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Re: [Pali] bhava'nga - etymology -questions

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  • Nina van Gorkom
    Dear Brett, ... N: I collected some material. I wrote this in my recent Abhidhamma Series,no 10: Life-continuum, bhavanga-citta. There are moments when there
    Message 1 of 12 , Oct 11, 2010
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      Dear Brett,
      Op 10-okt-2010, om 19:21 heeft Brett Morris het volgende geschreven:

      > I would be interested to hear what anyone has to say about a few
      > questions on
      > bhava'nga.
      > 1. The etymology seems to be bhava + a'nga = a constituent part of
      > becoming/existence. Can anyone shed some more light on this?
      --------
      N: I collected some material. I wrote this in my recent Abhidhamma
      Series,no 10:

      Life-continuum, bhavanga-citta.

      There are moments when there are no sense-impressions, when one does
      not think, when there are no akusala cittas or kusala cittas. Even
      when there are no sense-impressions and no thinking there must be
      citta; otherwise there would be no life. The type of citta which
      arises and falls away at those moments is called bhavanga-citta.
      Bhavanga literally means ``factor of life''; bhavanga is usually
      translated into English as ``life-continuum''. The bhavanga-citta
      keeps the continuity in a lifespan, so that what we call a ``being''
      goes on to live from moment to moment. That is the function of the
      bhavanga-citta.
      There are countless bhavanga-cittas arising at those moments when
      there are no sense-impressions, no thinking, no akusala cittas or
      kusala cittas. When we are asleep and dreaming akusala cittas and
      kusala cittas arise, but even when we are in a dreamless sleep there
      still has to be citta. There are bhavanga-cittas at such moments.
      Also when we are awake countless bhavanga-cittas arise; they arise in
      between the different processes of citta. It seems that hearing, for
      example, can arise very shortly after seeing, but in reality there
      are different processes of citta and in between these processes
      bhavanga-cittas arise.
      When an object contacts one of the five senses the stream of bhavanga-
      cittas is interrupted and there is a sense-cognition. However, there
      cannot be a sense-cognition immediately. When sound, for example,
      impinges on the earsense, there is not immediately hearing. There are
      still some bhavanga-cittas arising and falling away before the pa�ca-
      dv�r�vajjana-citta (five-door-adverting consciousness) adverts to the
      sound through the ear-door and hearing arises. The bhavanga-cittas do
      not perform the function of adverting to the sound which contacts the
      earsense, they do not experience the sound. They have their own
      function which is keeping the continuity in a lifespan.
      In the �Atthasaalinii�, the commentary to the first book of the
      Abhidhamma, the Dhammasangani, the parable of the Mango is given,
      explaining a process of cittas after the stream of bhavanga has been
      arrested. We read (Expositor II, 271, part X, no 2, Discourse on the
      moral result of the sensuous realm) that a man went to sleep under a
      mango-tree. A ripe mango fell down, grazing his ear. Awakened by the
      sound he looked, stretched out his hand, took the fruit, squeezed it,
      smelt it and ate it. We read: �What does this simile signify? The
      function of the object striking the sentient organism. When this
      happens there is the function of adverting by the five doors just
      agitating the life-continuum, the function of just seeing by visual
      cognition, of just receiving the object by the resultant mind-element
      {N: receiving-consciousness], of just the examining of the object by
      the resultant element of mind-cognition [N: investigating-
      consciousness), the determining of the object by the inoperative
      element of mind-cognition (the kiriyacitta which is determining-
      consciousness). But verily only the apperception [N: the series of
      javanacittas] enjoys the taste of the object.
      ---------

      > B: 2. As far as I understand there are only a couple of places
      > bhava'nga is
      > mentioned in the Abhidhamma, and it is discussed much greater in the
      > commentaries where the 'bhava'nga theory' is developed as we have
      > it today. Is
      > this accurate? Does anyone have references to the places it is used
      > in the
      > Abhidhamma?
      -------

      Also In the sutta: Anguttara Nikaaya, 1. 6. 2.
      > pabhassaramida.m bhikkhave citta.m ta~nca kho aagantukehi
      upakkilesehi
      > vippamutta.m.
      N: This consciousness, monks, is luminous, and it is indeed released
      from
      oncoming defilements.
      >ta.m sutavaa ariyasaavako yathaabhuuta.m pajaanaati.
      N: The learned noble disciple understand it as it really is.
      >tasma sutavato ariyasaavakassa cittabhaavanaa atthiiti vadaamiiti.
      N: Therefore I say that the learned, noble disciple has developed the
      mind.

