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Pali Primer - Lesson 17

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  • ypong001
    A Quick Glance This lesson covers the following topic: The Past Tense Paca 3rd Person: [sing.] apaci, paci [plur.] apaci.msu, paci.msu 2nd Person: [sing.]
    Message 1 of 46 , Dec 11, 2001
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      A Quick Glance

      This lesson covers the following topic:

      The Past Tense

      Paca
      3rd Person: [sing.] apaci, paci [plur.] apaci.msu, paci.msu
      2nd Person: [sing.] apaci, paci [plur.] apacittha, pacittha
      1st Person: [sing.] apaci.m, paci.m [plur.] apacimha, pacimha

      Core
      3rd Person: [sing.] coresi, corayi [plur.] coresu.m, corayi.msu
      2nd Person: [sing.] coresi [plur.] corayitha
      1st Person: [sing.] coresi.m, corayi.m [plur.] corayimha


      Exercise 17:

      Translate into English:

      1. Kassako khetta.m kasitvaa nahaayitu.m udaka.m otari.
      kassako = farmer (nom.)
      khetta.m = field (acc.)
      kasitvaa = having ploughed
      nahaayitu.m = to bathe
      udaka.m = water (acc.)
      otari = descended
      Ans: Having ploughed the field, the farmer descended into the water
      to bathe.

      2. Ugga.nhantaana.m daarakaana.m daatu.m aacariyaa kusumaani
      aahari.msu.
      ugga.nhantaana.m = learning
      daarakaana.m = children (dat.)
      daatu.m = to give
      aacariyaa = teachers (nom.)
      kusumaani = flowers (acc.)
      aahari.msu = brought
      Ans: The teachers brought flowers to give to children who are
      learning.

      3. Upaasakaa aasanehi u.t.thahitvaa dhamma.m desetu.m
      upasa"nkamanta.m sama.na.m vandi.msu.
      upaasakaa = lay devotees (nom.)
      aasanehi = seats (abl.)
      u.t.thahitvaa = having gotten up
      dhamma.m = doctrine (acc.)
      desetu.m = to preach
      upasa"nkamanta.m = approaching
      sama.na.m = monk (acc.)
      vandi.msu = saluted
      Ans: Lay devotees got up/rose from their seats and saluted/worshipped
      the monk approaching/coming to preach the dhamma.

      4. Nagaresu kammaani katvaa vetane labhitu.m aaka"nkhamaanaa naraa
      gaamehi nikkhami.msu.
      nagaresu = cities (loc.)
      kammaani katvaa = having worked
      vetane = wages (acc.)
      labhitu.m = to get
      aaka"nkhamaanaa = hoping
      naraa = men/people (nom.)
      gaamehi = villages (abl.)
      nikkhami.msu = left
      Ans: People who hoped to work in cities and get wages left the
      villages.

      5. Aacariyo aasana.m dussena chaadetvaa samana.m nisiiditu.m
      nimantesi.
      aacariyo = teacher (nom.)
      aasana.m = seat (acc.)
      dussena = cloth (ins.)
      chaadetvaa = having covered
      samana.m = monk (acc.)
      nisiiditu.m = to sit
      nimantesi = invited
      Ans: The teacher covered the seat with cloth and invited the monk to
      sit.

      6. Kumaaro dvaara.m vivaritvaa rukkhamhaa oruhante vaanare passamaano
      a.t.thaasi.
      kumaaro = boy (nom.)
      dvaara.m = door (acc.)
      vivaritvaa = having opened
      rukkhamhaa = tree (abl.)
      oruhante = descending
      vaanare = monkeys (acc.)
      passamaano = looking at
      a.t.thaasi = stood
      Ans: The boy opened the door and stood looking at monkeys
      descending/getting down from the tree.

      7. Pa.n.dito go.ne coretvaa akusala.m karonte nare pakkositvaa ovadi.
      pa.n.dito = wise man (nom.)
      go.ne = oxen (acc.)
      coretvaa = having stolen
      akusala.m = evil (acc.)
      karonte = doing
      nare = men/people (acc.)
      pakkositvaa = having called
      ovadi = advised
      Ans: The wise man summoned and advised people who committed evil by
      stealing oxen.

      8. Yaacakassa puttaa rukkhehi patantaani phalaani sa.mharitvaa
      aapa.nasmi.m vikki.ni.msu.
      yaacakassa = beggar's (gen.)
      puttaa = sons (nom.)
      rukkhehi = trees (abl.)
      patantaani = falling
      phalaani = fruits (acc.)
      sa.mharitvaa = having collected
      aapa.nasmi.m = market (loc.)
      vikki.ni.msu = sold
      Ans: The beggar's sons collected fruits falling from trees and sold
      (them) at the market.

