Pali Primer - Lesson 4
- A Quick Glance
This lesson covers the following topic:
Ablative Case (Masc-a nouns)
Singular: + aa, + mhaa, + smaa
Plural: + ehi, + ebhi
nom. - nominative case
acc. - accusative case
ins. - instrumental case
abl. - ablative case
sing. - singular
plur. - plural
indec. - indeclinable
Translate into English:
1. Coraa gaamamhaa pabbata.m dhaavanti.
coraa = thieves (nom.)
gaamamhaa = village (abl.)
pabbata.m = mountain (ins.)
dhaavanti = run
Ans: Thieves run to the mountain from the village.
Ans: From the village, robbers run to the mountain.
2. Daarako maatulasmaa odana.m yaacati.
daarako = child (nom.)
maatulasmaa = uncle (abl.)
odana.m = rice (acc.)
yaacati = begs
Ans: The child begs rice from the uncle.
3. Kumaaro sopaanamhaa patati.
kumaaro = boy (nom.)
sopaanamhaa = stairway (abl.)
patati = falls
Ans: The boy falls from the stairway.
4. Maatulaa saa.take dhovanti.
maatulaa = uncles (nom.)
saa.take = garments (acc.)
dhovanti = wash
Ans: Uncles wash garments.
5. Dhiivaraa pi.takehi macche aaharanti.
dhiivaraa = fishermen (nom.)
pi.takehi = baskets (ins.)
macche = fish (acc.)
aaharanti = bring
Ans: Fishermen bring fish (plur.) in baskets.
6. Upaasakaa sama.nehi saddhi.m vihaarasmaa nikkhamanti.
Ans: Lay devotees leave the monastery with monks.
7. Braahma.no kakacena rukkha.m chindati.
Ans: The brahmin cuts the tree with a saw.
8. Kumaaraa mittehi saha bhuupaala.m passanti.
Ans: The boys see the king with their friends.
Ans: Together with friends, the boys see the king.
9. Vaa.nijo assena saddhi.m pabbatasmaa oruhati.
Ans: The merchant descends from the mountain with his horse.
10. Yaacako kassakasmaa so.na.m yaacati.
Ans: The beggar asks for the dog from the farmer.
Ans: The beggar asks/begs the farmer for the dog.
11. Sappaa pabbatehi gaama.m otaranti.
Ans: Serpents come down to the village from mountains.
12. Ministers shoot deer (plur.) with arrows.
13. The thief takes away garments in the cart from the village.
14. The king comes to the palace in a chariot with his ministers.
15. Pigs dig pits with their feet.
16. The boy washes garments with friends.
17. Monks sets out with lay devotees from the village.
18. The dog eats fish from the basket.
19. A friend asks for the dog from the son.
20. The Buddha questions his disciples.
21. Ministers ask questions from wise men.
22. The washerman washes the garment with a friend.
23. Fish (plur.) fall from the basket.
24. Thieves hit pigs with stones.
25. The minister brings a parrot from the palace.
Translate into Paali:
1. Horses run from the village to the mountain.
Ans: Assaa gaamamhaa pabbata.m dhaavanti.
2. Merchants come from the island to the monastery with lay devotees.
Ans: Vaa.nijaa upaasakehi saha diipasmaa vihaara.m aagacchanti.
3. Thieves shoot pigs with arrows.
Ans: Coraa sarehi suukare vijjhanti.
4. Upaasako sama.namhaa dhamma.m pucchati.
5. Daarako sahaayena saha paasaa.nasmaa patati.
6. So.no daaraka.m .dasati.
7. Amaccaa bhuupaalena saha paasaadamhaa nikkhamanti.
8. Naro diipasmaa miga.m aaharati.
9. Kassako rukkhamhaa otarati/oruhati.
10. Kukkuraa assehi saha magena dhaavanti.
11. Kumaaraa vaa.nijehi diipe haranti.
12. Coro sopaanasmaa otarati/oruhati.
13. Vaa.nijaa pabbatehi suke aaharanti.
14. Asso paadena sappa.m paharati.
15. Maatulo mittehi saha pabbatamhaa sama.ne passati.
16. Vaa.nijaa diipasmaa asse paasaada.m aaharanti.
17. Amacco cora.m pucchati.
18. Kassako rajakena saha odana.m bhu~njati.
19. Daarako sopaanamhaa patati.
20. Dhiivaro maatulena saha pabbata.m aaruhati.
21. Yaacako kukkurena saha sayati.
22. Bhuupaalaa amaccehi saha diipe rakkhanti.
23. Bhuupaalo paasaadasmaa Buddha.m vandati.
24. Puriso khaggena sappa.m hanati.
25. Dhiivaraa saka.tehi macche gama.m aaharanti.
26. Varaahaa gaamamhaa pabbata.m dhaavanti.
27. Upaasakaa pa.n.ditasmaa pa~nhe pucchanti.
28. Putto rukkhamhaa suva.m aaharati.
29. Pa.n.ditaa vihaara.m gacchanti.
30. Saavakaa maggena gaama.m gacchanti.
- Dear all,
I've been absent since November as I was somewhat busy then for our Kathina day (18 Nov) and after that on some other matters, including a much needed meditation retreat. I've also been spending much time in learning and memorizing the Patimokkha under the guidance of my acariya, Ven. Aggacitta Bhikkhu. I'm at the end of Sanghadisesa now. The Pali does appear rather different from what I've learnt in "Pali Primer".
Anyway, here's my very, very belated comments on Yong Peng's notes.
