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Re: [Pali] Pali - Every few days - [B094]

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  • Todd Martin
    Michael, I sort of disagree. Someone who has heard the Dhamma will generally be living a good life. If they then commit a wrong deed they will indeed suffer,
    Message 1 of 14 , Nov 1, 2003
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      Michael,

      I sort of disagree. Someone who has heard the Dhamma will generally be
      living a good life. If they then commit a wrong deed they will indeed
      suffer, however they will have the tools available to end that
      suffering. Someone who has not and is, lets say for sake of argument, a
      career criminal, they live in constant suffering with no peace ever.
      Clearly they suffer more in terms of consistency and lack the tools
      needed to end that suffering, leading to further feelings of
      hopelessness. Which will usually lead to them committing more wrong
      deeds adding to their cycle of hellish existence.

      I do however see the point of "Who suffers more?" as irrelevant,
      suffering is suffering no matter how you shake it. All should be
      avoided. I don't think we should discriminate against those who suffer
      less.

      -todd

      On Nov 1, 2003, at 8:45 AM, Michael Beisert wrote:

      > Nina,
      >
      > On the surface this seems like a very easy question but in fact it is
      > very
      > complex. Maybe this is the reason there has been no replies so far? I
      > had in
      > the back of my mind that somewhere I read something about your
      > question but
      > my research ended empty and therefore I will give you my opinion on
      > it. I
      > think the answer to your question is no, someone who has not heard the
      > Dhamma and commits an akusala deed is in a better position than
      > someone who
      > knows the Dhamma, even worse if someone is a commited disciple of the
      > Buddha. My reasoning is that someone that knows that a certain deed
      > should
      > be avoided and nevertheless does it would have a stronger mental
      > imprint
      > because of that than someone who is ignorant of the Dhamma. And that
      > stronger imprint means a stronger kamma. Having said that we should
      > remember
      > that the workings of kamma can be very complex and just as a reminder
      > look
      > at the Lonaphala Sutta (AN III.99).
      >
      > Now the question becomes really complex when you throw in the ‘skilful
      > means’ so highly praised in the Mahayana tradition. And using a skilful
      > means interpretation of a certain deed, what apparently would be an
      > akusala
      > deed could be regarded as kusala. And this really opens the door for
      > any
      > actions to be interpreted anyway you want and to atribute any kamma
      > consequences you want.
      >
      > Metta
      > Michael
      >
      >
      >
      >> From: nina van gorkom <nilo@...>
      >> Reply-To: Pali@yahoogroups.com
      >> To: <Pali@yahoogroups.com>
      >> Subject: Re: [Pali] Pali - Every few days - [B094]
      >> Date: Thu, 30 Oct 2003 19:15:12 +0100
      >>
      >> Dear John and friends,
      >> This is interesting. We just discussed in Dhamma Study Group this
      >> subject.
      >> Suppose you do evil without having heard the Dhamma, is this evil
      >> greater
      >> than when you know it is akusala? I frwd this post to the group.
      >> Nina.
      >> op 29-10-2003 16:27 schreef John Kelly op palistudent@...:
      >>
      >>> Pali - Every few days - [B094]
      >>> Gair/Karunatillake - Chapter 5 ? Further Readings
      >>> Ex. 3. (Part 1 of 2)
      >>>
      >>> Raajaa aaha: ?Bhante Naagasena, yo jaananto
      >>> paapakamma.m karoti, yo ajaananto paapakamma.m karoti,
      >>> kassa bahutara.m apu~n~nan?ti?
      >>> The king said: "Venerable Nagasena, for whom is the
      >>> greater demerit, one who knowingly does evil, or one
      >>> who does evil unknowingly??
      >>
      >
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      ------------
      "I know what you're thinking about but it isn't so, nohow.
      Contrariwise, if it was so, it might be; and if it were so, it would
      be; but as it isn't, it ain't. That's logic."