      -------
      The Atthasalini speaks about the bhavangacitta as being pure, using
      the word
      pa.n.dara (I, Book I, Part IV, Ch II, 140) : "Mind also is said to be
      clear
      in the sense of exceedingly pure with reference to the Bhavanga-
      citta." Now
      I like to mention Acharn Sujin's "Survey of Paramattha Dhammas" where
      she
      explains about the bhavanga-citta which is different from the cittas
      experiencing objects impinging on the six doors. She explains that
      when one
      is fast asleep one does not know who one is or where one is, one does
      not
      experience the world. When one wakes up the world appears, one
      experiences
      all the objects impinging on the six doors and then these objects
      give rise
      to defilements. The bhavanga-citta, life-continuum, that has the
      function of
      keeping continuity in the life of an individual, arises when fast
      asleep and
      also in between the processes of cittas. Thus our life, consisting of an
      uninterrupted series of cittas, goes on. The bhavanga-citta
      experiences the
      same object as the rebirth-consciousness, and this object is like an
      echo of
      the object experienced shortly before the dying-consciousness of the
      previous life. This citta is pure, but it does not mean that there
      are no
      latent tendencies of defilements, anusayas, which lie dormant in the
      citta.
      It is called pure or luminous, because at that moment no defilements
      arise.
      -------
      N: In the Abhidhamma, in the Pa.t.thaana book, under Faultless
      triplet, Proximity-condition (anantara-paccaya, the condition that
      each preceding citta must condiiton the following citta): "Life-
      continuum (bhavanga) to advertance (avajjana)."
      N: Before there is advertance to an object that impinges on one of
      the senses or the mind-door, the series of bhavangacittas is
      interrupted and a process of cittas begins. The last bhavangacitta
      conditions the first citta of a process, the citta that adverts to
      the new object.
      ----------
      > B: 3. Is anyone aware of the approximate time the bhava'nga theory
      > really started
      > developing in the way the Theravaada tradition understands it now?
      ----
      N: Here we come to the issue of the ancient commentaries which have
      also been rehearsed at the Great Councils. This is an issue apart.
      Before, in this list, this has been debated, and I prefer rather to
      speak about the contents of the texts and their relation to daily
      life now, instead of going into historical issues.
      I am disinclined to use the expression bhavanga theory, since it is
      not theoretical. The Abhidhamma deals with realities of daily life.
      There is bhavangacitta now, while there are no sense impressions and
      no thinking. Still, our life goes on, there cannot be moments without
      citta. The citta that keeps the continuity in the long series of
      cittas we call life is named bhavangacitta.
      ---------
      Nina.

      [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
    • Brett Morris
      Yes, thanks. I have this article it is very informative. ... From: Piya Tan To: Pali@yahoogroups.com Sent: Mon, October 11, 2010
      Message 2 of 12 , Oct 11, 2010
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        Yes, thanks. I have this article it is very informative.




        ----- Original Message ----
        From: Piya Tan <dharmafarer@...>
        To: Pali@yahoogroups.com
        Sent: Mon, October 11, 2010 7:30:31 AM
        Subject: Re: [Pali] bhava'nga - etymology -questions

        Brett,

        You might find something useful in this article:


        Rupert Gethin,

        “Bhavanga and Rebirth According to the Abhidharma.” In *The Buddhist Forum*,
        vol. 3 1991-1993 (Papers in honour and appreciation of Professor David
        Seyfort Ruegg’s contri­bution to Indological, Buddhist and Tibetan Studies),
        ed. Tadeusz Skorupski & Ulrich Pagel. London, School of Oriental and African
        Studies, 1994:11-35.

