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Pali Primer - Lesson 16

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  • Ong Yong Peng
    A Quick Glance This lesson covers the following topic: The Imperative 3rd Person: [sing.] pacatu [plur.] pacantu 2nd Person: [sing.] paca, pacaahi
    Message 1 of 46 , Nov 28, 2001
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      A Quick Glance

      This lesson covers the following topic:

      The Imperative
      3rd Person: [sing.] pacatu [plur.] pacantu
      2nd Person: [sing.] paca, pacaahi [plur.] pacatha
      1st Person: [sing.] pacaami [plur.] pacaama

      [ Abbreviations ]
      nom. - nominative case
      acc. - accusative case
      ins. - instrumental case
      abl. - ablative case
      dat. - dative case
      gen. - genitive case
      loc. - locative case
      voc. - vocative case
      masc. - masculine gender
      neut. - neuter gender
      sing. - singular
      plur. - plural
      indec. - indeclinable

      Exercise 16:

      Translate into English:

      1. Bhuupaalaa dhammena diipa.m paalentu.
      bhuupaalaa = kings (nom.)
      dhammena = righteously
      diipa.m = island (acc.)
      paalentu = may rule
      Ans: May kings rule the island righteously.

      2. Maa manusso bhaayatu, sace so sacca.m jaanaati, bhaasatu.
      maa = not
      manusso = man (nom.)
      bhaayatu = may fear
      sace = if
      so = he
      sacca.m = truth (acc.)
      jaanaati = knows
      bhaasatu = let speak
      Ans: May the man not fear, if he knows the truth, let him speak.

      3. Tumhe paapa.m karonte putte ovadatha.
      tumhe = you
      paapa.m = evil
      karonte = doing
      putte = sons (acc.)
      ovadatha = advise
      Ans: You advise the sons doing evil.

      4. Sugato dhamma.m desetu, saavakaa ca upaasakaa ca vihaarasmi.m
      Sugato = Buddha (nom.)
      dhamma.m = doctrine (acc.)
      desetu = may preach
      saavakaa = disciples (nom.)
      ca = and
      upaasakaa = lay devotees (nom.)
      ca = and
      vihaarasmi.m = monastery (loc.)
      nisiidanti = sit
      Ans: May the Buddha preach the dhamma, disciples and lay devotees
      sit/are sitting in the monastery.

      5. Maa te paapakammaani katvaa manussalokamhaa cavitvaa narake
      maa = not
      te = they
      paapakammaani = evil deeds (acc.)
      katvaa = having done
      manussalokamhaa = human world (acc.)
      cavitvaa = having departed
      narake = purgatory (loc.)
      uppajjantu = may be born
      Ans: May they not do evil deeds and be born in purgatory having
      departed from the human world.

      6. Maa coraa kassakaana.m go.ne maarentu.
      maa = not
      coraa = thieves (nom.)
      kassakaana.m = farmers' (gen.)
      go.ne = oxen (acc.)
      maarentu = may kill
      Ans: May thieves not kill oxen of the farmers.

      7. Maa tva.m sunakha.m aamasaahi, so ta.m .daseyya.
      maa = not
      tva.m = you
      sunakha.m = dog (acc.)
      aamasaahi = touch
      so = it
      ta.m = you
      .daseyya = might bite
      Ans: Do not touch the dog, it might bite you.

      8. Tumhe diipe jaaletvaa vihaarasmi.m ruupaani oloketha.
      tumhe = you
      diipe = lamps (acc.)
      jaaletvaa = having lit
      vihaarasmi.m = monastery (loc.)
      ruupaani = objects/murals (acc.)
      oloketha = look at
      Ans: Light the lamps and look at the murals in the monastery.
      Ans: Having lit the lamps, you look at the murals in the monastery.

