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Pali Primer - Lesson 9

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  • Ong Yong Peng
    A Quick Glance This lesson covers the following topic: The absolutive or the indeclinable participle, also known as the gerund. The suffix +tvaa or +ya is
    Message 1 of 46 , Oct 9, 2001
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      A Quick Glance

      This lesson covers the following topic:

      The absolutive or the indeclinable participle, also known as the
      gerund. The suffix +tvaa or +ya is added to the root of a verb to
      form the absolutive.

      [ Abbreviations ]
      nom. - nominative case
      acc. - accusative case
      ins. - instrumental case
      abl. - ablative case
      dat. - dative case
      gen. - genitive case
      loc. - locative case
      voc. - vocative case
      masc. - masculine gender
      neut. - neuter gender
      sing. - singular
      plur. - plural
      indec. - indeclinable

      Exercise 9:

      Translate into English:

      1. Upaasako vihaara.m gantvaa sama.naana.m daana.m dadaati.
      upaasako = lay devotee (nom.)
      vihaara.m = monastery (acc.)
      gantvaa = having gone
      sama.naana.m = monks (dat.)
      daana.m = alms (acc.)
      dadaati = gives
      Ans: The lay devotee, having gone to the monastery, gives alms to
      monks.

      2. Saavako aasanamhi nisiiditvaa paade dhovati.
      saavako = disciple (nom.)
      aasanamhi = seat (loc.)
      nisiiditvaa = having sat
      paade = feet (acc.)
      dhovati = washes
      Ans: The disciple, having sat on the seat, washes his feet.

      3. Daarakaa pupphaani sa.mharitvaa maatulassa datvaa hasanti.
      daarakaa = children (nom.)
      pupphaani = flowers (neut./acc.)
      sa.mharitvaa = having collected
      maatulassa = uncle (dat.)
      datvaa = having given
      hasanti = laugh
      Ans: The children, having collected flowers and given to the uncle,
      laugh.

      4. Vaacakaa uyyaanamhaa aagamma kassakasmaa odana.m yaacanti.
      vaacakaa = beggars (nom.)
      uyyaanamhaa = park (abl.)
      aagamma = having come
      kassakasmaa = farmer (abl.)
      odana.m = rice (acc.)
      yaacanti = beg
      Ans: Beggars, having come from the park, beg rice from the farmer.

      5. Luddako hatthena sare aadaaya ara~n~na.m pavisati.
      luddako = hunter (nom.)
      hatthena = hand (ins.)
      sare = arrows (acc.)
      aadaaya = having taken
      ara~n~na.m = forest (acc.)
      pavisati = enters
      Ans: The hunter, having taken the arrows in his hand, enters the
      forest.

      6. Kumaaraa kukkurena saddhi.m kii.litvaa samudda.m gantvaa
      nahaayanti.
      kumaaraa = boys (nom.)
      kukkurena = dog (ins.)
      saddhi.m = with (indec.)
      kii.litvaa = having played
      samudda.m = sea (acc.)
      gantvaa = having gone
      nahaayanti = bathe
      Ans: Boys, having played with the dog, go to the sea and bathe.

      7. Vaa.nijo paasaa.nasmi.m .thatvaa kuddaalena sappa.m paharati.
      vaa.nijo = merchant (nom.)
      paasaa.nasmi.m = rock (loc.)
      .thatvaa = having stood
      kuddaalena = hoe (ins.)
      sappa.m = serpent (acc.)
      paharati = hits
      Ans: The merchant, having stood on the rock, hits the serpent with
      the hoe.

      8. Sappuriso yaacakassa putte pakkositvaa vatthaani dadaati.
      sappuriso = virtuous man (nom.)
      yaacakassa = beggar's (gen.)
      putte = sons (acc.)
      pakkositvaa = having called
      vatthaani = clothes (neut./acc.)
      dadaati = gives
      Ans: The virtuous man, having called the beggar's sons, gives clothes.

      9. Daarako aavaa.tamhi patitvaa rodati.
      daarako = child (nom.)
      aavaa.tamhi = pit (loc.)
      patitvaa = having fallen
      rodati = cries
      Ans: The child, having fallen into the pit, cries.

