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Buddha knows

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  • Piya Tan
    Dear Pali friends, I have just completed a paper on Money and Monastics (a study of the 2nd Council, the Maniculaka Sutta, etc). I forget a reference, wonder
    Message 1 of 11 , Jun 6, 2003
      Dear Pali friends,

      I have just completed a paper on "Money and Monastics" (a study of the 2nd
      Council, the Maniculaka Sutta, etc). I forget a reference, wonder if anyone
      can help.

      Does anyone remember the reference in the Suttas where the Buddha declares
      that the Buddha/s and the devas know/see everything that we do (or
      something to that effect).

      Sukhi.

      Piya
    • Rene Salm
      Dear Piya, Here are two passages: SN 2.16.9 (Kassapasamyutta-- Jhanas and direct knowledges, BB I/p.673) - Bhikkhus, to whatever extent I wish, I understand
      Message 2 of 11 , Jun 6, 2003
        Dear Piya,

        Here are two passages:

        SN 2.16.9 (Kassapasamyutta-- Jhanas and direct knowledges, BB I/p.673)

        - Bhikkhus, to whatever extent I wish, I understand the minds of other beings and persons, having encompassed them with my own mind. I understand a mind with lust as a mind with lust; a mind without lust as a mind without lust; a mind with hatred... without hatred... with delusion... without delusion... a contracted mind as contracted and a distracted mind as distracted; an exalted mind... unexalted... surpassable mind... unsurpassable... a concentrated mind... unconcentrated... a liberated mind... and an unliberated mind as unliberated..

        AN 6.6.62 (Book of the sixes, Great Chapter, The solemn utterance, PTS Engl. vol 3/p.288)

        - Even so, Ananda, by mind compassing mind, I know of some person: "There is good and evil in him"-- and then: "The good has disappeared, the evil is uppermost; but the root of goodness is not cut off and from that good will proceed. Thus he is bound not to fall in future." Verily, Ananda, thus, by mind compassing mind, the person of man is known to the Tathaagata; thus by mind compassing mind, the feelings and thoughts of man are known to the Tathaagata; thus, by mind compassing mind, the future rise of things [Dhammasamuppaado] is known to the Tathaagata."

        I hope this is what you were looking for,

        Rene
        ----- Original Message -----
        From: Piya Tan
        To: Pali Website
        Sent: Friday, June 06, 2003 7:29 AM
        Subject: [Pali] Buddha knows


        Dear Pali friends,

        I have just completed a paper on "Money and Monastics" (a study of the 2nd
        Council, the Maniculaka Sutta, etc). I forget a reference, wonder if anyone
        can help.

        Does anyone remember the reference in the Suttas where the Buddha declares
        that the Buddha/s and the devas know/see everything that we do (or
        something to that effect).

        Sukhi.

        Piya


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      • Piya Tan
        Dear Rene, Those are two really great references, which are very useful. However there is still another reference where devas are also mentioned. I m sure it s
        Message 3 of 11 , Jun 6, 2003
          Dear Rene,

          Those are two really great references, which are very useful.

          However there is still another reference where devas are also mentioned. I'm
          sure it's on the four Nikayas but I have been unable to locate the Pali
          text.

          Thanks again.

          Sukhi.

          P.
          ----- Original Message -----
          From: "Rene Salm" <rsalm@...>
          To: <Pali@yahoogroups.com>
          Sent: Saturday, 07 June, 2003 1:11 AM
          Subject: Re: [Pali] Buddha knows