      [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
    • rjkjp1
      ... briefly - to the ... misfortune. It ... pretty good ... Dear Eric, Yes. In the commentaries they give the example of the baby who reaches out for a hot pot
      Message 2 of 14 , Nov 1, 2003
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        --- In Pali@yahoogroups.com, "Eric Van Horn" <ekvh@u...> wrote:
        > Hello Michael, Nina, et al,
        >
        > .
        >
        > The good news for those of us who have been exposed - even
        briefly - to the
        > Dhamma, is that this exposure helps protect us against future
        misfortune. It
        > is especially good news for our future lives, but it is also
        pretty good
        > news for this one. :)
        >
        > Metta,
        >
        > Eric Van Horn
        > Colchester, Vermont
        >==========
        Dear Eric,
        Yes. In the commentaries they give the example of the baby who
        reaches out for a hot pot on a stove. They are completely ignorant
        of the danger and so burn themselves badly. The adult takes hold of
        the same pot, but very gingerly moving it quickly. They feel the
        heat but don't get burned much, if at all.
        Say someone is poor and makes a living as a hunter supporting his
        family in this way. But he knows it is akusala, so as soon as
        another opportunity arises he gives up that action and never kills
        again. On the other hand, the person ignorant of Dhamma might even
        do hunting as a sport, enjoying the killing, and looking for any
        chance to go hunting. Hunting is always akusala but we see how the
        ignorant one is in the more dangerous position.
        RobertK
      • nina van gorkom
        Dear Michael, to recapitulate: from Milinda s questions: The king said: Venerable Nagasena, for whom is the greater demerit, one who knowingly does evil,
        Message 3 of 14 , Nov 2, 2003
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          Dear Michael,
          to recapitulate: from Milinda's questions: >>> The king said: "Venerable
          Nagasena, for whom is the greater demerit, one who knowingly does evil, or
          one who does evil unknowingly?>
          Nagasena's answer was one who does evil unknowingly.

          op 01-11-2003 17:45 schreef Michael Beisert op mbeisert@...:
          >
          > On the surface this seems like a very easy question but in fact it is very
          > complex. ..... the answer to your question is no, someone who has not heard
          the
          > Dhamma and commits an akusala deed is in a better position than someone who
          > knows the Dhamma....
          N: It is complex. Let us go to the roots of all akusala. There are three
          akusala hetus or roots which are the foundation of akusala citta. I do not
          know the Portuguese word for root, in French it is racine. In Pali the tersm
          hetu and muula are used. The three are: lobha (greed) dosa (aversion or
          hate) and moha (ignorance or delusion). Another word for moha is avijjaa.
          There are akusala cittas rooted in moha and lobha, rooted in moha and dosa
          and rooted in moha alone. But all akusala cittas have moha as their root.
          Dhammapada vs 251: <...there is no net like delusion>, and in the Ch on
          taints, vs. 243:... <and a worse taint than these is ignorance, the greatest
          taint.>
          We become entangled in ignorance, it is like a net.
          Ignorance is not knowing realities as they are, not knowing what is kusala,
          what is akusala, not knowing the four noble Truths. It is like blindness,
          like darkness.
          There are different intensities, degrees of the akusala hetus. When the
          degree of moha is stronger, there is a higher degree of akusala. The
          akusala hetu that arises together with the citta conditions the accompanying
          mental factors (cetasikas) and the citta. It motivates different degrees of
          unwholesome deeds.
          I could recommend the Wheel, no 251-253, by Ven. Nyanaponika: "the Roots of
          Good and Evil ".