      10. Bhuupaalo paasaadamhaa nikkhamitvaa amaccena saddhi.m bhaasati.
      bhuupaalo = king (nom.)
      paasaadamhaa = palace (abl.)
      nikkhamitvaa = having left
      amaccena = minister (ins.)
      saddhi.m = with (indec.)
      bhaasati = speaks
      Ans: The king, having left the palace, speaks with the minister.

      11. Sunakho udaka.m pivitvaa gehamhaa nikkhamma magge sayati.
      sunakho = dog (nom.)
      udaka.m = water (acc.)
      pivitvaa = having drunk
      gehamhaa = house (abl.)
      nikkhamma = having left
      magge = road (loc.)
      sayati = sleeps
      Ans: The dog, having drunk water and left the house, sleeps on the
      road.

      12. Sama.naa bhuupaalassa uyyaane sannipatitvaa dhamma.m bhaasanti.
      Ans: The monks, having assembled in the king's park, speak/talk about
      dhamma.

      13. Putto nahaatvaa bhatta.m bhutvaa ma~nca.m aaruyha sayati.
      Ans: The son, having eaten the rice and bathed, climbs/gets onto the
      bed and sleeps.

      14. Vaa.nijaa diipamhaa nagara.m aagamma aacariyassa gehe vasanti.
      Ans: Merchants, having come to the city from the island, live in the
      teacher's house.

      15. Rajako vatthaani dhovitvaa putta.m pakkosati.
      Ans: The washerman, having washed the clothes, calls his son.

      16. Vaanaraa rukkhehi oruyha uyyaane aahi.n.danti.
      Ans: Monkeys, having descended from trees, wander in the park.

      17. Migaa vanamhi aahi.n.ditvaa pa.n.naani khaadanti.
      Ans: Deer (plur.), having wandered in the forest, eat leaves.

      18. Kumaaro nayanaani dhovitvaa suriya.m passati.
      Ans: The boy, having washed his eyes, sees the sun.

      19. Naavikassa mittaa nagarasmaa bha.n.daani aadaaya gaama.m
      aagacchanti.
      Ans: The sailor's friends, having taken goods from the city, come to
      the village.

      20. Daarako khiira.m pivitvaa gehamhaa nikkhamma hasati.
      Ans: The child, having drunk milk and left the house, laughs.

      21. Virtuous/good men, having given alms and protected virtues, go to
      heaven.
      22. The pig, having come out of the water and descended into the pit,
      sleeps.
      23. The hermit, having seen and worshipped Buddha's disciple, asks a
      question.
      24. The wicked man, having broken the beggar's bowl and scolded him,
      goes home.
      25. Birds, having flown from trees in the village, descend into the
      forest.
      26. The wise man, having got up from the seat, speaks with the hermit.
      27. The child, having left the house, calls the uncle and enter the
      house.
      28. Deities, having been pleased with virtuous men, protect them.
      29. The boy's friends, having climbed the palace, sit on the seats.
      30. Oxen, having wandered in the field and eaten grass, sleep.

      Translate into Paali:

      1. Having gone out of the house the farmer enters the field.
      Ans: Kassako gehamhaa nikkhamma khetta.m pavisati.

      2. Having preached (deseti*) the doctine, the Buddha enters the
      monastery.
      Ans: Buddho dhamma.m desetvaa vihaara.m pavisati.

      3. The king having been pleased with the Buddha, abandons the palace
      and goes to the monastery.
      Ans: Bhuupaalo Buddhasmi.m pasiiditvaa paasaada.m pajahitvaa
      vihaara.m gacchati.