          > Dear Piya,
          >
          > Here are two passages:
          >
          > SN 2.16.9 (Kassapasamyutta-- Jhanas and direct knowledges, BB I/p.673)
          >
          > - Bhikkhus, to whatever extent I wish, I understand the minds of other
          beings and persons, having encompassed them with my own mind. I understand a
          mind with lust as a mind with lust; a mind without lust as a mind without
          lust; a mind with hatred... without hatred... with delusion... without
          delusion... a contracted mind as contracted and a distracted mind as
          distracted; an exalted mind... unexalted... surpassable mind...
          unsurpassable... a concentrated mind... unconcentrated... a liberated
          mind... and an unliberated mind as unliberated..
          >
          > AN 6.6.62 (Book of the sixes, Great Chapter, The solemn utterance, PTS
          Engl. vol 3/p.288)
          >
          > - Even so, Ananda, by mind compassing mind, I know of some person: "There
          is good and evil in him"-- and then: "The good has disappeared, the evil is
          uppermost; but the root of goodness is not cut off and from that good will
          proceed. Thus he is bound not to fall in future." Verily, Ananda, thus, by
          mind compassing mind, the person of man is known to the Tathaagata; thus by
          mind compassing mind, the feelings and thoughts of man are known to the
          Tathaagata; thus, by mind compassing mind, the future rise of things
          [Dhammasamuppaado] is known to the Tathaagata."
          >
          > I hope this is what you were looking for,
          >
          > Rene
          > ----- Original Message -----
          > From: Piya Tan
          > To: Pali Website
          > Sent: Friday, June 06, 2003 7:29 AM
          > Subject: [Pali] Buddha knows
          >
          >
          > Dear Pali friends,
          >
          > I have just completed a paper on "Money and Monastics" (a study of the
          2nd
          > Council, the Maniculaka Sutta, etc). I forget a reference, wonder if
          anyone
          > can help.
          >
          > Does anyone remember the reference in the Suttas where the Buddha
          declares
          > that the Buddha/s and the devas know/see everything that we do (or
          > something to that effect).
          >
          > Sukhi.
          >
          > Piya
          >
          >
          > Yahoo! Groups Sponsor
          >
          >
          >
          >
          >
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          >
          > Your use of Yahoo! Groups is subject to the Yahoo! Terms of Service.
          >
          >
          >
          > [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
          >
          >
          >
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          > - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
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        • Piya Tan
          Dear Rene, I must add that I am very grateful to you for your information. When I looked at the A 6.63 (the Sutta after the one you mentioned below), I
          Message 4 of 11 , Jun 7, 2003
            Dear Rene,

            I must add that I am very grateful to you for your information. When I
            looked at the A 6.63 (the Sutta after the one you mentioned below), I
            discovered it is the Nibbedhika Pariyaaya Sutta, one of the greatest gems of
            the Anguttara. I have slotted this into my Sutta Discovery syllabus and is
            in the process of re-translating it.

            I still hope some generous scholar out there will help me locate the
            reference where it is said that Buddha/s and devas know/see what we are
            doing. I prefer not to make a Sutta quote when I am uncertain of its exact
            reference.

            Sukhi.

            Piya


            ----- Original Message -----
            From: "Rene Salm" <rsalm@...>
            To: <Pali@yahoogroups.com>
            Sent: Saturday, 07 June, 2003 1:11 AM
            Subject: Re: [Pali] Buddha knows


            > Dear Piya,
            >
            > Here are two passages:
            >
            > SN 2.16.9 (Kassapasamyutta-- Jhanas and direct knowledges, BB I/p.673)
            >
            > - Bhikkhus, to whatever extent I wish, I understand the minds of other
            beings and persons, having encompassed them with my own mind. I understand a
            mind with lust as a mind with lust; a mind without lust as a mind without
            lust; a mind with hatred... without hatred... with delusion... without
            delusion... a contracted mind as contracted and a distracted mind as
            distracted; an exalted mind... unexalted... surpassable mind...
            unsurpassable... a concentrated mind... unconcentrated... a liberated
            mind... and an unliberated mind as unliberated..
            >
            > AN 6.6.62 (Book of the sixes, Great Chapter, The solemn utterance, PTS
            Engl. vol 3/p.288)
            >
            > - Even so, Ananda, by mind compassing mind, I know of some person: "There
            is good and evil in him"-- and then: "The good has disappeared, the evil is
            uppermost; but the root of goodness is not cut off and from that good will
            proceed. Thus he is bound not to fall in future." Verily, Ananda, thus, by
            mind compassing mind, the person of man is known to the Tathaagata; thus by
            mind compassing mind, the feelings and thoughts of man are known to the
            Tathaagata; thus, by mind compassing mind, the future rise of things
            [Dhammasamuppaado] is known to the Tathaagata."
            >
            > I hope this is what you were looking for,
            >
            > Rene
            > ----- Original Message -----
            > From: Piya Tan
            > To: Pali Website
            > Sent: Friday, June 06, 2003 7:29 AM
            > Subject: [Pali] Buddha knows
            >
            >
            > Dear Pali friends,
            >
            > I have just completed a paper on "Money and Monastics" (a study of the
            2nd
            > Council, the Maniculaka Sutta, etc). I forget a reference, wonder if
            anyone
            > can help.
            >
            > Does anyone remember the reference in the Suttas where the Buddha
            declares
            > that the Buddha/s and the devas know/see everything that we do (or
            > something to that effect).
            >
            > Sukhi.
            >
            > Piya
            >
            >
            > Yahoo! Groups Sponsor
            >
            >
            >
            >
            >
            > Paaliga.na - a community for Pali students
            > - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
            > Yahoo! Groups members can set their delivery options to daily digest or
            web only.
            > [Homepage] http://www.tipitaka.net
            > [Send Message] pali@yahoogroups.com
            > [Mailing List] http://groups.yahoo.com/group/pali
            > [Discussion] http://tipitaka.suddenlaunch.com
            >
            > Your use of Yahoo! Groups is subject to the Yahoo! Terms of Service.
            >
            >
            >
            > [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
            >
            >
            >
            > Paaliga.na - a community for Pali students
            > - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
            > Yahoo! Groups members can set their delivery options to daily digest or
            web only.
            > [Homepage] http://www.tipitaka.net
            > [Send Message] pali@yahoogroups.com
            > [Mailing List] http://groups.yahoo.com/group/pali
            > [Discussion] http://tipitaka.suddenlaunch.com
            >
            > Your use of Yahoo! Groups is subject to http://docs.yahoo.com/info/terms/
            >
            >
            >
          • Bruce Burrill
            ... I would strongly hope that such a text does not exist it is suggest an thorough going omniscience, but if it does, I am sure it would be found in
            Message 5 of 11 , Jun 8, 2003
              At 11:26 AM 6/8/03 +0800, you wrote:
              >I still hope some generous scholar out there will help me locate the
              >reference where it is said that Buddha/s and devas know/see what we are
              >doing. I prefer not to make a Sutta quote when I am uncertain of its exact
              >reference.


