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Pali Primer - Lesson 5

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  • Ong Yong Peng
    A Quick Glance This lesson covers the following topic: Dative Case (Masc-a nouns) Terminations: Singular: + aaya, + ssa Plural: + aana.m [ Abbreviations ] nom.
    Message 1 of 46 , Sep 10, 2001
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      A Quick Glance

      This lesson covers the following topic:

      Dative Case (Masc-a nouns)
      Terminations:
      Singular: + aaya, + ssa
      Plural: + aana.m

      [ Abbreviations ]
      nom. - nominative case
      acc. - accusative case
      ins. - instrumental case
      abl. - ablative case
      dat. - dative case
      sing. - singular
      plur. - plural
      indec. - indeclinable


      Exercise 5:

      Translate into English:

      1. Vaa.nijo rajakassa saa.taka.m dadaati.
      vaa.nijo = merchant (nom.)
      rajakassa = washerman (dat.)
      saa.taka.m = garment (acc.)
      dadaati = gives
      Ans: The merchant gives the garment to the washerman.

      2. Vejjo aacariyassa diipa.m aaharati.
      vejjo = doctor (nom.)
      aacariyassa = teacher (dat.)
      diipa.m = lamp (acc.)
      aaharati = brings
      Ans: The doctor brings the lamp for/to the teacher.

      3. Migaa paasaa.namhaa pabbata.m dhaavanti.
      migaa = deer (nom. plur.)
      paadaa.namhaa = rock (abl.)
      pabbata.m = mountain (acc.)
      dhaavanti = run
      Ans: Deer run from the rock to the mountain.

      4. Manussaa Buddhehi dhamma.m labhanti.
      manussaa = men (nom.)
      Buddhehi = Buddhas (abl.)
      dhamma.m = doctrine (acc.)
      labhanti = receive
      Ans: Men receive the doctrine from Buddhas.

      5. Puriso vejjaaya saka.ta.m aaka.d.dhati
      puriso = man (nom.)
      vejjaaya = doctor (dat.)
      saka.ta.m = cart (acc.)
      aaka.d.dhati = drags
      Ans: The man drags/pulls the cart for the doctor.

      6. Daarako hatthena yaacakassa bhatta.m aaharati.
      daarako = child (nom.)
      hatthena = hand (ins.)
      yaacakassa = beggar (dat.)
      bhatta.m = rice (acc.)
      aaharati = brings
      Ans: The child brings rice, in his hand, for the beggar.

      7. Yaacako aacariyaaya aavaa.ta.m kha.nati.
      yaacako = beggar (nom.)
      aacariyaaya = teacher (dat.)
      aavaa.ta.m = pit (acc.)
      kha.nati = digs
      The beggar digs the pit for the teacher.

      8. Rajako amaccaana.m saa.take dadaati.
      Ans: The washerman gives garments to ministers.

      9. Braahma.no saavakaana.m ma~nce aaharati.
      Ans: The brahmin brings beds for his disciples.

      10. Vaanaro rukkhamhaa patati, kukkuro vaanara.m .dasati.
      Ans: The monkey falls from the tree, the dog bites the monkey.

      11. Dhiivaraa pi.takehi amaccaana.m macche aaharanti.
      Ans: Fishermen bring fish in baskets for ministers.

      12. Kassako vaa.nijaaya rukkha.m chindati.
      Ans: The farmer cuts the tree for the merchant.

      13. Coro kuddaalena aacariyaaya aavaa.ta.m kha.nati.
      Ans: The thief digs the pit, with a hoe, for the teacher.

      14. The doctor cooks rice for his sons.
      15. The hermit speaks with the hunter.
      16. The hunter gives the lamp to the hermit.
      17. Lions kill deer.
      18. The monkey climbs the tree with its son.
      19. Monks receive rice from lay devotees.
      20. Children cry, the boy laughs, the uncle hits the boy.
      21. Monkeys descend from the mountain, (they) climb trees.
      22. Thieves/robbers enter the chariot/vehicle, the minister abandons
      the chariot/vehicle.
      23. The teacher brings the parrot from the tree to the child.
      24. The hunter drags/pulls a goat from the mountain.
      25. The hermit sees a lion from the mountain.
      26. Merchants get profit from farmers.
      27. The hunter kills pigs for the merchants.
      28. The hermit asks questions from the teacher.
      28. (The hermit asks the teacher questions.)
      29. The son falls from the bed.
      30. Boys bathe with friends.