      9. Kassako dha~n~na.m minitvaa vaa.nijassa vikki.nitu.m pahi.ni.
      kassako = farmer (nom.)
      dha~n~na.m = corn (acc.)
      minitvaa = having measured
      vaa.nijassa = merchant (dat.)
      vikki.nitu.m = to sell
      pahi.ni = sent
      Ans: The farmer measured corn and sent (them) to sell to the merchant.

      10. Dhamma.m ugga.nhitvaa sama.no bhavitu.m aaka"nkhamaano amacco
      aacariya.m pariyesamaano Buddha.m upasa"nkami.
      dhamma.m = doctrine (acc.)
      ugga.nhitvaa = having learned
      sama.no = monk (nom.)
      bhavitu.m = to be/become
      aaka"nkhamaano = wishing
      amacco = minister (nom.)
      aacariya.m = teacher (acc.)
      pariyesamaano = seeking
      Buddha.m = Buddha (acc.)
      upasa"nkami = approached
      Ans: Wishing to learn the dhamma and become a monk, the minister who
      is seeking/looking for a teacher, approached Buddha.

      11. Sace tumhe gaama.m paapu.neyyaatha mitte olokeyyaatha.
      sace = if
      tumhe = you
      gaama.m = village (acc.)
      paapu.neyyaatha = would reach
      mitte = friends (acc.)
      olokeyyaatha = would see
      Ans: If you reach the village, you would see friends.

      12. Pa.n.ditamhaa pa~nhe pucchitvaa sacca.m jaanitu.m maatulo ussahi.
      pa.n.ditamhaa = wise man (abl.)
      pa~nhe = questions (acc.)
      pucchitvaa = having asked
      sacca.m = truth (acc.)
      jaanitu.m = to know
      maatulo = uncle (nom.)
      ussahi = tried
      Ans: Having asked questions from the wise man, uncle tried to know
      the truth.

      13. Paasaa.namhi .thatvaa aja.m khaadanta.m siiha.m disvaa vaanaraa
      bhaayi.msu.
      paasaa.namhi = rock (loc.)
      .thatvaa = having stood
      aja.m = goat (acc.)
      khaadanta.m = eating
      siiha.m = lion (acc.)
      disvaa = having seen
      vaanaraa = monkeys (nom.)
      bhaayi.msu = got frightened
      Ans: Seeing a lion eating a goat standing on the rock, monkeys got
      frightened.

      14. Rukkhamuule nisiiditvaa gitaani gaayantaana.m kumaaraana.m
      kaayesu pa.n.naani ca pupphaani ca pati.msu.
      rukkhamuule = foot of a tree (loc.)
      nisiiditvaa = seated
      gitaani = songs (acc.)
      gaayantaana.m = singing
      kumaaraana.m = boys' (gen.)
      kaayesu = bodies (loc.)
      pa.n.naani = leaves (nom.)
      ca = and
      pupphaani = flowers (nom.)
      ca = and
      pati.msu = fell
      Ans: Leaves and flowers fell on bodies of boys seated at the foot of
      a tree singing songs.

      15. Tumhe dhana.m sa.mharamaanaa maa samudda.m taritvaa diipa.m
      gacchatha.
      tumhe = you
      dhana.m = wealth (acc.)
      sa.mharamaanaa = collecting
      maa = not
      samudda.m = sea (acc.)
      taritvaa = having crossed
      diipa.m = island (acc.)
      gacchatha = may go
      Ans: Do not cross the sea and go to the island collecting wealth.

      16. Aapa.nasi.m bha.n.daani vikki.nantassa vaa.nijassa ratho atthi.
      aapa.nasi.m = shop (loc.)
      bha.n.daani = goods (acc.)
      vikki.nantassa = selling
      vaa.nijassa = merchant's (gen.)
      ratho = vehicle (nom.)
      atthi = (to be)
      Ans: The merchant who sells goods at the shop has a vehicle.

      17. Aha.m puttassa daatu.m dussa.m sibhanto giita.m gaayi.m.
      aha.m = I
      puttassa = son (dat.)
      daatu.m = to give
      dussa.m = clothe (acc.)
      sibhanto = sewing
      giita.m = song (acc.)
      gaayi.m = sang
      Ans: I sang the song while sewing clothe to give to my son.

      18. Suukaraa ca sunakhaa ca khette aavaate kha.ni.msu.
      Ans: Pigs and dogs dug pits in the field.

      19. Purisaa rukkhamuule nisiiditvaa taapasena bhaasamaana.m su.ni.msu.
      Ans: People sat at the foot of a tree and listened to the speech by
      the ascetic.

      20. Luddakena saddhi.m vane aahi.n.dante putte aamantetvaa kassakaa
      akkosi.msu.
      Ans: Farmers called and scolded the sons who were wandering in the
      forest with the hunter.