        With metta,

        Piya Tan

        On Mon, Oct 11, 2010 at 1:21 AM, Brett Morris <brettmorris73@...>wrote:

        >
        >
        > I would be interested to hear what anyone has to say about a few questions
        > on
        > bhava'nga.
        > 1. The etymology seems to be bhava + a'nga = a constituent part of
        > becoming/existence. Can anyone shed some more light on this?
        >
        > 2. As far as I understand there are only a couple of places bhava'nga is
        > mentioned in the Abhidhamma, and it is discussed much greater in the
        > commentaries where the 'bhava'nga theory' is developed as we have it today.
        > Is
        > this accurate? Does anyone have references to the places it is used in the
        > Abhidhamma?
        >
        > 3. Is anyone aware of the approximate time the bhava'nga theory really
        > started
        > developing in the way the Theravaada tradition understands it now?
        >
        > Many thanks and metta,
        > Brett
        >
        >
        --
        The Minding Centre
        Blk 644 Bukit Batok Central #01-68 (2nd flr)
        Singapore 650644
        hpl: 8211 0879
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        [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]



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      • Brett Morris
        Thanks Nina this is much appreciated. A couple of follow up questions: N: ...This citta is pure, but it does not mean that there are no latent tendencies of
        Message 3 of 12 , Oct 11, 2010
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          Thanks Nina this is much appreciated. A couple of follow up questions:

          N: ...This citta is pure, but it does not mean that there
          are no
          latent tendencies of defilements, anusayas, which lie dormant in the
          citta.
          It is called pure or luminous, because at that moment no defilements
          arise.
          >B: According to the Abhidhamma can there be a latent tendency lying dormant? In
          >a wholesome mind how can there be a latent tendency to hate according to the
          >Abhidhamma? Also along the same lines is the bhava'nga citta of a hell being
          >pure and luminous? It seems that the mind that took this being to hell, i.e. the
          >last active mind of the previous life would be filled with torment? This is
          >getting at one of my questions, in the Suttas (and our experience) it seems that
          >there certainly are latent defilements, but I am not clear how the Abhidhamma
          >accounts for these.
          >


          N: Here we come to the issue of the ancient commentaries which have
          also been rehearsed at the Great Councils. This is an issue apart.
          Before, in this list, this has been debated, and I prefer rather to
          speak about the contents of the texts and their relation to daily
          life now, instead of going into historical issues.
          I am disinclined to use the expression bhavanga theory, since it is
          not theoretical. The Abhidhamma deals with realities of daily life.
          There is bhavangacitta now, while there are no sense impressions and
          no thinking. Still, our life goes on, there cannot be moments without
          citta. The citta that keeps the continuity in the long series of
          cittas we call life is named bhavangacitta.

          >B: I very much appreciate this response. As far as the reality of bhavangacitta
          >yes it is very clear and as you say some such mechanism must exist to keep life
          >'going on'. I am curious as to the historical 'timeline' just to get a picture
          >of what is mentioned where. For example, as you cited, in the Pali Suttas there
          >is reference to this luminous mind. Later, this was equated with the bhavanga.
          >But bhavanga seems to be used more to explain how the mind continues from moment
          >too moment with some continuity and in states like deep dreamless sleep. In
          >addition the Abhidhamma (I think) says that only one mind can arise at any given
          >moment and so (as my questions above) how do the latent defilement continue in a
          >wholesome bhavanga. So I am not doubting bhavanga per se, nor even the
          >commentaries, but just trying to piece together how latent defilements are
          >accounted for and what the ancient commentators were concerned with accounting
          >for. For me this notion of a latent defilement is very much a reality of daily
          >life, as it is clear that until that potential is eradicated I am in some
          >bondage yet I would like to know how these ancients dealt with it.

          much metta,
          Brett






          ----- Original Message ----
          From: Nina van Gorkom <vangorko@...>
          To: Pali@yahoogroups.com
          Sent: Mon, October 11, 2010 8:19:30 AM
          Subject: Re: [Pali] bhava'nga - etymology -questions

          Dear Brett,
          Op 10-okt-2010, om 19:21 heeft Brett Morris het volgende geschreven:

          > I would be interested to hear what anyone has to say about a few
          > questions on
          > bhava'nga.
          > 1. The etymology seems to be bhava + a'nga = a constituent part of
          > becoming/existence. Can anyone shed some more light on this?
          --------
          N: I collected some material. I wrote this in my recent Abhidhamma
          Series,no 10:

          Life-continuum, bhavanga-citta.

