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Re: [Pali] Samghati

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  • J.A. Wibier
    Dear Stephen, My name will probably be unfamiliar to you and most other members of the list. I have, however, already been a member of this group for some
    Message 1 of 11 , May 27, 2004
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      Dear Stephen,

      My name will probably be unfamiliar to you and most other members of the
      list. I have, however, already been a member of this group for some time,
      but have not contributed to the discussions so far. Anyway, a short time
      ago I acquired an old publication (1975) entitled "A Dictionary of Early
      Buddhist Monastic Terms" by C.S. Upasak, and in this dictionary I found the
      following information about the
      "San.ghaat.ii" which may be of interest to you and the other members of the
      group:

      "San.ghaat.ii: The upper robe of a member of the Buddhist Order to cover up
      the body. It is one of the three main robes (ciivaras) of the Buddhist
      monks. (Mv., p. 305)

      If the material is new, it is usually made of two layers (Ibid. p. 305).
      And in case the material is old, it may be made of four layers; and if the
      material is the Pam.sukuula (rag), the layers may be of any
      number as according to the need (Khuddakasikkhaa (M), Gaathaa Nos. 52, 53).

      The size of the Sam.ghaatii should not be equal or more than that of the
      Ciivara of the Buddha (Sugataciivarappamaan.a); i.e. it must be less than
      nine Sugata-spans in length and six Sugata-spans in breadth (as this was
      the size of the Buddha's Sam.ghaat.ii). If it is so, an offence of
      Paacittiya is committed. (Bhikkhu Rule No. 92; Bhikkunii Rule No. 166;
      Paac. p. 231; Pm (B), pp. 10 and 52).

      In the Khuddakasikkhaa (Gaathaa No. 45) it is mentioned that the
      Sam.ghaat.ii and Uttaraaasan.ga
      are of equal sizes. The smallest size as given there is four full-stretched
      arms and one close-fisted-arm in length; and in breadth it is two
      full-stretched arms and one close-fisted-arm.

      A Bhikkhu is not allowed to live by keeping away any of the three
      Ciivaras (viz. Sanghaat.i, Uttaraasan.ga, and Antaravaasaka) even for a
      night. If one does so, he commits an offence of Nissaggiya Paacittiya (Rule
      Nos. 2 and 14; Paaraa. pp. 291-295); Pm. (B), pp. 6 and 14; Pari. p.16).
      When entering into a village, it is laid down by the Buddha that the
      San.ghaatii must be carried along with the other two ciivaras (the
      uttaraasan.ga and antaravaasaka); otherwise the offence of Dukkat.a is
      committed (Mv. p. 313). Certain exceptions are also mentioned. E.g., when
      the monk is sick; or when it is 'rainy season'; or when crossing a river;
      or if the Vihaara is safe and well-protected; or when the Bhikkhu has
      received the Kat.hina.

      As it was the thickest robe of the monks, it was probably used mostly
      during the winter season for covering up the whole body from all sides
      (paarupana); and the Uttaraasan.ga was mostly used during the summer and
      rainy seasons, although the Sanghaat.i was also kept.

      The San.ghaat.ii must be dyed with the Kasaaya (yellow colour) and then
      'disfigured' (dubban.n.akaran.a) at one of its ends. (Ibid., p. 302).

      The San.ghaat.ii should be used very carefully. It should not be used
      for sitting in the Pallatthikaa
      (squatting) posture. If one did so, he committted the offence of Dukkat.a.
      (Cv, p. 306)".

      You and the other members will, I suppose, be familiar with the
      abbreviations of the references given in the above text, but for
      completeness I am giving them here as follows:
      Mv = Mahavagga
      Cv = Cullavagga
      Pari = Parivaara
      Paac = Paacittiya
      Pm = Paatimokkha

      In the Preface of the dictionary the author says that the Vinaya Pit.aka
      texts utilised by him are the Naalaandaa Devanaagarii edition (ed. by
      Bhikku J. Kashyap). He also used some Pali texts in the Burmese characters
      of the Chat.t.ha San.gaayanaa edition and some in the Roman characters of
      the P.T.S. where he found this necessary.

      This is what this dictionary said about this subject (I especially like the
      method of giving its size, i.e. the "full-stretched" and
      "close-fisted-arms"). I hope this information will be of some help: I only
      wanted to supplement the information already given in the former emails
      about this subject.

      Best wishes,

      Joop Wibier
      The Netherlands


      >Can anybody improve on "waist-cloth" for sanghaa.tii ? It seems a bit
      >misleading to me.
      >
      >Best wishes,
      >Stephen Hodge
      >
      >
      >
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