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Pali Primer - Lesson 8

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  • Ong Yong Peng
    A Quick Glance This lesson covers the following topic: Masc-a Nouns Vocative Case Singular: - Plural: + aa Neut-a Nouns Nom.: [sing.] + .m [plur.] + aa; aani
    Message 1 of 46 , Oct 2, 2001
      A Quick Glance

      This lesson covers the following topic:

      Masc-a Nouns
      Vocative Case
      Singular: -
      Plural: + aa

      Neut-a Nouns
      Nom.: [sing.] + .m [plur.] + aa; aani
      Acc.: [sing.] + .m [plur.] + e; aani
      Voc.: [sing.] - [plur.] + aani
      The rest similar to masc-a nouns.

      [ Abbreviations ]
      nom. - nominative case
      acc. - accusative case
      ins. - instrumental case
      abl. - ablative case
      dat. - dative case
      gen. - genitive case
      loc. - locative case
      voc. - vocative case
      masc. - masculine gender
      neut. - neuter gender
      sing. - singular
      plur. - plural
      indec. - indeclinable

      Exercise 8:

      Translate into English:

      1. Upaasako pupphaani aaharati.
      upaasako = lay devotee (nom.)
      pupphaani = flowers (neut./acc.)
      aaharati = brings
      Ans: The lay devotee brings flowers.

      2. Ara~n~ne migaa vasanti, rukkhesu makka.taa caranti.
      ara~n~ne = forest (loc.)
      migaa = deer (nom./plur.)
      vasanti = live
      rukkhesu = trees (loc.)
      makka.taa = monkeys (nom.)
      caranti = walk
      Ans: Deer live in the forest, monkeys move on trees.

      3. Go.naa ti.na.m khaadanti.
      go.naa = bulls (nom.)
      ti.na.m = grass (acc.)
      khaadanti = eat
      Ans: Bulls eat grass.

      4. Manussaa nayanehi passanti.
      manussaa = people (nom.)
      nayanehi = eyes (ins.)
      passanti = see
      Ans: People see with eyes.

      5. Sama.no vihaarasmi.m aasane nisiidati.
      sama.no = monk (nom.)
      vihaarasmi.m = monastery (loc.)
      aasane = seat (loc.)
      nisiidati = sits
      Ans: The monk sits on the seat in the monastery.

      6. Rukkhamhaa pa.n.naani patanti.
      rukkhamhaa = tree (abl.)
      pa.n.naani = leaves (neut./nom.)
      patanti = fall
      Ans: Leaves fall from the tree.

      7. Vaa.nijaa gaamamhaa khiira.m nagara.m haranti.
      vaan.nijaa = merchants (nom.)
      gaamamhaa = village (abl.)
      khiira.m = milk (acc.)
      nagara.m = city (acc.)
      haranti = carry
      Ans: Merchants carry milk from the village to the city.

      8. Bhuupaalo kumaarena saddhi.m uyyaane carati.
      bhuupaalo = king (nom.)
      kumaarena = boy (ins.)
      saddhi.m = with (indec.)
      uyyaane = park (loc.)
      carati = walks
      Ans: The king walks in the park with the boy.

      9. Kassako khettamhi kuddaalena aavaa.te kha.nati.
      kassako = farmer (nom.)
      khettamhi = field (loc.)
      kuddaalena = hoe (ins.)
      aavaa.te = pits (acc.)
      kha.nati = digs
      Ans: The farmer digs pits in the field with a hoe.

      10. Maatulo puttassa bha.n.daani dadaati.
      Ans: Uncle gives the goods to his son.
      OR - The uncle gives the son's goods.

      11. Upaasakaa sama.naana.m daana.m dadanti, siilaani rakkhanti.
      Ans: Lay devotees give alms to monks, protect precepts/virtue.

      12. Daarakaa mittehi saddhi.m udakasmi.m kii.lanti.
      Ans: Children play in the water with friends.

      13. Kassakaa vaa.nijehi vatthaani labhanti.
      Ans: Farmers get cloth (plur.) from merchants.

      14. Kumaaro uyyaanamhaa maatulassa kusumaani aaharati.
      Ans: The boy brings flowers from the park to the uncle.

      15. Braahma.nassa ajaa go.nehi saha vane aahi.n.danti, ti.naani
      Ans: The brahmin's goats wander in the forest with oxen, (they) eat

      16. Siiho vanasmi.m rukkhamuule nisiidati.
      Ans: The lion sits at the foot of a tree in the forest.

      17. Rajakaa udakena aasanaani dhovanti.
      Ans: Washermen wash seats with water.

      18. Amacco duutena saddhi.m rathena ara~n~na.m pavisati.
      Ans: The minister enters the forest by chariot with a messenger.