          There are moments when there are no sense-impressions, when one does
          not think, when there are no akusala cittas or kusala cittas. Even
          when there are no sense-impressions and no thinking there must be
          citta; otherwise there would be no life. The type of citta which
          arises and falls away at those moments is called bhavanga-citta.
          Bhavanga literally means ``factor of life''; bhavanga is usually
          translated into English as ``life-continuum''. The bhavanga-citta
          keeps the continuity in a lifespan, so that what we call a ``being''
          goes on to live from moment to moment. That is the function of the
          bhavanga-citta.
          There are countless bhavanga-cittas arising at those moments when
          there are no sense-impressions, no thinking, no akusala cittas or
          kusala cittas. When we are asleep and dreaming akusala cittas and
          kusala cittas arise, but even when we are in a dreamless sleep there
          still has to be citta. There are bhavanga-cittas at such moments.
          Also when we are awake countless bhavanga-cittas arise; they arise in
          between the different processes of citta. It seems that hearing, for
          example, can arise very shortly after seeing, but in reality there
          are different processes of citta and in between these processes
          bhavanga-cittas arise.
          When an object contacts one of the five senses the stream of bhavanga-
          cittas is interrupted and there is a sense-cognition. However, there
          cannot be a sense-cognition immediately. When sound, for example,
          impinges on the earsense, there is not immediately hearing. There are
          still some bhavanga-cittas arising and falling away before the pañca-
          dvåråvajjana-citta (five-door-adverting consciousness) adverts to the
          sound through the ear-door and hearing arises. The bhavanga-cittas do
          not perform the function of adverting to the sound which contacts the
          earsense, they do not experience the sound. They have their own
          function which is keeping the continuity in a lifespan.
          In the ‘Atthasaalinii’, the commentary to the first book of the
          Abhidhamma, the Dhammasangani, the parable of the Mango is given,
          explaining a process of cittas after the stream of bhavanga has been
          arrested. We read (Expositor II, 271, part X, no 2, Discourse on the
          moral result of the sensuous realm) that a man went to sleep under a
          mango-tree. A ripe mango fell down, grazing his ear. Awakened by the
          sound he looked, stretched out his hand, took the fruit, squeezed it,
          smelt it and ate it. We read: “What does this simile signify? The
          function of the object striking the sentient organism. When this
          happens there is the function of adverting by the five doors just
          agitating the life-continuum, the function of just seeing by visual
          cognition, of just receiving the object by the resultant mind-element
          {N: receiving-consciousness], of just the examining of the object by
          the resultant element of mind-cognition [N: investigating-
          consciousness), the determining of the object by the inoperative
          element of mind-cognition (the kiriyacitta which is determining-
          consciousness). But verily only the apperception [N: the series of
          javanacittas] enjoys the taste of the object.
          ---------

          > B: 2. As far as I understand there are only a couple of places
          > bhava'nga is
          > mentioned in the Abhidhamma, and it is discussed much greater in the
          > commentaries where the 'bhava'nga theory' is developed as we have
          > it today. Is
          > this accurate? Does anyone have references to the places it is used
          > in the
          > Abhidhamma?
          -------

          Also In the sutta: Anguttara Nikaaya, 1. 6. 2.
          > pabhassaramida.m bhikkhave citta.m ta~nca kho aagantukehi
          upakkilesehi
          > vippamutta.m.
          N: This consciousness, monks, is luminous, and it is indeed released
          from
          oncoming defilements.
          >ta.m sutavaa ariyasaavako yathaabhuuta.m pajaanaati.
          N: The learned noble disciple understand it as it really is.
          >tasma sutavato ariyasaavakassa cittabhaavanaa atthiiti vadaamiiti.
          N: Therefore I say that the learned, noble disciple has developed the
          mind.