          M: we should remember
          > that the workings of kamma can be very complex and just as a reminder look
          > at the Lonaphala Sutta (AN III.99).
          N: Yes, only a Buddha thoroughly penetrates the workings of kamma and
          result.
          This sutta is very complex, but does not contradict the fact that more
          ignorance conditions the akusala to be more intense. Decisive here is
          leading the holy life. The Buddha teaches here about being in the cycle and
          going out of the cycle, the commentary states.
          M: Now the question becomes really complex when you throw in the skilful
          > means’ so highly praised in the Mahayana tradition. And using a skilful
          > means interpretation of a certain deed, what apparently would be an akusala
          > deed could be regarded as kusala. And this really opens the door for any
          > actions to be interpreted anyway you want and to atribute any kamma
          > consequences you want.
          N: Then there is more and more ignorance, as I see it. Metta is always
          kusala, violence is always akusala. Nobody in the world can change akusala
          into kusala. The three beautiful roots are: alobha, adosa and amoha or
          pa~n~naa.
          Nina.
        • Michael Beisert
          Todd, I understand your argument and to some extent agree with what you say. Your argument works better in a single life time but would maybe not hold so well
          Message 4 of 14 , Nov 2, 2003
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            Todd,

            I understand your argument and to some extent agree with what you say. Your
            argument works better in a single life time but would maybe not hold so well
            across life times. But my understanding is that the original question was
            not in terms of the level of suffering but on the degree of intensity of
            kamma. Or maybe better said the potential degree of vipaka based on the same
            unwholesome kamma (action/deed) by a dhamma practitioner and someone
            without any knowledge of the dhamma. My reasoning was that for a dhamma
            practitioner the vipaka is likely, but not necessarilly, going to be
            stronger.
            Metta
            Michael


            >From: Todd Martin <todd@...>
            >Reply-To: Pali@yahoogroups.com
            >To: Pali@yahoogroups.com
            >Subject: Re: [Pali] Pali - Every few days - [B094]
            >Date: Sat, 1 Nov 2003 10:11:34 -0800
            >
            >Michael,
            >
            >I sort of disagree. Someone who has heard the Dhamma will generally be
            >living a good life. If they then commit a wrong deed they will indeed
            >suffer, however they will have the tools available to end that
            >suffering. Someone who has not and is, lets say for sake of argument, a
            >career criminal, they live in constant suffering with no peace ever.
            >Clearly they suffer more in terms of consistency and lack the tools
            >needed to end that suffering, leading to further feelings of
            >hopelessness. Which will usually lead to them committing more wrong
            >deeds adding to their cycle of hellish existence.
            >
            >I do however see the point of "Who suffers more?" as irrelevant,
            >suffering is suffering no matter how you shake it. All should be
            >avoided. I don't think we should discriminate against those who suffer
            >less.
            >
            >-todd
            >
            >On Nov 1, 2003, at 8:45 AM, Michael Beisert wrote:
            >
            > > Nina,
            > >
            > > On the surface this seems like a very easy question but in fact it is
            > > very
            > > complex. Maybe this is the reason there has been no replies so far? I
            > > had in
            > > the back of my mind that somewhere I read something about your
            > > question but
            > > my research ended empty and therefore I will give you my opinion on
            > > it. I
            > > think the answer to your question is no, someone who has not heard the