              I would strongly hope that such a text does not exist it is suggest an
              thorough going omniscience, but if it does, I am sure it would be found in
              Jayatilleke's great opus, EARLY BUDDHIST THEORY OF KNOWLEDGE. If I had the
              time I'd be more than happy to rummage through it in search of the text in
              question.
            • Jim Anderson
              Dear Piya, This probably isn t what you re looking for as it only refers to the devas but I thought I d mention it anyway. The passages are found in the sutta
              Message 6 of 11 , Jun 8, 2003
                Dear Piya,

                This probably isn't what you're looking for as it only refers to the
                devas but I thought I'd mention it anyway. The passages are found in
                the sutta at AN III.36 (A I 142f) which describe how some devas (the
                ministers, princes, and kings) of the realm of the Four Great Kings
                (caatummahaaraajikaa) regularly go out as reporters to observe the
                deeds of humans on the 8th, 14th, & 15th day of each half month. The
                Kings later report the matter to the Devas of the Thirty-three.

                Best wishes,
                Jim

                > I still hope some generous scholar out there will help me locate the
                > reference where it is said that Buddha/s and devas know/see what we
                are
                > doing. I prefer not to make a Sutta quote when I am uncertain of its
                exact
                > reference.
                >
                > Sukhi.
                >
                > Piya
              • Piya Tan
                Thanks Bruce for your suggestions. I will look up Jayatilleke. I m not sure of the context of the passage I m searching for, though I had actually come across
                Message 7 of 11 , Jun 8, 2003
                  Thanks Bruce for your suggestions. I will look up Jayatilleke.

                  I'm not sure of the context of the passage I'm searching for, though I had
                  actually come across it recently but never thought then to remember the
                  exact reference.

                  I'm aware of some of the problems of omniscience, but I don't think the
                  passage suggests omniscience in the post-Canonical sense. I'm guided by such
                  suttas as the Sabba Sutta (S 35.23/4:16).

                  Sukhi.

                  Piya


                  ----- Original Message -----
                  From: "Bruce Burrill" <brburl@...>
                  To: <Pali@yahoogroups.com>
                  Sent: Sunday, 08 June, 2003 9:07 PM
                  Subject: Re: [Pali] Buddha knows