      4. Daarako sopaanasmaa oruyha hasati.
      5. Kumaaro paasaa.nena sappa.m paharitvaa geha.m dhaavati.
      6. Naro ara~n~na.m gantvaa rukkha.m aaruyha phalaani bhu~njati.
      7. Rajako uddakena vatthaani dhovitvaa geha.m aaharati.
      8. Siiho aja.m hantvaa paasaa.namhi nisiiditvaa khaadati.
      9. Vejjo vaa.nijaana.m bha.n.daani passitvaa nagaramhaa nikkhamati.
      10. Coraa geha.m bhinditvaa ara~n~na.m dhaavanti.
      11. Suukaro khettasmi.m aahi.n.ditvaa aavaa.tamhi patati.
      12. Dhiivaro kassakaana.m samuddamhaa macche aaharati.
      13. Aacariyo nagarasmaa bha.n.daani aadaaya geha.m aagacchati.
      14. Luddako pabbatasmi.m .thatvaa sarehi saku.ne vijjhati.
      15. Go.naa uyyaane ti.na.m khaaditvaa maggamhi sayanti.
      16. Bhuupaalo rathamhaa oruyha kassakehi saha bhaasati.
      17. Naro geha.m pahaaya vihaara.m pavisati.
      18. Dhiivaraa vaa.nijaana.m macche datvaa laabha.m labhanti.
      19. Upaasako sama.nasmaa pa~nha.m pucchitvaa aasanasmi.m nisiidati.
      20. Buddhassa saavakaa asappurise disvaa anusaasanti.
      21. Braahma.no daaraka.m akkositvaa paharati.
      22. Devaa Buddhamhaa pa~nhe pucchitvaa pasiidanti.
      23. Kukkuro aacariyassa paada.m .dasitvaa geha.m dhaavati.
      24. Vaanaro maggasmi.m ajena saha kii.litvaa rukkha.m aaruhati.
      25. Taapaso ara~n~nasmaa aagamma sappurisamhaa vattha.m labhati.
      26. Daarako udaka.m pivitvaa patta.m bhindati.
      27. Sama.naa kassakaana.m putte ovaditvaa aasanehi u.t.thaaya
      vihaara.m gacchanti.
      28. Naaviko samudda.m taritvaa diipa.m gacchati.
      29. Daarako maatule pakkositvaa gehamhi naccati.
      30. Kassako vatthaani dhovitvaa nahaatvaa udakasmaa uttarati.

      * Verbs of this form will be covered in Lesson 13.
    • Kumaara Bhikkhu
      Dear all,I ve been absent since November as I was somewhat busy then for our Kathina day (18 Nov) and after that on some other matters, including a much
      Message 46 of 46 , Feb 22, 2002
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        Dear all,

        I've been absent since November as I was somewhat busy then for our Kathina day (18 Nov) and after that on some other matters, including a much needed meditation retreat. I've also been spending much time in learning and memorizing the Patimokkha under the guidance of my acariya, Ven. Aggacitta Bhikkhu. I'm at the end of Sanghadisesa now. The Pali does appear rather different from what I've learnt in "Pali Primer".

        Anyway, here's my very, very belated comments on Yong Peng's notes.

        As mentioned earlier, Lesson 14 is (relatively) a breeze. This chapter however give us some interesting Pali food for thought.

        At 10:20 PM 13-11-01, Ong Yong Peng wrote:
        >Translate into English:
        >
        >7. Pu~n~na.m kaatu.m icchantaa tumhe sappurisaa paapamitte
        >ovadissatha.
        >pu~n~na.m = merit (acc.)
        >kaatu.m = to do
        >icchantaa = wishing
        >tumhe = you
        >sappurisaa = good men (nom.)
        >paapamitte = evil friends (acc.)
        >ovadissatha = will advise
        >Ans: Wishing to do merit, you good men will advise evil/wicked
        >friends.

        My teacher's answer:
        You good/virtuous men who wish to do merit shall advise evil/wicked friends.

        I think there's an important difference in meaning. If the Pali sentence were to have been
        Tumhe
        pu~n~na.m kaatu.m icchantaa
        sappurisaa paapamitte ovadissatha.
        then the English translation would be as given, i.e.,
        Wishing to do merit, you good men will advise evil/wicked friends.
        or, to put it in a different way,
        You good men, wishing to do merit, will advise evil/wicked friends.


        >14. Buddhe pasiiditvaa upaasako devaputto hutvaa saggaloke uppajjati.
        >....
        >devaputto = deity (acc.)

        Literally, "devaputta" means a deity's son or god's son (Jesus Christ?!). But it's actually just something like saying "Sakyaputta", which means "Sakyan son". I get the idea that it connote something like an "offspring of the Sakyan clan". In the same way, I think "devaputta" carries the idea of "a son of the deva community", and not the literal "son of a deity". Would appreciate any differing opinions.

        Also, I don't think this can be rightly taken as an accusative, since it's obviously in the nominative form. In the sense of English grammar, it's an "object". But in terms of Pali grammar, I don't know what it can be called. My teacher calls it a "transferred subject". This is just grammar talk, of course, but if anyone knows of another term for it, I'll be happy to know.