      9. Tumhe asappurise aamantetvaa dhammena jiivitu.m anusaasatha.
      tumhe = you
      asappurise = wicked men (acc.)
      aamantetvaa = having addressed
      dhammena = righteously
      jiivitu.m = to live
      anusaasatha = admonish
      Ans: Address wicked men and admonish (them) to live righteously.
      Ans: Having addressed wicked men, you admonish (them) to live

      10. Putta, maa tva.m paapamitte upasa"nkama.
      putta = son (voc.)
      maa = not
      tva.m = you
      paapamitte = evil friends (acc.)
      upasa"nkama = approach
      Ans: Son, do no approach evil friends.

      11. Sace tumhe sacca.m bhaasitu.m ussaheyyaatha, tumhe sappurisaa
      sace = if
      tumhe = you
      sacca.m = truth (acc.)
      bhaasitu.m = to speak
      ussaheyyaatha = try
      tumhe = you
      sappurissa = good men (nom.)
      bhaveyyaatha = will become
      Ans: If you try to speak the truth, you will become good men.

      12. Sace tva.m paasaa.ne khipeyyaasi, kaakaa ca saku.naa ca aakaasa.m
      sace = if
      tva.m = you
      paasaa.ne = stones (acc.)
      khipeyyaasi = throw
      kaakaa = crows (nom.)
      ca = and
      saku.naa = birds (nom.)
      ca = and
      aakaasa.m = sky (acc.)
      uppateyyu.m = will fly
      Ans: If you throw stones, crows and birds will fly into the sky.

      13. Maa daaraka paaniiya.m pivitvaa patta.m bhinda.
      maa = not
      daaraka = child (voc.)
      paaniiya.m = water (acc.)
      pivitvaa = having drunk
      patta.m = bowl (acc.)
      bhinda = break
      Ans: Child, do not break the bowl after drinking water.

      14. Maa suva.n.na.m coretvaa gacchantaa coraa samudda.m tarantu.
      maa = not
      suva.n.na.m = gold (acc.)
      coretvaa = having stolen
      gacchantaa = going
      coraa = thieves (nom.)
      samudda.m = sea (acc.)
      tarantu = let cross
      Ans: Let not the robbers who are going after stealing gold cross the

      15. Upaasaka, maa putte akkosaahi, sama.nehi saddhi.m mantetvaa putte
      upaasaka = lay devotee (voc.)
      maa = not
      putte = sons (acc.)
      akkosaahi = scold
      sama.nehi = monks (ins.)
      saddhi.m = with
      mantetvaa = having discussed
      putte = sons (acc.)
      anusaasaahi = admonish
      Ans: Lay devotee, do not scold your sons, discuss with monks and
      admonish them.

      Translate into Paali:

      1. May the king ruling the island protect the people righteously.
      king = bhuupaalo (nom.)
      ruling = paalento
      island = diipa.m (acc.)
      may protect = rakkhatu
      people = manusse (acc.)
      righteously = dhammena
      Ans: Diipa.m paalento bhuupaalo dhammena manusse rakkhatu.

      2. Let the children playing in the park collect falling leaves.
      children = daarakaa (nom.)
      playing = kii.lantaa
      park = uyyaane (loc.)
      let collect = sa.mharantu
      falling = patantaani
      leaves = pa.n.naani
      Ans: Uyyaane kii.lantaa daarakaa patantaani pa.n.naani sa.mharantu.

      3. Let the farmers and merchants assemble in the king's park.
      Ans: Kassakaa ca vaa.nijaa ca bhuupaalassa uyyaanasmi.m sannipatatu.

      4. Let the sons climb the mountain to see lions, deer and birds.
      Ans: Puttaa siihe ca mige ca saku.ne ca passitu.m pabbata.m aaruhantu.

      5. Do no cut trees in forests if you wish to protect deer.
      Ans: Sace tva.m mige rakkhitu.m iccheyyaasi, maa vanesu rukkhe

      6. Let the child not come down the stairway, he will fall.
      Ans: Maa daarako sopaanamhaa oruhatu, so patissati.

      7. Let the farmer plough the fields and sow seeds, let him not kill
      Ans: Kassako khettaani kasitvaa biijaani vapatu, maa so aje hanatu.