      Translate into Paali:

      1. Merchants bring horses for ministers.
      Ans: Vaa.nijaa amaccaana.m asse aaharanti.

      2. The hunter kills a goat for the merchant.
      Ans: Luddako vaa.nijaaya aja.m hanati.

      3. The man cuts trees with a saw for the farmer.
      Ans: Naro kakacena kassakassa rukkhe chindati.

      4. Migaa siihasmaa dhaavanti.
      5. Bhuupaalo upaasakehi saha Buddha.m vandati.
      6. Coraa gaamehi pabbate dhaavanti.
      7. Rajako bhuupaalaaya saa.take dhovati.
      8. Dhiivaro pi.takehi kassakaana.m macche aaharati.
      9. Aacariyo vihaara.m pavisati, sama.ne passati.
      10. Sappo vaanara.m .dasati.
      11. Kumaaraa braahma.nassa ma~nca.m aaka.d.dhanti.
      12. Coraa purisehi saha paasaada.m pavisanti.
      13. Kassakaa dhiivarehi macche labhanti.
      14. Suukaraa diipasmaa pabbata.m gacchanti.
      15. Bhuupaalo paasaada.m pajahati, putto vihaara.m pavisati.
      16. Siiho sayati, vaanaraa kii.lanti.
      17. Aacariyo kukkuramhaa putte rakkhati.
      18. Luddakaa sarehi amaccaana.m mige vijjhanti.
      19. Daarakaa maatulasmaa odana.m icchanti.
      20. Vejjo taapasaaya saa.taka.m dadaati.
      21. Vaa.nijo saka.tena aacariyassa aja.m aaharati.
      22. Puttaa pabbatamhaa canda.m passanti.
      23. Pa.n.ditaa dhammasmaa laabha.m labhanti.
      24. Vaanaraa gaamamhaa nikkhamanti.
      25. Putto sahaayaaya pabbatamhaa suka.m aaharati.
      26. Vejjo vihaara.m pavisati.
      27. Sigaalo maggena gaamasmaa pabbata.m dhaavati.
      28. Saka.to maggamhaa patati, daarako rodati.
      29. Amaccaa sopaana.m aaruhanti, vejjo sopaana.m oruhati.
      30. Pa.n.ditaa Buddhasmaa pa~nhe pucchanti.
    • Kumaara Bhikkhu
      Dear all,I ve been absent since November as I was somewhat busy then for our Kathina day (18 Nov) and after that on some other matters, including a much
      Message 46 of 46 , Feb 22, 2002
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        Dear all,

        I've been absent since November as I was somewhat busy then for our Kathina day (18 Nov) and after that on some other matters, including a much needed meditation retreat. I've also been spending much time in learning and memorizing the Patimokkha under the guidance of my acariya, Ven. Aggacitta Bhikkhu. I'm at the end of Sanghadisesa now. The Pali does appear rather different from what I've learnt in "Pali Primer".

        Anyway, here's my very, very belated comments on Yong Peng's notes.

        As mentioned earlier, Lesson 14 is (relatively) a breeze. This chapter however give us some interesting Pali food for thought.

        At 10:20 PM 13-11-01, Ong Yong Peng wrote:
        >Translate into English:
        >
        >7. Pu~n~na.m kaatu.m icchantaa tumhe sappurisaa paapamitte
        >ovadissatha.
        >pu~n~na.m = merit (acc.)
        >kaatu.m = to do
        >icchantaa = wishing
        >tumhe = you
        >sappurisaa = good men (nom.)
        >paapamitte = evil friends (acc.)
        >ovadissatha = will advise
        >Ans: Wishing to do merit, you good men will advise evil/wicked
        >friends.

        My teacher's answer:
        You good/virtuous men who wish to do merit shall advise evil/wicked friends.

        I think there's an important difference in meaning. If the Pali sentence were to have been
        Tumhe
        pu~n~na.m kaatu.m icchantaa
        sappurisaa paapamitte ovadissatha.
        then the English translation would be as given, i.e.,
        Wishing to do merit, you good men will advise evil/wicked friends.
        or, to put it in a different way,
        You good men, wishing to do merit, will advise evil/wicked friends.


        >14. Buddhe pasiiditvaa upaasako devaputto hutvaa saggaloke uppajjati.
        >....
        >devaputto = deity (acc.)

        Literally, "devaputta" means a deity's son or god's son (Jesus Christ?!). But it's actually just something like saying "Sakyaputta", which means "Sakyan son". I get the idea that it connote something like an "offspring of the Sakyan clan". In the same way, I think "devaputta" carries the idea of "a son of the deva community", and not the literal "son of a deity". Would appreciate any differing opinions.