            > > Dhamma and commits an akusala deed is in a better position than
            > > someone who
            > > knows the Dhamma, even worse if someone is a commited disciple of the
            > > Buddha. My reasoning is that someone that knows that a certain deed
            > > should
            > > be avoided and nevertheless does it would have a stronger mental
            > > imprint
            > > because of that than someone who is ignorant of the Dhamma. And that
            > > stronger imprint means a stronger kamma. Having said that we should
            > > remember
            > > that the workings of kamma can be very complex and just as a reminder
            > > look
            > > at the Lonaphala Sutta (AN III.99).
            > >
            > > Now the question becomes really complex when you throw in the �skilful
            > > means� so highly praised in the Mahayana tradition. And using a skilful
            > > means interpretation of a certain deed, what apparently would be an
            > > akusala
            > > deed could be regarded as kusala. And this really opens the door for
            > > any
            > > actions to be interpreted anyway you want and to atribute any kamma
            > > consequences you want.
            > >
            > > Metta
            > > Michael
            > >
            > >
            > >
            > >> From: nina van gorkom <nilo@...>
            > >> Reply-To: Pali@yahoogroups.com
            > >> To: <Pali@yahoogroups.com>
            > >> Subject: Re: [Pali] Pali - Every few days - [B094]
            > >> Date: Thu, 30 Oct 2003 19:15:12 +0100
            > >>
            > >> Dear John and friends,
            > >> This is interesting. We just discussed in Dhamma Study Group this
            > >> subject.
            > >> Suppose you do evil without having heard the Dhamma, is this evil
            > >> greater
            > >> than when you know it is akusala? I frwd this post to the group.
            > >> Nina.
            > >> op 29-10-2003 16:27 schreef John Kelly op palistudent@...:
            > >>
            > >>> Pali - Every few days - [B094]
            > >>> Gair/Karunatillake - Chapter 5 ? Further Readings
            > >>> Ex. 3. (Part 1 of 2)
            > >>>
            > >>> Raajaa aaha: ?Bhante Naagasena, yo jaananto
            > >>> paapakamma.m karoti, yo ajaananto paapakamma.m karoti,
            > >>> kassa bahutara.m apu~n~nan?ti?
            > >>> The king said: "Venerable Nagasena, for whom is the
            > >>> greater demerit, one who knowingly does evil, or one
            > >>> who does evil unknowingly??
            > >>
            > >
            > > _________________________________________________________________
            > > Surf and talk on the phone at the same time with broadband Internet
            > > access.
            > > Get high-speed for as low as $29.95/month (depending on the local
            > > service
            > > providers in your area). https://broadband.msn.com
            > >
            > >
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            > > Printer at MyInks.com. Free s/h on orders $50 or more to the US &
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            > >
            > > - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
            > > [Homepage] http://www.tipitaka.net
            > > [Send Message] pali@yahoogroups.com
            > > Paaliga.na - a community for Pali students
            > > Yahoo! Groups members can set their delivery options to daily digest
            > > or web only.
            > >
            > > Your use of Yahoo! Groups is subject to
            > > http://docs.yahoo.com/info/terms/
            > >
            > >
            > >
            > >
            > >
            >
            >
            >------------
            >"I know what you're thinking about but it isn't so, nohow.
            >Contrariwise, if it was so, it might be; and if it were so, it would
            >be; but as it isn't, it ain't. That's logic."
            >
            >
            >[Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
            >
            >