      8. Let the parrots fly taking fruits with their beaks.
      Ans: Tu.n.dehi phalaani aadantaa/gahetvaa sukaa u.d.dentu/uppatantu.

      9. Sons, do not commit sins, live righteously.
      Ans: Puttaa, maa tumhe paapa.m karotha, dhammena jiivatha.

      10. May the disciples of the Buddha get alms and robes.
      Ans: Buddhassa saavakaa daana.m ca ciivaraani ca labhantu.

      11. Let the children come out of the house and see the moon rising
      from the mountain.
      Ans: Daarakaa gehasmaa nikkhamma pabbatamhaa udenta.m canda.m

      12. Boys, do not go and kill deer in the forest with the hunter.
      Ans: Kumaaraa, maa tumhe gantvaa ara~n~namhi luddakena saha mige

      13. You (plur.) run home and bring water for the farmers ploughing
      the field.
      Ans: Tumhe geha.m dhaavitvaa khetta.m kasantaana.m kassakaana.m
      paaniiya.m aaharatha.

      14. Do not ask questions from the king's messenger.
      Ans: Maa bhuupaalassa duutasmaa pa~nhe pucchatha.

      15. You lay devotees should try to avoid evil and do good deeds.
      Ans: Tumhe upaasakaa akusala.m parivajjetvaa kusalakammaani kaatu.m
    • Kumaara Bhikkhu
      Dear all,I ve been absent since November as I was somewhat busy then for our Kathina day (18 Nov) and after that on some other matters, including a much
      Message 46 of 46 , Feb 22, 2002
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        Dear all,

        I've been absent since November as I was somewhat busy then for our Kathina day (18 Nov) and after that on some other matters, including a much needed meditation retreat. I've also been spending much time in learning and memorizing the Patimokkha under the guidance of my acariya, Ven. Aggacitta Bhikkhu. I'm at the end of Sanghadisesa now. The Pali does appear rather different from what I've learnt in "Pali Primer".

        Anyway, here's my very, very belated comments on Yong Peng's notes.

        As mentioned earlier, Lesson 14 is (relatively) a breeze. This chapter however give us some interesting Pali food for thought.

        At 10:20 PM 13-11-01, Ong Yong Peng wrote:
        >Translate into English:
        >7. Pu~n~na.m kaatu.m icchantaa tumhe sappurisaa paapamitte
        >pu~n~na.m = merit (acc.)
        >kaatu.m = to do
        >icchantaa = wishing
        >tumhe = you
        >sappurisaa = good men (nom.)
        >paapamitte = evil friends (acc.)
        >ovadissatha = will advise
        >Ans: Wishing to do merit, you good men will advise evil/wicked

        My teacher's answer:
        You good/virtuous men who wish to do merit shall advise evil/wicked friends.

        I think there's an important difference in meaning. If the Pali sentence were to have been
        pu~n~na.m kaatu.m icchantaa
        sappurisaa paapamitte ovadissatha.
        then the English translation would be as given, i.e.,
        Wishing to do merit, you good men will advise evil/wicked friends.
        or, to put it in a different way,
        You good men, wishing to do merit, will advise evil/wicked friends.

        >14. Buddhe pasiiditvaa upaasako devaputto hutvaa saggaloke uppajjati.
        >devaputto = deity (acc.)

        Literally, "devaputta" means a deity's son or god's son (Jesus Christ?!). But it's actually just something like saying "Sakyaputta", which means "Sakyan son". I get the idea that it connote something like an "offspring of the Sakyan clan". In the same way, I think "devaputta" carries the idea of "a son of the deva community", and not the literal "son of a deity". Would appreciate any differing opinions.

        Also, I don't think this can be rightly taken as an accusative, since it's obviously in the nominative form. In the sense of English grammar, it's an "object". But in terms of Pali grammar, I don't know what it can be called. My teacher calls it a "transferred subject". This is just grammar talk, of course, but if anyone knows of another term for it, I'll be happy to know.