        >20. Paapa.m parivajjetvaa kusala.m karonte sappurise devaa
        >puujessanti.
        >Ans: Deities will honour virtuous men avoiding evil and doing good.

        I prefer to think that "vajjeti" by itself already mean "avoid".
        The prefix "pari" carries the meaning of
        "thorough", e.g.
        "parisuddhi": thorough purity;
        "parinibbana": complete release;
        "paripucchati": interrogate (lit. ask thoroughly),
        or "around", e.g.
        "paribbajati": wander about;
        "paribbaajaka": wondering ascetic;
        "parisiñcati": sprinkle all over.

        So, I think "parivajjeti" is better translated as "completely avoid" or "shun" (which I think carries a stronger connotation than just "avoid").


        >21. Sacca.m bhaasantaa asappurise anusaasantaa pa.n.ditaa upaasakaa
        >bhavissanti.
        >Ans: Wise people who speak the truth and admonish evil men will
        >become lay devotees.

        Don't you find something funny in the meaning of the sentence?

        My teacher says a suitable English translation of that should be:
        The wise people who speak the truth and instruct evil men are probably lay devotees.

        [Note: upaasakaa here probably refers to "lay followers of the Buddha", making the sentence: The wise people who speak the truth and instruct evil men are probably lay followers of the Buddha.]

        Here, the "ssa" future tense is used to convey probability.

        Some of you may have read or heard about a conversation between the Buddha and Do.na the brahmin (AN IV 36):

        “Devo no bhava.m bhavissatii”ti?
        “Na kho aha.m, braahma.na, devo bhavissaamii”ti.
        “Gandhabbo no bhava.m bhavissatii”ti?
        “Na kho aha.m, braahma.na, gandhabbo bhavissaamii”ti.
        “Yakkho no bhava.m bhavissatii”ti?
        “Na kho aha.m, braahma.na, yakkho bhavissaamii”ti.
        “Manusso no bhava.m bhavissatii”ti?
        “Na kho aha.m, braahma.na, manusso bhavissaamii”ti.

        A literal translation:
        'Will you, sir, be a deva?'
        'No, braahmin, I will not be a deva.'
        'Will you, sir, be a gandhabba?'
        'No, braahmin, I will not be a gandhabba.'
        'Will you, sir, be a yakkha?'
        'No, braahmin, I will not be a yakkha.'
        'Will you, sir, be a human?'
        'No, braahmin, I will not be a human.'

        You may find that the above translation does not fit well in the context. A better English rendering of what Do.na the brahmin was saying may be:
        'Would you, sir, be a deva... gandhabba... yakkha... human?'
        or
        'Could you, sir, be a deva... gandhabba... yakkha... human?'

        From the context, we could see that the Buddha purposely answered in the same "ssa" form, so that He could tell the brahmin that he will not become any of those things as He had freed himself from rebirth.

        Passasi, aavuso?


        >Translate into Paali:
        >
        >2. I will advise the king to rule the island righteously with his
        >ministers.
        >Ans: Aha.m amaccehi saha dhammena diipa.m paaletu.m bhuupala.m
        >ovadissaami.

        This answer may give the impression that:
        "I together with the ministers will advise the king to rule the island righteously."

        Would be better to put the "bhuupala.m" after "Aha.m":
        "Aha.m bhuupala.m amaccehi saha dhammena diipa.m paaletu.m ovadissaami."


        >13. Paaniiyena patta.m puuretvaa daarako odana.m bhu~njantaaya
        >yaacakaaya dassati.

        What the book tells us in Chapter 5 gives us the impression that "aaya" and "assa" are interchangeable as singular dative case endings for "-a" masculine nouns. However, from what my teacher told me, "aaya" has a more specific usage, that is "for the sake of", e.g.: Naro puttaaya kamma.m karoti.

        Therefore, it would be better to substitute "bhu~njantaaya yaacakaaya" with "bhu~njantassa yaacakassa".


        >23. Dhammena vasanto/jiivanto tva.m sappuriso hosi.

        "Jiivanto" would be a better choice. "Vasati" means something like "stay, abide, reside (somewhere)".


        As always, I'd appreciate any sharing of differing views.

        vkb


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