      21. Maa tva.m suva.n.napatta.m vikki.nitvaa khagge ki.naahi.
      Ans: Do not sell the golden bowl and buy swords.

      22. So bha.n.daani ca khetta.m ca go.ne ca puttaana.m da.tvaa geha.m
      pahaaya sama.no bhavitu.m cintesi.
      Ans: Having given goods, the field and oxen to his sons, he thought
      of leaving the household to be a monk.

      23. Dhammena jiivantaa sappurisaa mige na maaresu.m.
      Ans: Good men living righteously did not kill deer.

      24. Aha.m sopaana.m aaruhi.m, te sopaanamhaa oruhi.msu.
      Ans: I climbed the stairway, they descended from the stairway.

      25. Sahaayakaa udaka.m otaritvaa nahaayantaa padumaani ocini.msu.
      Ans: Having descended into the water, friends who were bathing picked
      flowers.

      Translate into Paali:

      1. The child sprinkled the lotuses with water and honoured the Buddha
      with them.
      Ans: Daarako udakena padumaani aasi~ncitvaa tehi Buddha.m puujesi.

      2. Having received the pay the men went to the market and bought
      goods.
      Ans: Purisaa vetana.m labhitvaa aapa.na.m gantvaa bha.n.daani
      ki.ni.msu.

      3. The fisherman brought fish from the sea and sold them to the
      farmers.
      Ans: Dhiivaro samuddamhaa macche aaharitvaa kassakaana.m vikki.ni.

      4. If you go to bathe wash the clothes of the children.
      Ans: Sace tva.m nahaayitu.m gacchasi daarakaana.m vatthaani dhovaahi.

      5. The parrots and the crows flew into the sky from the trees.
      Ans: Sukaa ca kaakaa ca rukkhehi aakaasa.m u.d.desu.m.

      6. Do not scold the children playing under the tree with the dog.
      Ans: Rukkhamuule sunakena saha kii.lante daarake maa akkosatha.

      7. I spoke to the people sitting in the park having assembled to see
      the king.
      Ans: Aha.m bhuupaala.m passitu.m sannipatitvaa uyyaane
      nisiidantaana.m manussaana.m kathesi.m.

      8. We got frightened seeing a serpent enter the house.
      Ans: Geha.m pavisanta.m sappa.m disvaa maya.m bhaayimha.

      9. I gave water to my son eating rice together with his friend.
      Ans: Aha.m mittena saha odana.m bhu~njantaaya puttaaya paaniiya.m
      dadi.m.

      10. Maa papa.m karohi, manussalokasmaa cavitvaa sagga.m pavisitu.m
      kusalaani karohi.
    • Kumaara Bhikkhu
      Dear all,I ve been absent since November as I was somewhat busy then for our Kathina day (18 Nov) and after that on some other matters, including a much
      Message 46 of 46 , Feb 22, 2002
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        Dear all,

        I've been absent since November as I was somewhat busy then for our Kathina day (18 Nov) and after that on some other matters, including a much needed meditation retreat. I've also been spending much time in learning and memorizing the Patimokkha under the guidance of my acariya, Ven. Aggacitta Bhikkhu. I'm at the end of Sanghadisesa now. The Pali does appear rather different from what I've learnt in "Pali Primer".

        Anyway, here's my very, very belated comments on Yong Peng's notes.

        As mentioned earlier, Lesson 14 is (relatively) a breeze. This chapter however give us some interesting Pali food for thought.

        At 10:20 PM 13-11-01, Ong Yong Peng wrote:
        >Translate into English:
        >
        >7. Pu~n~na.m kaatu.m icchantaa tumhe sappurisaa paapamitte
        >ovadissatha.
        >pu~n~na.m = merit (acc.)
        >kaatu.m = to do
        >icchantaa = wishing
        >tumhe = you
        >sappurisaa = good men (nom.)
        >paapamitte = evil friends (acc.)
        >ovadissatha = will advise
        >Ans: Wishing to do merit, you good men will advise evil/wicked
        >friends.

        My teacher's answer:
        You good/virtuous men who wish to do merit shall advise evil/wicked friends.

        I think there's an important difference in meaning. If the Pali sentence were to have been
        Tumhe
        pu~n~na.m kaatu.m icchantaa
        sappurisaa paapamitte ovadissatha.
        then the English translation would be as given, i.e.,
        Wishing to do merit, you good men will advise evil/wicked friends.
        or, to put it in a different way,
        You good men, wishing to do merit, will advise evil/wicked friends.


        >14. Buddhe pasiiditvaa upaasako devaputto hutvaa saggaloke uppajjati.
        >....
        >devaputto = deity (acc.)