As mentioned earlier, Lesson 14 is (relatively) a breeze. This chapter however give us some interesting Pali food for thought.
At 10:20 PM 13-11-01, Ong Yong Peng wrote:
>Translate into English:My teacher's answer:
>7. Pu~n~na.m kaatu.m icchantaa tumhe sappurisaa paapamitte
>pu~n~na.m = merit (acc.)
>kaatu.m = to do
>icchantaa = wishing
>tumhe = you
>sappurisaa = good men (nom.)
>paapamitte = evil friends (acc.)
>ovadissatha = will advise
>Ans: Wishing to do merit, you good men will advise evil/wicked
You good/virtuous men who wish to do merit shall advise evil/wicked friends.
I think there's an important difference in meaning. If the Pali sentence were to have been
pu~n~na.m kaatu.m icchantaa
sappurisaa paapamitte ovadissatha.
then the English translation would be as given, i.e.,
Wishing to do merit, you good men will advise evil/wicked friends.
or, to put it in a different way,
You good men, wishing to do merit, will advise evil/wicked friends.
>14. Buddhe pasiiditvaa upaasako devaputto hutvaa saggaloke uppajjati.Literally, "devaputta" means a deity's son or god's son (Jesus Christ?!). But it's actually just something like saying "Sakyaputta", which means "Sakyan son". I get the idea that it connote something like an "offspring of the Sakyan clan". In the same way, I think "devaputta" carries the idea of "a son of the deva community", and not the literal "son of a deity". Would appreciate any differing opinions.
>devaputto = deity (acc.)
Also, I don't think this can be rightly taken as an accusative, since it's obviously in the nominative form. In the sense of English grammar, it's an "object". But in terms of Pali grammar, I don't know what it can be called. My teacher calls it a "transferred subject". This is just grammar talk, of course, but if anyone knows of another term for it, I'll be happy to know.
>20. Paapa.m parivajjetvaa kusala.m karonte sappurise devaaI prefer to think that "vajjeti" by itself already mean "avoid".
>Ans: Deities will honour virtuous men avoiding evil and doing good.
The prefix "pari" carries the meaning of
"parisuddhi": thorough purity;
"parinibbana": complete release;
"paripucchati": interrogate (lit. ask thoroughly),
or "around", e.g.
"paribbajati": wander about;
"paribbaajaka": wondering ascetic;
"parisiñcati": sprinkle all over.
So, I think "parivajjeti" is better translated as "completely avoid" or "shun" (which I think carries a stronger connotation than just "avoid").
>21. Sacca.m bhaasantaa asappurise anusaasantaa pa.n.ditaa upaasakaaDon't you find something funny in the meaning of the sentence?
>Ans: Wise people who speak the truth and admonish evil men will
>become lay devotees.
My teacher says a suitable English translation of that should be:
The wise people who speak the truth and instruct evil men are probably lay devotees.
[Note: upaasakaa here probably refers to "lay followers of the Buddha", making the sentence: The wise people who speak the truth and instruct evil men are probably lay followers of the Buddha.]
Here, the "ssa" future tense is used to convey probability.
Some of you may have read or heard about a conversation between the Buddha and Do.na the brahmin (AN IV 36):
Devo no bhava.m bhavissatiiti?
Na kho aha.m, braahma.na, devo bhavissaamiiti.
Gandhabbo no bhava.m bhavissatiiti?
Na kho aha.m, braahma.na, gandhabbo bhavissaamiiti.
Yakkho no bhava.m bhavissatiiti?
Na kho aha.m, braahma.na, yakkho bhavissaamiiti.
Manusso no bhava.m bhavissatiiti?
Na kho aha.m, braahma.na, manusso bhavissaamiiti.
A literal translation:
'Will you, sir, be a deva?'
'No, braahmin, I will not be a deva.'
'Will you, sir, be a gandhabba?'
'No, braahmin, I will not be a gandhabba.'
'Will you, sir, be a yakkha?'
'No, braahmin, I will not be a yakkha.'
'Will you, sir, be a human?'
'No, braahmin, I will not be a human.'
You may find that the above translation does not fit well in the context. A better English rendering of what Do.na the brahmin was saying may be:
'Would you, sir, be a deva... gandhabba... yakkha... human?'
'Could you, sir, be a deva... gandhabba... yakkha... human?'
From the context, we could see that the Buddha purposely answered in the same "ssa" form, so that He could tell the brahmin that he will not become any of those things as He had freed himself from rebirth.
>Translate into Paali:This answer may give the impression that:
>2. I will advise the king to rule the island righteously with his
>Ans: Aha.m amaccehi saha dhammena diipa.m paaletu.m bhuupala.m
"I together with the ministers will advise the king to rule the island righteously."
Would be better to put the "bhuupala.m" after "Aha.m":
"Aha.m bhuupala.m amaccehi saha dhammena diipa.m paaletu.m ovadissaami."
>13. Paaniiyena patta.m puuretvaa daarako odana.m bhu~njantaayaWhat the book tells us in Chapter 5 gives us the impression that "aaya" and "assa" are interchangeable as singular dative case endings for "-a" masculine nouns. However, from what my teacher told me, "aaya" has a more specific usage, that is "for the sake of", e.g.: Naro puttaaya kamma.m karoti.
Therefore, it would be better to substitute "bhu~njantaaya yaacakaaya" with "bhu~njantassa yaacakassa".
>23. Dhammena vasanto/jiivanto tva.m sappuriso hosi."Jiivanto" would be a better choice. "Vasati" means something like "stay, abide, reside (somewhere)".
As always, I'd appreciate any sharing of differing views.
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