                  > At 11:26 AM 6/8/03 +0800, you wrote:
                  > >I still hope some generous scholar out there will help me locate the
                  > >reference where it is said that Buddha/s and devas know/see what we are
                  > >doing. I prefer not to make a Sutta quote when I am uncertain of its
                  exact
                  > >reference.
                  >
                  >
                  > I would strongly hope that such a text does not exist it is suggest an
                  > thorough going omniscience, but if it does, I am sure it would be found in
                  > Jayatilleke's great opus, EARLY BUDDHIST THEORY OF KNOWLEDGE. If I had the
                  > time I'd be more than happy to rummage through it in search of the text in
                  > question.
                  >
                  >
                  >
                  >
                  >
                  > Paaliga.na - a community for Pali students
                  > - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
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                  web only.
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                  >
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                  >
                  >
                  >
                • Bruce Burrill
                  ... I m all in favor of that sutta.
                  Message 8 of 11 , Jun 8, 2003
                    At 09:45 PM 6/8/03 +0800, you wrote:
                    >I'm guided by such
                    >suttas as the Sabba Sutta (S 35.23/4:16).

                    I'm all in favor of that sutta.
                  • Piya Tan
                    Dear Jim, Thanks for your info. This is an interesting passage and connected in a general way with my paper on moral transparency with which I hope to conclude
                    Message 9 of 11 , Jun 8, 2003
                      Dear Jim,

                      Thanks for your info. This is an interesting passage and connected in a
                      general way with my paper on moral transparency with which I hope to
                      conclude my paper on "Monastics and Money" inspired by the comments of Ajahn
                      Brahmavamso, the ex-bhikkhu Dhamminda and Mohan Wijayaratna, and at the
                      request of my Sutta Discovery class students. I think the laity's basic
                      awareness of the Vinaya helps or inspires the monastics to keep to their
                      Monastic Code and become better teachers for our benefit.

                      In a way, all these quotes are extensions of "moral shame" (hiri) or as the
                      Commentaries put it, "other-regarding" moral conduct.

                      Sukhi.

                      Piya.


                      ----- Original Message -----
                      From: "Jim Anderson" <jimanderson_on@...>
                      To: <Pali@yahoogroups.com>
                      Sent: Sunday, 08 June, 2003 9:30 PM
                      Subject: Re: [Pali] Buddha knows


                      > Dear Piya,
                      >
                      > This probably isn't what you're looking for as it only refers to the
                      > devas but I thought I'd mention it anyway. The passages are found in
                      > the sutta at AN III.36 (A I 142f) which describe how some devas (the
                      > ministers, princes, and kings) of the realm of the Four Great Kings
                      > (caatummahaaraajikaa) regularly go out as reporters to observe the
                      > deeds of humans on the 8th, 14th, & 15th day of each half month. The
                      > Kings later report the matter to the Devas of the Thirty-three.
                      >
                      > Best wishes,
                      > Jim
                      >
                      > > I still hope some generous scholar out there will help me locate the
                      > > reference where it is said that Buddha/s and devas know/see what we
                      > are
                      > > doing. I prefer not to make a Sutta quote when I am uncertain of its
                      > exact
                      > > reference.
                      > >
                      > > Sukhi.
                      > >
                      > > Piya
                      >
                      >
                      >
                      >
                      > Paaliga.na - a community for Pali students
                      > - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
                      > Yahoo! Groups members can set their delivery options to daily digest or
                      web only.
                      > [Homepage] http://www.tipitaka.net
                      > [Send Message] pali@yahoogroups.com
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                      >
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                      >
                      >
                      >
                    • nina van gorkom
                      Dear Piya, I studied the subject of omniscience for dsg, three parts, but I shall post only one part of it now. I have more from Vis and Path of
                      Message 10 of 11 , Jun 9, 2003
                        Dear Piya,

                        I studied the subject of omniscience for dsg, three parts, but I shall post
                        only one part of it now. I have more from Vis and Path of Discrimination,
                        but this may be too long. Here is also the sutta you once quoted to me. This
                        is not what you were looking for, but you mentioned omniscience here. There
                        are different opinions and also misunderstandings about omniscience and
                        perhaps my quotes may be of help.
                        Nina
                        op 08-06-2003 15:45 schreef Piya Tan op libris@...

                        > I'm aware of some of the problems of omniscience, but I don't think the
                        > passage suggests omniscience in the post-Canonical sense. I'm guided by such
                        > suttas as the Sabba Sutta (S 35.23/4:16).
                        Nina:
                        The citta that knows an object falls away immediately, and so it is with the
                        Buddha's citta with omniscience. He directed his omniscience then to this
                        and then to that object, not to more than one object at a time. Each citta
                        can know only one object at a time.