          -------
          The Atthasalini speaks about the bhavangacitta as being pure, using
          the word
          pa.n.dara (I, Book I, Part IV, Ch II, 140) : "Mind also is said to be
          clear
          in the sense of exceedingly pure with reference to the Bhavanga-
          citta." Now
          I like to mention Acharn Sujin's "Survey of Paramattha Dhammas" where
          she
          explains about the bhavanga-citta which is different from the cittas
          experiencing objects impinging on the six doors. She explains that
          when one
          is fast asleep one does not know who one is or where one is, one does
          not
          experience the world. When one wakes up the world appears, one
          experiences
          all the objects impinging on the six doors and then these objects
          give rise
          to defilements. The bhavanga-citta, life-continuum, that has the
          function of
          keeping continuity in the life of an individual, arises when fast
          asleep and
          also in between the processes of cittas. Thus our life, consisting of an
          uninterrupted series of cittas, goes on. The bhavanga-citta
          experiences the
          same object as the rebirth-consciousness, and this object is like an
          echo of
          the object experienced shortly before the dying-consciousness of the
          previous life. This citta is pure, but it does not mean that there
          are no
          latent tendencies of defilements, anusayas, which lie dormant in the
          citta.
          It is called pure or luminous, because at that moment no defilements
          arise.
          -------
          N: In the Abhidhamma, in the Pa.t.thaana book, under Faultless
          triplet, Proximity-condition (anantara-paccaya, the condition that
          each preceding citta must condiiton the following citta): "Life-
          continuum (bhavanga) to advertance (avajjana)."
          N: Before there is advertance to an object that impinges on one of
          the senses or the mind-door, the series of bhavangacittas is
          interrupted and a process of cittas begins. The last bhavangacitta
          conditions the first citta of a process, the citta that adverts to
          the new object.
          ----------
          > B: 3. Is anyone aware of the approximate time the bhava'nga theory
          > really started
          > developing in the way the Theravaada tradition understands it now?
          ----
          N: Here we come to the issue of the ancient commentaries which have
          also been rehearsed at the Great Councils. This is an issue apart.
          Before, in this list, this has been debated, and I prefer rather to
          speak about the contents of the texts and their relation to daily
          life now, instead of going into historical issues.
          I am disinclined to use the expression bhavanga theory, since it is
          not theoretical. The Abhidhamma deals with realities of daily life.
          There is bhavangacitta now, while there are no sense impressions and
          no thinking. Still, our life goes on, there cannot be moments without
          citta. The citta that keeps the continuity in the long series of
          cittas we call life is named bhavangacitta.
          ---------
          Nina.

          [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]



          ------------------------------------

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          Paa.li-Parisaa - The Pali Collective
          [Homepage] http://www.tipitaka.net
          [Pali Document Framework] http://www.tipitaka.net/forge/pdf/
          [Files] http://www.geocities.com/paligroup/
          [Send Message] pali@yahoogroups.com
          Yahoo! Groups members can set their delivery options to daily digest or web
          only.Yahoo! Groups Links
        • Bryan Levman
          Dear Nina, Thanks very much for your excellent description of the bhava nga citta. Dear Brett, Steven Collins has a whole chapter in his book Selfless
          Message 4 of 12 , Oct 11, 2010
          • 0 Attachment
            Dear Nina,

            Thanks very much for your excellent description of the bhava"nga citta.

            Dear Brett,

            Steven Collins has a whole chapter in his book "Selfless Persons" (p. 225-261)
            on the bhavan"ga citta which you will find very helpful,


            Metta,

            Bryan





            ________________________________
            From: Nina van Gorkom <vangorko@...>
            To: Pali@yahoogroups.com
            Sent: Mon, October 11, 2010 10:19:30 AM
            Subject: Re: [Pali] bhava'nga - etymology -questions

            Dear Brett,
            Op 10-okt-2010, om 19:21 heeft Brett Morris het volgende geschreven:

            > I would be interested to hear what anyone has to say about a few
            > questions on
            > bhava'nga.
            > 1. The etymology seems to be bhava + a'nga = a constituent part of
            > becoming/existence. Can anyone shed some more light on this?
            --------
            N: I collected some material. I wrote this in my recent Abhidhamma
            Series,no 10:

            Life-continuum, bhavanga-citta.