      19. The beggar's son washes leaves with water.
      20. Merchants bring the goods to the village from the city.
      21. Buddha's disciples instruct/advise sons of the wicked men.
      22. Lay devotees sprinkle the flowers with water.
      23. The boy breaks the bowl, uncle scolds (him).
      24. The hunter's son touches the deer's body with his hand.
      25. The ox gets up from the rock to the field.
      26. The washerman's son puts/places the garments on the bed.
      27. Buddha's disciple opens the monastery's door.
      28. The doctor's children dance in the house.
      29. The wise man advises/admonishes the wicked man.
      30. The thief/robber abandons the teacher's cart on the mountain.

      Translate into Paali:

      1. Children play in the water with the dog.
      Ans: Daarakaa kukkurena saha udake kii.lanti.

      2. The wicked man breaks leaves from the tree.
      Ans: Asappuriso rukkhamhaa pa.n.ne bhindati.

      3. Kings go in vehicles to the park with their ministers.
      Ans: Bhuupaalaa rathehi amaccehi saha uyyaana.m gacchanti.

      4. Vaa.nijaa bha.n.daani aadaaya* nagarasmaa nikkhamanti.
      5. Sappurisaa sama.naana.m daana.m dadanti.
      6. Buddhassa saavakaa upaasakehi saha uyyaanasmi.m sannipatanti.
      7. Coro rukkhamhaa ara~n~namhi oruhati.
      8. Assapurisaa paasaa.nehi rukkhesu vaanare paharanti.
      9. Vejjassa asso go.nena saha maggasmi.m ti.na.m khaadati.
      10. Sigaalaa ara~n~nesu vasanti, so.naa gaamesu vasanti.
      11. Braahma.naa pa.n.ditassa gehasmi.m aasanesu nisiidanti.
      12. Naaviko gharassa dvaaraani vivarati.
      13. Dhiivaraana.m puttaa mittehi saha uyyaane naccanti.
      14. Vaa.nijo pi.takesu macche nikkhipati/pakkhipati.
      15. Loko suriyamhaa aaloka.m labhati.
      16. Naavikaa aasanehi u.t.thahanti.
      17. Vejjassa sahaayo paadena kukkurassa kaaya.m phusati.
      18. Buddho vihaare saavake anusaasati.
      19. Kumaaraa uyyaanamhaa pupphaani sa.mharanti, upaasakaa udakena
      20. Suko naavikassa gehasmaa aakaasa.m uppatati.
      21. Coro kakacena rukkha.m chindati, kassako akkosati.
      22. Pa.n.dito vaa.nija.m ovadati, vaa.nijo pa.n.ditasmi.m pasiidati.
      23. Bhuupaalassa duuto naavikena saha samuddamhaa uttarati.
      24. Vaa.nijaa nagaramhaa kassakaana.m vathaani aaharanti.
      25. Devaa sappurise rakkhanti. Sappurisaa siilaani rakkhanti.
      26. Manussaa nayanehi suriyassa aalokena ruupaani passanti.
      27. Pa.n.naani rukkhehi maggamhi patanti.
      28. Upaasakaa pupphaasanesu pupphaani nikkhipanti/pakkhipanti.
      29. Ajaa aavaa.tehi khettasmi.m udaka.m pibanti.
      30. Siihaa paasaa.namhaa rukkhamuulamhi u.t.thahanti.

      * aadaaya = having taken, it will be introduced in the next lesson.
    • Kumaara Bhikkhu
      Dear all,I ve been absent since November as I was somewhat busy then for our Kathina day (18 Nov) and after that on some other matters, including a much
      Message 46 of 46 , Feb 22, 2002
        Dear all,

        I've been absent since November as I was somewhat busy then for our Kathina day (18 Nov) and after that on some other matters, including a much needed meditation retreat. I've also been spending much time in learning and memorizing the Patimokkha under the guidance of my acariya, Ven. Aggacitta Bhikkhu. I'm at the end of Sanghadisesa now. The Pali does appear rather different from what I've learnt in "Pali Primer".

        Anyway, here's my very, very belated comments on Yong Peng's notes.

        As mentioned earlier, Lesson 14 is (relatively) a breeze. This chapter however give us some interesting Pali food for thought.

        At 10:20 PM 13-11-01, Ong Yong Peng wrote:
        >Translate into English:
        >7. Pu~n~na.m kaatu.m icchantaa tumhe sappurisaa paapamitte
        >pu~n~na.m = merit (acc.)
        >kaatu.m = to do
        >icchantaa = wishing
        >tumhe = you
        >sappurisaa = good men (nom.)
        >paapamitte = evil friends (acc.)
        >ovadissatha = will advise
        >Ans: Wishing to do merit, you good men will advise evil/wicked

        My teacher's answer:
        You good/virtuous men who wish to do merit shall advise evil/wicked friends.

        I think there's an important difference in meaning. If the Pali sentence were to have been
        pu~n~na.m kaatu.m icchantaa
        sappurisaa paapamitte ovadissatha.
        then the English translation would be as given, i.e.,
        Wishing to do merit, you good men will advise evil/wicked friends.
        or, to put it in a different way,
        You good men, wishing to do merit, will advise evil/wicked friends.