                        In the Commentary to the Brahmjala Sutta, Tr. by Ven. Bikkhu Bodhi, (The
                        All-embracing Net of Views, p. 128) we find under <Deep, difficult to see> a
                        discussion about it that the plural <dhammas> is used for the objects of
                        omniscience, sabba~n~nuta~naa.na. I only quote parts, it is rather long. It
                        is said:
                        <Because it takes a multiplicity of objects... It knows the entire past,
                        thus it is knowledge of omniscience, thus it is the unobstructed knowledge,
                        etc (Pts I.1.73). Therefore, because it is associated with multiple classes
                        of consciousness, and because it takes a multiplicity of objects on the
                        successive occasions of its arising, it is described in the plural.>
                        There is a discussion in the Subco. :<Query: If this is so, how is it
                        possible for a single, limited type of knowledge to penetrate without
                        omission the entire range of the knowable with its inconceivable,
                        immeasurable subdivisions?
                        Reply: Who says the Buddha-knowledge is limited?.... With the abandoning of
                        the entire obstruction of the knowable, the Exalted One gained unobstructed
                        knowledge which occurs subject to his wish and is capable of comprehending
                        all dhammas in all their modes. By means of this knowledge the Exalted One
                        was capable of penetrating all dhammas in continuous succession (santanena);
                        therefore he was omniscient or all-knowing in the way fire is called
                        "all-consuming" through its ability to burn all its fuel in continuous
                        succession. He was not, however, omniscient in the sense that he could
                        comprehend all dhammas simultaneously. >
                        This text refers to the Tika of the Visuddhimagga, VII, 29, footnote 7,
                        where there is the same discussion.

                        I quote from the Commentary to the Abh. Sangaha (Title: Exposition of the
                        Topics of Abhidhamma, P.T.S., which just came out in one book together with
                        Summary of the Topics of Abhidhamma).
                        Ch 3, Miscellaneous Topics, under: impulsion, javana. It states:
                        <For, although the transcendent path (lokuttara magggacitta), and so on,
                        last for just one moment, since they possess the intrinsic nature of
                        impulsion, they are still regarded as [performing] the function of
                        impulsion; just as the omniscience [of a Buddha], although it has only one
                        object at a time in its range, since it has the capacity of knowing
                        everything, never loses the name [of omniscience].>
                        In the same Commentary we read in the Prologue:
                        <Herein the Perfectly Awakened One (sammasambuddha) is the Blessed One, who
                        has awakened to all dhammas perfectly and by himself. Perfectly and by his
                        own knowledge, which has been produced by his fulfilment of the perfections
                        both individually and collectively, he knows and understands all things,
                        whether conditioned or unconditioned, by virtue of penetrating to their true
                        and essential characteristics. Thus he has said: "Having known by myself, to
                        whom can I point [as my teacher]?...>
                        <Just as, by association with the rays of the sun, a lotus blossoms with the
                        beauty of the loveliest radiance, he himself, by association with the
                        knowledge of the highest path, blossoms perfectly with omniscience adorned
                        with immeasurable qualities...>
                        Here the Commentary refers to the Middle Length Sayings I, 26, The Ariyan
                        Quest where the Buddha said to Upaka:
                        <Victorious over all, omniscient am I,
                        Among all things undefiled,
                        Leaving all, through death of craving freed,
                        By knowing for myself, whom should I point to?
                        For me there is no teacher...>
                        We find the same text in the Dhammapada, vs. 353.

                        Nina.
                      • Piya Tan
                        Dear Nina, Thanks for you thoughtful (in more ways than one) note on the Buddha s omniscience . I shall study it. Sukhi. Piya ... From: nina van gorkom
                        Message 11 of 11 , Jun 9, 2003
                          Dear Nina,

                          Thanks for you thoughtful (in more ways than one) note on the Buddha's
                          "omniscience". I shall study it.

                          Sukhi.

                          Piya

                          ----- Original Message -----
                          From: "nina van gorkom" <nilo@...>
                          To: <Pali@yahoogroups.com>
                          Sent: Tuesday, 10 June, 2003 1:09 AM
                          Subject: Re: [Pali] Buddha knows, omniscience.