        >20. Paapa.m parivajjetvaa kusala.m karonte sappurise devaa
        >Ans: Deities will honour virtuous men avoiding evil and doing good.

        I prefer to think that "vajjeti" by itself already mean "avoid".
        The prefix "pari" carries the meaning of
        "thorough", e.g.
        "parisuddhi": thorough purity;
        "parinibbana": complete release;
        "paripucchati": interrogate (lit. ask thoroughly),
        or "around", e.g.
        "paribbajati": wander about;
        "paribbaajaka": wondering ascetic;
        "parisiñcati": sprinkle all over.

        So, I think "parivajjeti" is better translated as "completely avoid" or "shun" (which I think carries a stronger connotation than just "avoid").

        >21. Sacca.m bhaasantaa asappurise anusaasantaa pa.n.ditaa upaasakaa
        >Ans: Wise people who speak the truth and admonish evil men will
        >become lay devotees.

        Don't you find something funny in the meaning of the sentence?

        My teacher says a suitable English translation of that should be:
        The wise people who speak the truth and instruct evil men are probably lay devotees.

        [Note: upaasakaa here probably refers to "lay followers of the Buddha", making the sentence: The wise people who speak the truth and instruct evil men are probably lay followers of the Buddha.]

        Here, the "ssa" future tense is used to convey probability.

        Some of you may have read or heard about a conversation between the Buddha and Do.na the brahmin (AN IV 36):

        “Devo no bhava.m bhavissatii”ti?
        “Na kho aha.m, braahma.na, devo bhavissaamii”ti.
        “Gandhabbo no bhava.m bhavissatii”ti?
        “Na kho aha.m, braahma.na, gandhabbo bhavissaamii”ti.
        “Yakkho no bhava.m bhavissatii”ti?
        “Na kho aha.m, braahma.na, yakkho bhavissaamii”ti.
        “Manusso no bhava.m bhavissatii”ti?
        “Na kho aha.m, braahma.na, manusso bhavissaamii”ti.

        A literal translation:
        'Will you, sir, be a deva?'
        'No, braahmin, I will not be a deva.'
        'Will you, sir, be a gandhabba?'
        'No, braahmin, I will not be a gandhabba.'
        'Will you, sir, be a yakkha?'
        'No, braahmin, I will not be a yakkha.'
        'Will you, sir, be a human?'
        'No, braahmin, I will not be a human.'

        You may find that the above translation does not fit well in the context. A better English rendering of what Do.na the brahmin was saying may be:
        'Would you, sir, be a deva... gandhabba... yakkha... human?'
        'Could you, sir, be a deva... gandhabba... yakkha... human?'

        From the context, we could see that the Buddha purposely answered in the same "ssa" form, so that He could tell the brahmin that he will not become any of those things as He had freed himself from rebirth.

        Passasi, aavuso?

        >Translate into Paali:
        >2. I will advise the king to rule the island righteously with his
        >Ans: Aha.m amaccehi saha dhammena diipa.m paaletu.m bhuupala.m

        This answer may give the impression that:
        "I together with the ministers will advise the king to rule the island righteously."

        Would be better to put the "bhuupala.m" after "Aha.m":
        "Aha.m bhuupala.m amaccehi saha dhammena diipa.m paaletu.m ovadissaami."

        >13. Paaniiyena patta.m puuretvaa daarako odana.m bhu~njantaaya
        >yaacakaaya dassati.

        What the book tells us in Chapter 5 gives us the impression that "aaya" and "assa" are interchangeable as singular dative case endings for "-a" masculine nouns. However, from what my teacher told me, "aaya" has a more specific usage, that is "for the sake of", e.g.: Naro puttaaya kamma.m karoti.

        Therefore, it would be better to substitute "bhu~njantaaya yaacakaaya" with "bhu~njantassa yaacakassa".

        >23. Dhammena vasanto/jiivanto tva.m sappuriso hosi.

        "Jiivanto" would be a better choice. "Vasati" means something like "stay, abide, reside (somewhere)".

        As always, I'd appreciate any sharing of differing views.


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