        >14. Buddhe pasiiditvaa upaasako devaputto hutvaa saggaloke uppajjati.
        >devaputto = deity (acc.)

        Literally, "devaputta" means a deity's son or god's son (Jesus Christ?!). But it's actually just something like saying "Sakyaputta", which means "Sakyan son". I get the idea that it connote something like an "offspring of the Sakyan clan". In the same way, I think "devaputta" carries the idea of "a son of the deva community", and not the literal "son of a deity". Would appreciate any differing opinions.

        Also, I don't think this can be rightly taken as an accusative, since it's obviously in the nominative form. In the sense of English grammar, it's an "object". But in terms of Pali grammar, I don't know what it can be called. My teacher calls it a "transferred subject". This is just grammar talk, of course, but if anyone knows of another term for it, I'll be happy to know.

        >20. Paapa.m parivajjetvaa kusala.m karonte sappurise devaa
        >Ans: Deities will honour virtuous men avoiding evil and doing good.

        I prefer to think that "vajjeti" by itself already mean "avoid".
        The prefix "pari" carries the meaning of
        "thorough", e.g.
        "parisuddhi": thorough purity;
        "parinibbana": complete release;
        "paripucchati": interrogate (lit. ask thoroughly),
        or "around", e.g.
        "paribbajati": wander about;
        "paribbaajaka": wondering ascetic;
        "parisiñcati": sprinkle all over.

        So, I think "parivajjeti" is better translated as "completely avoid" or "shun" (which I think carries a stronger connotation than just "avoid").

        >21. Sacca.m bhaasantaa asappurise anusaasantaa pa.n.ditaa upaasakaa
        >Ans: Wise people who speak the truth and admonish evil men will
        >become lay devotees.

        Don't you find something funny in the meaning of the sentence?

        My teacher says a suitable English translation of that should be:
        The wise people who speak the truth and instruct evil men are probably lay devotees.

        [Note: upaasakaa here probably refers to "lay followers of the Buddha", making the sentence: The wise people who speak the truth and instruct evil men are probably lay followers of the Buddha.]

        Here, the "ssa" future tense is used to convey probability.

        Some of you may have read or heard about a conversation between the Buddha and Do.na the brahmin (AN IV 36):

        “Devo no bhava.m bhavissatii”ti?
        “Na kho aha.m, braahma.na, devo bhavissaamii”ti.
        “Gandhabbo no bhava.m bhavissatii”ti?
        “Na kho aha.m, braahma.na, gandhabbo bhavissaamii”ti.
        “Yakkho no bhava.m bhavissatii”ti?
        “Na kho aha.m, braahma.na, yakkho bhavissaamii”ti.
        “Manusso no bhava.m bhavissatii”ti?
        “Na kho aha.m, braahma.na, manusso bhavissaamii”ti.

        A literal translation:
        'Will you, sir, be a deva?'
        'No, braahmin, I will not be a deva.'
        'Will you, sir, be a gandhabba?'
        'No, braahmin, I will not be a gandhabba.'
        'Will you, sir, be a yakkha?'
        'No, braahmin, I will not be a yakkha.'
        'Will you, sir, be a human?'
        'No, braahmin, I will not be a human.'

        You may find that the above translation does not fit well in the context. A better English rendering of what Do.na the brahmin was saying may be:
        'Would you, sir, be a deva... gandhabba... yakkha... human?'
        'Could you, sir, be a deva... gandhabba... yakkha... human?'

        From the context, we could see that the Buddha purposely answered in the same "ssa" form, so that He could tell the brahmin that he will not become any of those things as He had freed himself from rebirth.

        Passasi, aavuso?

        >Translate into Paali:
        >2. I will advise the king to rule the island righteously with his
        >Ans: Aha.m amaccehi saha dhammena diipa.m paaletu.m bhuupala.m

        This answer may give the impression that:
        "I together with the ministers will advise the king to rule the island righteously."

        Would be better to put the "bhuupala.m" after "Aha.m":
        "Aha.m bhuupala.m amaccehi saha dhammena diipa.m paaletu.m ovadissaami."

        >13. Paaniiyena patta.m puuretvaa daarako odana.m bhu~njantaaya
        >yaacakaaya dassati.

        What the book tells us in Chapter 5 gives us the impression that "aaya" and "assa" are interchangeable as singular dative case endings for "-a" masculine nouns. However, from what my teacher told me, "aaya" has a more specific usage, that is "for the sake of", e.g.: Naro puttaaya kamma.m karoti.

        Therefore, it would be better to substitute "bhu~njantaaya yaacakaaya" with "bhu~njantassa yaacakassa".

        >23. Dhammena vasanto/jiivanto tva.m sappuriso hosi.

        "Jiivanto" would be a better choice. "Vasati" means something like "stay, abide, reside (somewhere)".

        As always, I'd appreciate any sharing of differing views.


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