                          > Dear Piya,
                          >
                          > I studied the subject of omniscience for dsg, three parts, but I shall
                          post
                          > only one part of it now. I have more from Vis and Path of Discrimination,
                          > but this may be too long. Here is also the sutta you once quoted to me.
                          This
                          > is not what you were looking for, but you mentioned omniscience here.
                          There
                          > are different opinions and also misunderstandings about omniscience and
                          > perhaps my quotes may be of help.
                          > Nina
                          > op 08-06-2003 15:45 schreef Piya Tan op libris@...
                          >
                          > > I'm aware of some of the problems of omniscience, but I don't think the
                          > > passage suggests omniscience in the post-Canonical sense. I'm guided by
                          such
                          > > suttas as the Sabba Sutta (S 35.23/4:16).
                          > Nina:
                          > The citta that knows an object falls away immediately, and so it is with
                          the
                          > Buddha's citta with omniscience. He directed his omniscience then to this
                          > and then to that object, not to more than one object at a time. Each citta
                          > can know only one object at a time.
                          >
                          > In the Commentary to the Brahmjala Sutta, Tr. by Ven. Bikkhu Bodhi, (The
                          > All-embracing Net of Views, p. 128) we find under <Deep, difficult to see>
                          a
                          > discussion about it that the plural <dhammas> is used for the objects of
                          > omniscience, sabba~n~nuta~naa.na. I only quote parts, it is rather long.
                          It
                          > is said:
                          > <Because it takes a multiplicity of objects... It knows the entire past,
                          > thus it is knowledge of omniscience, thus it is the unobstructed
                          knowledge,
                          > etc (Pts I.1.73). Therefore, because it is associated with multiple
                          classes
                          > of consciousness, and because it takes a multiplicity of objects on the
                          > successive occasions of its arising, it is described in the plural.>
                          > There is a discussion in the Subco. :<Query: If this is so, how is it
                          > possible for a single, limited type of knowledge to penetrate without
                          > omission the entire range of the knowable with its inconceivable,
                          > immeasurable subdivisions?
                          > Reply: Who says the Buddha-knowledge is limited?.... With the abandoning
                          of
                          > the entire obstruction of the knowable, the Exalted One gained
                          unobstructed
                          > knowledge which occurs subject to his wish and is capable of comprehending
                          > all dhammas in all their modes. By means of this knowledge the Exalted One
                          > was capable of penetrating all dhammas in continuous succession
                          (santanena);
                          > therefore he was omniscient or all-knowing in the way fire is called
                          > "all-consuming" through its ability to burn all its fuel in continuous
                          > succession. He was not, however, omniscient in the sense that he could
                          > comprehend all dhammas simultaneously. >
                          > This text refers to the Tika of the Visuddhimagga, VII, 29, footnote 7,
                          > where there is the same discussion.
                          >
                          > I quote from the Commentary to the Abh. Sangaha (Title: Exposition of the
                          > Topics of Abhidhamma, P.T.S., which just came out in one book together
                          with
                          > Summary of the Topics of Abhidhamma).
                          > Ch 3, Miscellaneous Topics, under: impulsion, javana. It states:
                          > <For, although the transcendent path (lokuttara magggacitta), and so on,
                          > last for just one moment, since they possess the intrinsic nature of
                          > impulsion, they are still regarded as [performing] the function of
                          > impulsion; just as the omniscience [of a Buddha], although it has only one
                          > object at a time in its range, since it has the capacity of knowing
                          > everything, never loses the name [of omniscience].>
                          > In the same Commentary we read in the Prologue:
                          > <Herein the Perfectly Awakened One (sammasambuddha) is the Blessed One,
                          who
                          > has awakened to all dhammas perfectly and by himself. Perfectly and by his
                          > own knowledge, which has been produced by his fulfilment of the
                          perfections
                          > both individually and collectively, he knows and understands all things,
                          > whether conditioned or unconditioned, by virtue of penetrating to their
                          true
                          > and essential characteristics. Thus he has said: "Having known by myself,
                          to
                          > whom can I point [as my teacher]?...>
                          > <Just as, by association with the rays of the sun, a lotus blossoms with
                          the
                          > beauty of the loveliest radiance, he himself, by association with the
                          > knowledge of the highest path, blossoms perfectly with omniscience adorned
                          > with immeasurable qualities...>
                          > Here the Commentary refers to the Middle Length Sayings I, 26, The Ariyan
                          > Quest where the Buddha said to Upaka:
                          > <Victorious over all, omniscient am I,
                          > Among all things undefiled,
                          > Leaving all, through death of craving freed,
                          > By knowing for myself, whom should I point to?
                          > For me there is no teacher...>
                          > We find the same text in the Dhammapada, vs. 353.
                          >
                          > Nina.
                          >
                          >
                          >
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