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          • Michael Beisert
            Nina, (and RobertK), As a principle I can fully understand that ignorance leads to suffering and further rebirth, and that the forerunner of the way to
            Message 5 of 14 , Nov 2, 2003
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              Nina, (and RobertK),

              As a principle I can fully understand that ignorance leads to suffering and
              further rebirth, and that the forerunner of the way to liberation is right
              understanding. So within that framework the answer by Nagasena makes perfect
              sense. The same applies to the passages quoted by RobertK from the
              commentaries.

              But I still have some difficulty in accepting that one specific unwholesome
              deed may have a stronger vipaka for an ignorant person. I like your quotes
              from the Abhidhamma and using that logic the same mental factors
              (cetasikas), influenced by the same roots, would be present in the same
              unwholesome deed performed by the dhamma practitioner (assuming he /she is
              still a putujana) and an ignorant person. So, if the mental constituents are
              exactly the same what would make the vipaka stronger for one and not the
              other? My logic is that the feelings of guilt/remorse will explain the
              different intensity of vipaka. And the dhamma practitioner will likely have
              stronger feelings of guilt/remorse that the ignorant person. Over time the
              story could be different because the ignorant person due to his/her
              ignorance might develop that deed into a habit and this will bring far
              greater harm.

              Metta
              Michael
              orkom <nilo@...>
              >Reply-To: Pali@yahoogroups.com
              >To: <Pali@yahoogroups.com>
              >Subject: Re: [Pali] Pali - ignorance
              >Date: Sun, 02 Nov 2003 16:17:02 +0100
              >
              >Dear Michael,
              >to recapitulate: from Milinda's questions: >>> The king said: "Venerable
              >Nagasena, for whom is the greater demerit, one who knowingly does evil, or
              >one who does evil unknowingly?>
              >Nagasena's answer was one who does evil unknowingly.
              >
              >op 01-11-2003 17:45 schreef Michael Beisert op mbeisert@...:
              > >
              > > On the surface this seems like a very easy question but in fact it is
              >very
              > > complex. ..... the answer to your question is no, someone who has not
              >heard
              >the
              > > Dhamma and commits an akusala deed is in a better position than someone
              >who
              > > knows the Dhamma....
              >N: It is complex. Let us go to the roots of all akusala. There are three
              >akusala hetus or roots which are the foundation of akusala citta. I do not
              >know the Portuguese word for root, in French it is racine. In Pali the
              >tersm
              >hetu and muula are used. The three are: lobha (greed) dosa (aversion or
              >hate) and moha (ignorance or delusion). Another word for moha is avijjaa.
              >There are akusala cittas rooted in moha and lobha, rooted in moha and dosa
              >and rooted in moha alone. But all akusala cittas have moha as their root.
              >Dhammapada vs 251: <...there is no net like delusion>, and in the Ch on
              >taints, vs. 243:... <and a worse taint than these is ignorance, the
              >greatest
              >taint.>
              >We become entangled in ignorance, it is like a net.
              >Ignorance is not knowing realities as they are, not knowing what is kusala,
              >what is akusala, not knowing the four noble Truths. It is like blindness,
              >like darkness.
              >There are different intensities, degrees of the akusala hetus. When the
              >degree of moha is stronger, there is a higher degree of akusala. The
              >akusala hetu that arises together with the citta conditions the
              >accompanying
              >mental factors (cetasikas) and the citta. It motivates different degrees of
              >unwholesome deeds.
              >I could recommend the Wheel, no 251-253, by Ven. Nyanaponika: "the Roots of
              >Good and Evil ".
              >
              >M: we should remember
              > > that the workings of kamma can be very complex and just as a reminder
              >look
              > > at the Lonaphala Sutta (AN III.99).
              >N: Yes, only a Buddha thoroughly penetrates the workings of kamma and
              >result.
              >This sutta is very complex, but does not contradict the fact that more
              >ignorance conditions the akusala to be more intense. Decisive here is
              >leading the holy life. The Buddha teaches here about being in the cycle and
              >going out of the cycle, the commentary states.
              >M: Now the question becomes really complex when you throw in the skilful
              > > means� so highly praised in the Mahayana tradition. And using a skilful
              > > means interpretation of a certain deed, what apparently would be an
              >akusala
              > > deed could be regarded as kusala. And this really opens the door for any
              > > actions to be interpreted anyway you want and to atribute any kamma
              > > consequences you want.
              >N: Then there is more and more ignorance, as I see it. Metta is always
              >kusala, violence is always akusala. Nobody in the world can change akusala
              >into kusala. The three beautiful roots are: alobha, adosa and amoha or
              >pa~n~naa.
              >Nina.
              >
              >

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            • nina van gorkom
              Dear Michael, As you also said, the point discussed in Milinda s questions was whether akusala is stronger when there is more ignorance. The point was not
              Message 6 of 14 , Nov 3, 2003
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                Dear Michael,
                As you also said, the point discussed in Milinda's questions was whether
                akusala is stronger when there is more ignorance. The point was not whether
                there is stronger vipaka for an ignorant person. Kamma produces vipaka, but
                there are other conditions necessary for kamma to produce vipaka. In the Co.
                to the Vibhanga, the Dispeller of Delusion, ch 16, Classification of
                Knowledge, 2198 there is mentioned: destiny, gati, substratum, upadhi, one's
                means or conduct, payoga, kaala, time. These can be favorable, sampatti or
                unfavorable, vipatti. For example when you are born in time of war or in a
                country where there is hunger, there is more opportunity for akusala kamma
                to produce akusala vipaaka and less opportunity for kusala vipaaka. This
                subject is complex, many condiitons play their part.
                There were countless past lives and we do not know which kamma will produce
                result at which time. But so long as there is ignorance we are in the cycle
                and we have to receive vipakaa.
                Nina.
                op 02-11-2003 18:04 schreef Michael Beisert op mbeisert@...:

                > I still have some difficulty in accepting that one specific unwholesome
                > deed may have a stronger vipaka for an ignorant person. I like your quotes
                > from the Abhidhamma and using that logic the same mental factors
                > (cetasikas), influenced by the same roots, would be present in the same
                > unwholesome deed performed by the dhamma practitioner (assuming he /she is
                > still a putujana) and an ignorant person.
              • Michael Beisert
                Nina, “The point was not whether there is stronger vipaka for an ignorant person.” Sorry then, it seems I misunderstood your question … What was the
                Message 7 of 14 , Nov 3, 2003
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                  Nina,

                  �The point was not whether there is stronger vipaka for an ignorant person.�

                  Sorry then, it seems I misunderstood your question � What was the question
                  again? I am lost now.

                  I am not sure about �akusala is stronger when there is more ignorance�
                  either ignorance is present as a mental factor or it is not present. I don�t
                  see this �relative strength of ignorance� in the texts. Where do you find
                  this?

                  I understand your considerations about how vipaka can be produced. But I
                  thought we should take a sort of scientific approach and simplify the
                  variables otherwise it is impossible to get any answer.

                  Metta
                  Michael



                  >From: nina van gorkom <nilo@...>
                  >Reply-To: Pali@yahoogroups.com
                  >To: <Pali@yahoogroups.com>
                  >Subject: Re: [Pali] Pali - ignorance
                  >Date: Mon, 03 Nov 2003 19:06:08 +0100
                  >
                  >Dear Michael,
                  >As you also said, the point discussed in Milinda's questions was whether
                  >akusala is stronger when there is more ignorance. The point was not whether
                  >there is stronger vipaka for an ignorant person. Kamma produces vipaka, but
                  >there are other conditions necessary for kamma to produce vipaka. In the
                  >Co.
                  >to the Vibhanga, the Dispeller of Delusion, ch 16, Classification of
                  >Knowledge, 2198 there is mentioned: destiny, gati, substratum, upadhi,
                  >one's
                  >means or conduct, payoga, kaala, time. These can be favorable, sampatti or
                  >unfavorable, vipatti. For example when you are born in time of war or in a
                  >country where there is hunger, there is more opportunity for akusala kamma
                  >to produce akusala vipaaka and less opportunity for kusala vipaaka. This
                  >subject is complex, many condiitons play their part.
                  >There were countless past lives and we do not know which kamma will produce
                  >result at which time. But so long as there is ignorance we are in the cycle
                  >and we have to receive vipakaa.
                  >Nina.
                  >op 02-11-2003 18:04 schreef Michael Beisert op mbeisert@...:
                  >
                  > > I still have some difficulty in accepting that one specific unwholesome
                  > > deed may have a stronger vipaka for an ignorant person. I like your
                  >quotes
                  > > from the Abhidhamma and using that logic the same mental factors
                  > > (cetasikas), influenced by the same roots, would be present in the same
                  > > unwholesome deed performed by the dhamma practitioner (assuming he /she
                  >is
                  > > still a putujana) and an ignorant person.
                  >

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                • nina van gorkom
                  Dear Michael, ... akusala citta. When ignorance is strong you burn yourself more:
                  Message 8 of 14 , Nov 4, 2003
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                    Dear Michael,
                    op 03-11-2003 20:08 schreef Michael Beisert op mbeisert@...:

