Re: [Pali] Samghati
- Dear Stephen,
My name will probably be unfamiliar to you and most other members of the
list. I have, however, already been a member of this group for some time,
but have not contributed to the discussions so far. Anyway, a short time
ago I acquired an old publication (1975) entitled "A Dictionary of Early
Buddhist Monastic Terms" by C.S. Upasak, and in this dictionary I found the
following information about the
"San.ghaat.ii" which may be of interest to you and the other members of the
"San.ghaat.ii: The upper robe of a member of the Buddhist Order to cover up
the body. It is one of the three main robes (ciivaras) of the Buddhist
monks. (Mv., p. 305)
If the material is new, it is usually made of two layers (Ibid. p. 305).
And in case the material is old, it may be made of four layers; and if the
material is the Pam.sukuula (rag), the layers may be of any
number as according to the need (Khuddakasikkhaa (M), Gaathaa Nos. 52, 53).
The size of the Sam.ghaatii should not be equal or more than that of the
Ciivara of the Buddha (Sugataciivarappamaan.a); i.e. it must be less than
nine Sugata-spans in length and six Sugata-spans in breadth (as this was
the size of the Buddha's Sam.ghaat.ii). If it is so, an offence of
Paacittiya is committed. (Bhikkhu Rule No. 92; Bhikkunii Rule No. 166;
Paac. p. 231; Pm (B), pp. 10 and 52).
In the Khuddakasikkhaa (Gaathaa No. 45) it is mentioned that the
Sam.ghaat.ii and Uttaraaasan.ga
are of equal sizes. The smallest size as given there is four full-stretched
arms and one close-fisted-arm in length; and in breadth it is two
full-stretched arms and one close-fisted-arm.
A Bhikkhu is not allowed to live by keeping away any of the three
Ciivaras (viz. Sanghaat.i, Uttaraasan.ga, and Antaravaasaka) even for a
night. If one does so, he commits an offence of Nissaggiya Paacittiya (Rule
Nos. 2 and 14; Paaraa. pp. 291-295); Pm. (B), pp. 6 and 14; Pari. p.16).
When entering into a village, it is laid down by the Buddha that the
San.ghaatii must be carried along with the other two ciivaras (the
uttaraasan.ga and antaravaasaka); otherwise the offence of Dukkat.a is
committed (Mv. p. 313). Certain exceptions are also mentioned. E.g., when
the monk is sick; or when it is 'rainy season'; or when crossing a river;
or if the Vihaara is safe and well-protected; or when the Bhikkhu has
received the Kat.hina.
As it was the thickest robe of the monks, it was probably used mostly
during the winter season for covering up the whole body from all sides
(paarupana); and the Uttaraasan.ga was mostly used during the summer and
rainy seasons, although the Sanghaat.i was also kept.
The San.ghaat.ii must be dyed with the Kasaaya (yellow colour) and then
'disfigured' (dubban.n.akaran.a) at one of its ends. (Ibid., p. 302).
The San.ghaat.ii should be used very carefully. It should not be used
for sitting in the Pallatthikaa
(squatting) posture. If one did so, he committted the offence of Dukkat.a.
(Cv, p. 306)".
You and the other members will, I suppose, be familiar with the
abbreviations of the references given in the above text, but for
completeness I am giving them here as follows:
Mv = Mahavagga
Cv = Cullavagga
Pari = Parivaara
Paac = Paacittiya
Pm = Paatimokkha
In the Preface of the dictionary the author says that the Vinaya Pit.aka
texts utilised by him are the Naalaandaa Devanaagarii edition (ed. by
Bhikku J. Kashyap). He also used some Pali texts in the Burmese characters
of the Chat.t.ha San.gaayanaa edition and some in the Roman characters of
the P.T.S. where he found this necessary.
This is what this dictionary said about this subject (I especially like the
method of giving its size, i.e. the "full-stretched" and
"close-fisted-arms"). I hope this information will be of some help: I only
wanted to supplement the information already given in the former emails
about this subject.
>Can anybody improve on "waist-cloth" for sanghaa.tii ? It seems a bit[Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
>misleading to me.
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