            There are moments when there are no sense-impressions, when one does
            not think, when there are no akusala cittas or kusala cittas. Even
            when there are no sense-impressions and no thinking there must be
            citta; otherwise there would be no life. The type of citta which
            arises and falls away at those moments is called bhavanga-citta.
            Bhavanga literally means ``factor of life''; bhavanga is usually
            translated into English as ``life-continuum''. The bhavanga-citta
            keeps the continuity in a lifespan, so that what we call a ``being''
            goes on to live from moment to moment. That is the function of the
            bhavanga-citta.
            There are countless bhavanga-cittas arising at those moments when
            there are no sense-impressions, no thinking, no akusala cittas or
            kusala cittas. When we are asleep and dreaming akusala cittas and
            kusala cittas arise, but even when we are in a dreamless sleep there
            still has to be citta. There are bhavanga-cittas at such moments.
            Also when we are awake countless bhavanga-cittas arise; they arise in
            between the different processes of citta. It seems that hearing, for
            example, can arise very shortly after seeing, but in reality there
            are different processes of citta and in between these processes
            bhavanga-cittas arise.
            When an object contacts one of the five senses the stream of bhavanga-
            cittas is interrupted and there is a sense-cognition. However, there
            cannot be a sense-cognition immediately. When sound, for example,
            impinges on the earsense, there is not immediately hearing. There are
            still some bhavanga-cittas arising and falling away before the pañca-
            dvåråvajjana-citta (five-door-adverting consciousness) adverts to the
            sound through the ear-door and hearing arises. The bhavanga-cittas do
            not perform the function of adverting to the sound which contacts the
            earsense, they do not experience the sound. They have their own
            function which is keeping the continuity in a lifespan.
            In the ‘Atthasaalinii’, the commentary to the first book of the
            Abhidhamma, the Dhammasangani, the parable of the Mango is given,
            explaining a process of cittas after the stream of bhavanga has been
            arrested. We read (Expositor II, 271, part X, no 2, Discourse on the
            moral result of the sensuous realm) that a man went to sleep under a
            mango-tree. A ripe mango fell down, grazing his ear. Awakened by the
            sound he looked, stretched out his hand, took the fruit, squeezed it,
            smelt it and ate it. We read: “What does this simile signify? The
            function of the object striking the sentient organism. When this
            happens there is the function of adverting by the five doors just
            agitating the life-continuum, the function of just seeing by visual
            cognition, of just receiving the object by the resultant mind-element
            {N: receiving-consciousness], of just the examining of the object by
            the resultant element of mind-cognition [N: investigating-
            consciousness), the determining of the object by the inoperative
            element of mind-cognition (the kiriyacitta which is determining-
            consciousness). But verily only the apperception [N: the series of
            javanacittas] enjoys the taste of the object.
            ---------

            > B: 2. As far as I understand there are only a couple of places
            > bhava'nga is
            > mentioned in the Abhidhamma, and it is discussed much greater in the
            > commentaries where the 'bhava'nga theory' is developed as we have
            > it today. Is
            > this accurate? Does anyone have references to the places it is used
            > in the
            > Abhidhamma?
            -------

            Also In the sutta: Anguttara Nikaaya, 1. 6. 2.
            > pabhassaramida.m bhikkhave citta.m ta~nca kho aagantukehi
            upakkilesehi
            > vippamutta.m.
            N: This consciousness, monks, is luminous, and it is indeed released
            from
            oncoming defilements.
            >ta.m sutavaa ariyasaavako yathaabhuuta.m pajaanaati.
            N: The learned noble disciple understand it as it really is.
            >tasma sutavato ariyasaavakassa cittabhaavanaa atthiiti vadaamiiti.
            N: Therefore I say that the learned, noble disciple has developed the
            mind.

            -------
            The Atthasalini speaks about the bhavangacitta as being pure, using
            the word
            pa.n.dara (I, Book I, Part IV, Ch II, 140) : "Mind also is said to be
            clear
            in the sense of exceedingly pure with reference to the Bhavanga-
            citta." Now
            I like to mention Acharn Sujin's "Survey of Paramattha Dhammas" where
            she
            explains about the bhavanga-citta which is different from the cittas
            experiencing objects impinging on the six doors. She explains that
            when one
            is fast asleep one does not know who one is or where one is, one does
            not
            experience the world. When one wakes up the world appears, one
            experiences
            all the objects impinging on the six doors and then these objects
            give rise
            to defilements. The bhavanga-citta, life-continuum, that has the
            function of
            keeping continuity in the life of an individual, arises when fast
            asleep and
            also in between the processes of cittas. Thus our life, consisting of an
            uninterrupted series of cittas, goes on. The bhavanga-citta
            experiences the
            same object as the rebirth-consciousness, and this object is like an
            echo of
            the object experienced shortly before the dying-consciousness of the
            previous life. This citta is pure, but it does not mean that there
            are no
            latent tendencies of defilements, anusayas, which lie dormant in the
            citta.
            It is called pure or luminous, because at that moment no defilements
            arise.
            -------
            N: In the Abhidhamma, in the Pa.t.thaana book, under Faultless
            triplet, Proximity-condition (anantara-paccaya, the condition that
            each preceding citta must condiiton the following citta): "Life-
            continuum (bhavanga) to advertance (avajjana)."
            N: Before there is advertance to an object that impinges on one of
            the senses or the mind-door, the series of bhavangacittas is
            interrupted and a process of cittas begins. The last bhavangacitta
            conditions the first citta of a process, the citta that adverts to
            the new object.
            ----------
            > B: 3. Is anyone aware of the approximate time the bhava'nga theory
            > really started
            > developing in the way the Theravaada tradition understands it now?
            ----
            N: Here we come to the issue of the ancient commentaries which have
            also been rehearsed at the Great Councils. This is an issue apart.
            Before, in this list, this has been debated, and I prefer rather to
            speak about the contents of the texts and their relation to daily
            life now, instead of going into historical issues.
            I am disinclined to use the expression bhavanga theory, since it is
            not theoretical. The Abhidhamma deals with realities of daily life.
            There is bhavangacitta now, while there are no sense impressions and
            no thinking. Still, our life goes on, there cannot be moments without
            citta. The citta that keeps the continuity in the long series of
            cittas we call life is named bhavangacitta.
            ---------
            Nina.

