth and instruct evil men are probably lay devotees.
[Note: upaasakaa here probably refers to "lay followers of the Buddha", making the sentence: The wise people who speak the truth and instruct evil men are probably lay followers of the Buddha.]
Here, the "ssa" future tense is used to convey probability.
Some of you may have read or heard about a conversation between the Buddha and Do.na the brahmin (AN IV 36):
Devo no bhava.m bhavissatiiti?
Na kho aha.m, braahma.na, devo bhavissaamiiti.
Gandhabbo no bhava.m bhavissatiiti?
Na kho aha.m, braahma.na, gandhabbo bhavissaamiiti.
Yakkho no bhava.m bhavissatiiti?
Na kho aha.m, braahma.na, yakkho bhavissaamiiti.
Manusso no bhava.m bhavissatiiti?
Na kho aha.m, braahma.na, manusso bhavissaamiiti.
A literal translation:
'Will you, sir, be a deva?'
'No, braahmin, I will not be a deva.'
'Will you, sir, be a gandhabba?'
'No, braahmin, I will not be a gandhabba.'
'Will you, sir, be a yakkha?'
'No, braahmin, I will not be a yakkha.'
'Will you, sir, be a human?'
'No, braahmin, I will not be a human.'
You may find that the above translation does not fit well in the context. A better English rendering of what Do.na the brahmin was saying may be:
'Would you, sir, be a deva... gandhabba... yakkha... human?'
'Could you, sir, be a deva... gandhabba... yakkha... human?'
From the context, we could see that the Buddha purposely answered in the same "ssa" form, so that He could tell the brahmin that he will not become any of those things as He had freed himself from rebirth.
>Translate into Paali:This answer may give the impression that:
>2. I will advise the king to rule the island righteously with his
>Ans: Aha.m amaccehi saha dhammena diipa.m paaletu.m bhuupala.m
"I together with the ministers will advise the king to rule the island righteously."
Would be better to put the "bhuupala.m" after "Aha.m":
"Aha.m bhuupala.m amaccehi saha dhammena diipa.m paaletu.m ovadissaami."
>13. Paaniiyena patta.m puuretvaa daarako odana.m bhu~njantaayaWhat the book tells us in Chapter 5 gives us the impression that "aaya" and "assa" are interchangeable as singular dative case endings for "-a" masculine nouns. However, from what my teacher told me, "aaya" has a more specific usage, that is "for the sake of", e.g.: Naro puttaaya kamma.m karoti.
Therefore, it would be better to substitute "bhu~njantaaya yaacakaaya" with "bhu~njantassa yaacakassa".
>23. Dhammena vasanto/jiivanto tva.m sappuriso hosi."Jiivanto" would be a better choice. "Vasati" means something like "stay, abide, reside (somewhere)".
As always, I'd appreciate any sharing of differing views.
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