        Literally, "devaputta" means a deity's son or god's son (Jesus Christ?!). But it's actually just something like saying "Sakyaputta", which means "Sakyan son". I get the idea that it connote something like an "offspring of the Sakyan clan". In the same way, I think "devaputta" carries the idea of "a son of the deva community", and not the literal "son of a deity". Would appreciate any differing opinions.

        Also, I don't think this can be rightly taken as an accusative, since it's obviously in the nominative form. In the sense of English grammar, it's an "object". But in terms of Pali grammar, I don't know what it can be called. My teacher calls it a "transferred subject". This is just grammar talk, of course, but if anyone knows of another term for it, I'll be happy to know.


        >20. Paapa.m parivajjetvaa kusala.m karonte sappurise devaa
        >puujessanti.
        >Ans: Deities will honour virtuous men avoiding evil and doing good.

        I prefer to think that "vajjeti" by itself already mean "avoid".
        The prefix "pari" carries the meaning of
        "thorough", e.g.
        "parisuddhi": thorough purity;
        "parinibbana": complete release;
        "paripucchati": interrogate (lit. ask thoroughly),
        or "around", e.g.
        "paribbajati": wander about;
        "paribbaajaka": wondering ascetic;
        "parisiñcati": sprinkle all over.

        So, I think "parivajjeti" is better translated as "completely avoid" or "shun" (which I think carries a stronger connotation than just "avoid").


        >21. Sacca.m bhaasantaa asappurise anusaasantaa pa.n.ditaa upaasakaa
        >bhavissanti.
        >Ans: Wise people who speak the truth and admonish evil men will
        >become lay devotees.

        Don't you find something funny in the meaning of the sentence?

        My teacher says a suitable English translation of that should be:
        The wise people who speak the truth and instruct evil men are probably lay devotees.

        [Note: upaasakaa here probably refers to "lay followers of the Buddha", making the sentence: The wise people who speak the truth and instruct evil men are probably lay followers of the Buddha.]

        Here, the "ssa" future tense is used to convey probability.

        Some of you may have read or heard about a conversation between the Buddha and Do.na the brahmin (AN IV 36):

        “Devo no bhava.m bhavissatii”ti?
        “Na kho aha.m, braahma.na, devo bhavissaamii”ti.
        “Gandhabbo no bhava.m bhavissatii”ti?
        “Na kho aha.m, braahma.na, gandhabbo bhavissaamii”ti.
        “Yakkho no bhava.m bhavissatii”ti?
        “Na kho aha.m, braahma.na, yakkho bhavissaamii”ti.
        “Manusso no bhava.m bhavissatii”ti?
        “Na kho aha.m, braahma.na, manusso bhavissaamii”ti.

        A literal translation:
        'Will you, sir, be a deva?'
        'No, braahmin, I will not be a deva.'
        'Will you, sir, be a gandhabba?'
        'No, braahmin, I will not be a gandhabba.'
        'Will you, sir, be a yakkha?'
        'No, braahmin, I will not be a yakkha.'
        'Will you, sir, be a human?'
        'No, braahmin, I will not be a human.'

        You may find that the above translation does not fit well in the context. A better English rendering of what Do.na the brahmin was saying may be:
        'Would you, sir, be a deva... gandhabba... yakkha... human?'
        or
        'Could you, sir, be a deva... gandhabba... yakkha... human?'

        From the context, we could see that the Buddha purposely answered in the same "ssa" form, so that He could tell the brahmin that he will not become any of those things as He had freed himself from rebirth.

        Passasi, aavuso?


        >Translate into Paali:
        >
        >2. I will advise the king to rule the island righteously with his
        >ministers.
        >Ans: Aha.m amaccehi saha dhammena diipa.m paaletu.m bhuupala.m
        >ovadissaami.

        This answer may give the impression that:
        "I together with the ministers will advise the king to rule the island righteously."

        Would be better to put the "bhuupala.m" after "Aha.m":
        "Aha.m bhuupala.m amaccehi saha dhammena diipa.m paaletu.m ovadissaami."


        >13. Paaniiyena patta.m puuretvaa daarako odana.m bhu~njantaaya
        >yaacakaaya dassati.

        What the book tells us in Chapter 5 gives us the impression that "aaya" and "assa" are interchangeable as singular dative case endings for "-a" masculine nouns. However, from what my teacher told me, "aaya" has a more specific usage, that is "for the sake of", e.g.: Naro puttaaya kamma.m karoti.

        Therefore, it would be better to substitute "bhu~njantaaya yaacakaaya" with "bhu~njantassa yaacakassa".


        >23. Dhammena vasanto/jiivanto tva.m sappuriso hosi.

        "Jiivanto" would be a better choice. "Vasati" means something like "stay, abide, reside (somewhere)".


        As always, I'd appreciate any sharing of differing views.

        vkb


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