            [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]



            ------------------------------------

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            [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
          • Brett Morris
            Thanks Bryan, I will look at this. with metta, Brett ________________________________ From: Bryan Levman To: Pali@yahoogroups.com
            Message 5 of 12 , Oct 11, 2010
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              Thanks Bryan, I will look at this.

              with metta,
              Brett





              ________________________________
              From: Bryan Levman <bryan.levman@...>
              To: Pali@yahoogroups.com
              Sent: Mon, October 11, 2010 2:31:51 PM
              Subject: Re: [Pali] bhava'nga - etymology -questions


              Dear Nina,

              Thanks very much for your excellent description of the bhava"nga citta.

              Dear Brett,

              Steven Collins has a whole chapter in his book "Selfless Persons" (p. 225-261)
              on the bhavan"ga citta which you will find very helpful,

              Metta,

              Bryan

              ________________________________
              From: Nina van Gorkom <vangorko@...>
              To: Pali@yahoogroups.com
              Sent: Mon, October 11, 2010 10:19:30 AM
              Subject: Re: [Pali] bhava'nga - etymology -questions

              Dear Brett,
              Op 10-okt-2010, om 19:21 heeft Brett Morris het volgende geschreven:

              > I would be interested to hear what anyone has to say about a few
              > questions on
              > bhava'nga.
              > 1. The etymology seems to be bhava + a'nga = a constituent part of
              > becoming/existence. Can anyone shed some more light on this?
              --------
              N: I collected some material. I wrote this in my recent Abhidhamma
              Series,no 10:

              Life-continuum, bhavanga-citta.

              There are moments when there are no sense-impressions, when one does
              not think, when there are no akusala cittas or kusala cittas. Even
              when there are no sense-impressions and no thinking there must be
              citta; otherwise there would be no life. The type of citta which
              arises and falls away at those moments is called bhavanga-citta.
              Bhavanga literally means ``factor of life''; bhavanga is usually
              translated into English as ``life-continuum''. The bhavanga-citta
              keeps the continuity in a lifespan, so that what we call a ``being''
              goes on to live from moment to moment. That is the function of the
              bhavanga-citta.
              There are countless bhavanga-cittas arising at those moments when
              there are no sense-impressions, no thinking, no akusala cittas or
              kusala cittas. When we are asleep and dreaming akusala cittas and
              kusala cittas arise, but even when we are in a dreamless sleep there
              still has to be citta. There are bhavanga-cittas at such moments.
              Also when we are awake countless bhavanga-cittas arise; they arise in
              between the different processes of citta. It seems that hearing, for
              example, can arise very shortly after seeing, but in reality there
              are different processes of citta and in between these processes
              bhavanga-cittas arise.
              When an object contacts one of the five senses the stream of bhavanga-
              cittas is interrupted and there is a sense-cognition. However, there
              cannot be a sense-cognition immediately. When sound, for example,
              impinges on the earsense, there is not immediately hearing. There are
              still some bhavanga-cittas arising and falling away before the pañca-
              dvåråvajjana-citta (five-door-adverting consciousness) adverts to the
              sound through the ear-door and hearing arises. The bhavanga-cittas do
              not perform the function of adverting to the sound which contacts the
              earsense, they do not experience the sound. They have their own
              function which is keeping the continuity in a lifespan.
              In the ‘Atthasaalinii’, the commentary to the first book of the
              Abhidhamma, the Dhammasangani, the parable of the Mango is given,
              explaining a process of cittas after the stream of bhavanga has been
              arrested. We read (Expositor II, 271, part X, no 2, Discourse on the
              moral result of the sensuous realm) that a man went to sleep under a
              mango-tree. A ripe mango fell down, grazing his ear. Awakened by the
              sound he looked, stretched out his hand, took the fruit, squeezed it,
              smelt it and ate it. We read: “What does this simile signify? The
              function of the object striking the sentient organism. When this
              happens there is the function of adverting by the five doors just
              agitating the life-continuum, the function of just seeing by visual
              cognition, of just receiving the object by the resultant mind-element
              {N: receiving-consciousness], of just the examining of the object by
              the resultant element of mind-cognition [N: investigating-
              consciousness), the determining of the object by the inoperative
              element of mind-cognition (the kiriyacitta which is determining-
              consciousness). But verily only the apperception [N: the series of
              javanacittas] enjoys the taste of the object.
              ---------