                    > “The point was not whether there is stronger vipaka for an ignorant person.
                    >
                    > Sorry then, it seems I misunderstood your question … What was the question
                    > again? I am lost now.
                    >N: The quote from the Milinda questions did not deal with vipaka. It dealt with
                    akusala citta. When ignorance is strong you burn yourself more:< ,"Indeed,
                    great king, in the same way the greater demerit is for him who does evil not
                    knowing.> Ignorance arises with each akusala citta, but it can be of
                    different degrees. When you have no notion of what is akusala the evil you
                    commit is of a higher degree.
                    M: I am not sure about akusala is stronger when there is more ignorance’
                    > either ignorance is present as a mental factor or it is not present. I don’t
                    > see this relative strength of ignorance’ in the texts. Where do you find
                    > this?
                    N: There are different degrees of akusala which is always accompanied by
                    ignorance: ignorance of what is kusala, what is akusala, ignorance of the
                    danger of akusala and of the benefit of kusala. Ignorance is gradually worn
                    away by those who develop understanding and attain stages of enlightenment,
                    a long process, taking aeons. Only the arahat has completely eradicated
                    ignorance.
                    In your own life you can notice that dosa sometimes is a slight uneasiness,
                    and sometimes a stronger aversion such as anger. Ignorance is very coarse
                    when one does not see that akusala is harmful, for instance if one at all
                    costs is after one's own pleasure and sees this as one's goal. A person
                    might even kill other beings, lie and steal all for his own sake. Ignorance
                    conditions wrong view which may be very dangerous, such as the views of
                    Makkhali Gosaala, Puura.na Kassapa and Ajita Kesakambali. If one propagates
                    that akusala kamma does not bring any result it is most harmful for society.
                    See the Brahmajaalasutta for different kinds of wrong view conditioned by
                    coarse ignorance.
                    We do not advocate such theories, but there are other forms of ignorance,
                    less coarse, but I would not call them subtle. In the Kindred Sayings IV,
                    Second Fifty, Ch I, §53 we read that a monk said:
                    <'By how knowing, lord, by how seeing does ignorance vanish and knowledge
                    arise?'
                    'In him that knows and sees the eye as impermanent... that knows and sees
                    objects... as impermanent, ignorance vanishes and knowledge arises.'
                    The same is said with regard to the other doorways.
                    Ignorance is not seeing the presently arisen dhamma as impermanent, dukkha
                    and anattaa.
                    The sotaapanna has realized the four noble Truths, but there are many
                    degrees of realizing this. He still has akusala, but no longer to the degree
                    of conditioning akusala kamma that can produce an unhappy rebirth. Gradually
                    the three roots are worn away until one reaches arahatship.

                    M: I understand your considerations about how vipaka can be produced. But I
                    > thought we should take a sort of scientific approach and simplify the
                    > variables otherwise it is impossible to get any answer.
                    N: Science has another approach and another goal, it is quite different from
                    the Buddha's teachings which have as the aim to develop understanding so
                    that defilements are gradually eradicated. Kamma and vipaka belong to the
                    "unthinkables", people would become mad when they try to find out which
                    kamma produces which vipaka. We cannot simplify what is the domain of the
                    Buddhas.
                    For us it is more fruitful to begin to understand whether the citta at this
                    moment is kusala or akusala. There is enough ignorance that has to be worn
                    away.
                    Nina.
                  • John Kelly
                    Michael, ... Yes! Guilt & remorse WILL be stronger for the dhamma practitioner - but hiri/otappa (guilt/remorse) is a GOOD thing, thus unwholesome kamma would
                    Message 9 of 14 , Nov 4, 2003
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                      Michael,
                      You said:
                      >My logic is that the feelings of guilt/remorse will
                      >explain the
                      >different intensity of vipaka. And the dhamma
                      >practitioner
                      >will likely have
                      >stronger feelings of guilt/remorse that the ignorant
                      >person. Over time the
                      >story could be different because the ignorant person
                      >due to
                      >his/her
                      >ignorance might develop that deed into a habit and
                      >this
                      >will bring far
                      >greater harm.

                      Yes! Guilt & remorse WILL be stronger for the dhamma
                      practitioner - but hiri/otappa (guilt/remorse) is a
                      GOOD thing, thus unwholesome kamma would be mitigated
                      somewhat for this person.
                      John




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