        Also, I don't think this can be rightly taken as an accusative, since it's obviously in the nominative form. In the sense of English grammar, it's an "object". But in terms of Pali grammar, I don't know what it can be called. My teacher calls it a "transferred subject". This is just grammar talk, of course, but if anyone knows of another term for it, I'll be happy to know.


        >20. Paapa.m parivajjetvaa kusala.m karonte sappurise devaa
        >puujessanti.
        >Ans: Deities will honour virtuous men avoiding evil and doing good.

        I prefer to think that "vajjeti" by itself already mean "avoid".
        The prefix "pari" carries the meaning of
        "thorough", e.g.
        "parisuddhi": thorough purity;
        "parinibbana": complete release;
        "paripucchati": interrogate (lit. ask thoroughly),
        or "around", e.g.
        "paribbajati": wander about;
        "paribbaajaka": wondering ascetic;
        "parisiñcati": sprinkle all over.

        So, I think "parivajjeti" is better translated as "completely avoid" or "shun" (which I think carries a stronger connotation than just "avoid").


        >21. Sacca.m bhaasantaa asappurise anusaasantaa pa.n.ditaa upaasakaa
        >bhavissanti.
        >Ans: Wise people who speak the truth and admonish evil men will
        >become lay devotees.

        Don't you find something funny in the meaning of the sentence?

        My teacher says a suitable English translation of that should be:
        The wise people who speak the truth and instruct evil men are probably lay devotees.

        [Note: upaasakaa here probably refers to "lay followers of the Buddha", making the sentence: The wise people who speak the truth and instruct evil men are probably lay followers of the Buddha.]

        Here, the "ssa" future tense is used to convey probability.

        Some of you may have read or heard about a conversation between the Buddha and Do.na the brahmin (AN IV 36):

        “Devo no bhava.m bhavissatii”ti?
        “Na kho aha.m, braahma.na, devo bhavissaamii”ti.
        “Gandhabbo no bhava.m bhavissatii”ti?
        “Na kho aha.m, braahma.na, gandhabbo bhavissaamii”ti.
        “Yakkho no bhava.m bhavissatii”ti?
        “Na kho aha.m, braahma.na, yakkho bhavissaamii”ti.
        “Manusso no bhava.m bhavissatii”ti?
        “Na kho aha.m, braahma.na, manusso bhavissaamii”ti.

        A literal translation:
        'Will you, sir, be a deva?'
        'No, braahmin, I will not be a deva.'
        'Will you, sir, be a gandhabba?'
        'No, braahmin, I will not be a gandhabba.'
        'Will you, sir, be a yakkha?'
        'No, braahmin, I will not be a yakkha.'
        'Will you, sir, be a human?'
        'No, braahmin, I will not be a human.'

        You may find that the above translation does not fit well in the context. A better English rendering of what Do.na the brahmin was saying may be:
        'Would you, sir, be a deva... gandhabba... yakkha... human?'
        or
        'Could you, sir, be a deva... gandhabba... yakkha... human?'

        From the context, we could see that the Buddha purposely answered in the same "ssa" form, so that He could tell the brahmin that he will not become any of those things as He had freed himself from rebirth.

        Passasi, aavuso?


        >Translate into Paali:
        >
        >2. I will advise the king to rule the island righteously with his
        >ministers.
        >Ans: Aha.m amaccehi saha dhammena diipa.m paaletu.m bhuupala.m
        >ovadissaami.

        This answer may give the impression that:
        "I together with the ministers will advise the king to rule the island righteously."

        Would be better to put the "bhuupala.m" after "Aha.m":
        "Aha.m bhuupala.m amaccehi saha dhammena diipa.m paaletu.m ovadissaami."


        >13. Paaniiyena patta.m puuretvaa daarako odana.m bhu~njantaaya
        >yaacakaaya dassati.

        What the book tells us in Chapter 5 gives us the impression that "aaya" and "assa" are interchangeable as singular dative case endings for "-a" masculine nouns. However, from what my teacher told me, "aaya" has a more specific usage, that is "for the sake of", e.g.: Naro puttaaya kamma.m karoti.

        Therefore, it would be better to substitute "bhu~njantaaya yaacakaaya" with "bhu~njantassa yaacakassa".


        >23. Dhammena vasanto/jiivanto tva.m sappuriso hosi.

        "Jiivanto" would be a better choice. "Vasati" means something like "stay, abide, reside (somewhere)".


        As always, I'd appreciate any sharing of differing views.

        vkb


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