              > B: 2. As far as I understand there are only a couple of places
              > bhava'nga is
              > mentioned in the Abhidhamma, and it is discussed much greater in the
              > commentaries where the 'bhava'nga theory' is developed as we have
              > it today. Is
              > this accurate? Does anyone have references to the places it is used
              > in the
              > Abhidhamma?
              -------

              Also In the sutta: Anguttara Nikaaya, 1. 6. 2.
              > pabhassaramida.m bhikkhave citta.m ta~nca kho aagantukehi
              upakkilesehi
              > vippamutta.m.
              N: This consciousness, monks, is luminous, and it is indeed released
              from
              oncoming defilements.
              >ta.m sutavaa ariyasaavako yathaabhuuta.m pajaanaati.
              N: The learned noble disciple understand it as it really is.
              >tasma sutavato ariyasaavakassa cittabhaavanaa atthiiti vadaamiiti.
              N: Therefore I say that the learned, noble disciple has developed the
              mind.

              -------
              The Atthasalini speaks about the bhavangacitta as being pure, using
              the word
              pa.n.dara (I, Book I, Part IV, Ch II, 140) : "Mind also is said to be
              clear
              in the sense of exceedingly pure with reference to the Bhavanga-
              citta." Now
              I like to mention Acharn Sujin's "Survey of Paramattha Dhammas" where
              she
              explains about the bhavanga-citta which is different from the cittas
              experiencing objects impinging on the six doors. She explains that
              when one
              is fast asleep one does not know who one is or where one is, one does
              not
              experience the world. When one wakes up the world appears, one
              experiences
              all the objects impinging on the six doors and then these objects
              give rise
              to defilements. The bhavanga-citta, life-continuum, that has the
              function of
              keeping continuity in the life of an individual, arises when fast
              asleep and
              also in between the processes of cittas. Thus our life, consisting of an
              uninterrupted series of cittas, goes on. The bhavanga-citta
              experiences the
              same object as the rebirth-consciousness, and this object is like an
              echo of
              the object experienced shortly before the dying-consciousness of the
              previous life. This citta is pure, but it does not mean that there
              are no
              latent tendencies of defilements, anusayas, which lie dormant in the
              citta.
              It is called pure or luminous, because at that moment no defilements
              arise.
              -------
              N: In the Abhidhamma, in the Pa.t.thaana book, under Faultless
              triplet, Proximity-condition (anantara-paccaya, the condition that
              each preceding citta must condiiton the following citta): "Life-
              continuum (bhavanga) to advertance (avajjana)."
              N: Before there is advertance to an object that impinges on one of
              the senses or the mind-door, the series of bhavangacittas is
              interrupted and a process of cittas begins. The last bhavangacitta
              conditions the first citta of a process, the citta that adverts to
              the new object.
              ----------
              > B: 3. Is anyone aware of the approximate time the bhava'nga theory
              > really started
              > developing in the way the Theravaada tradition understands it now?
              ----
              N: Here we come to the issue of the ancient commentaries which have
              also been rehearsed at the Great Councils. This is an issue apart.
              Before, in this list, this has been debated, and I prefer rather to
              speak about the contents of the texts and their relation to daily
              life now, instead of going into historical issues.
              I am disinclined to use the expression bhavanga theory, since it is
              not theoretical. The Abhidhamma deals with realities of daily life.
              There is bhavangacitta now, while there are no sense impressions and
              no thinking. Still, our life goes on, there cannot be moments without
              citta. The citta that keeps the continuity in the long series of
              cittas we call life is named bhavangacitta.
              ---------
              Nina.

              [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]

              ------------------------------------

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              Paa.li-Parisaa - The Pali Collective
              [Homepage] http://www.tipitaka.net
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              [Files] http://www.geocities.com/paligroup/
              [Send Message] pali@yahoogroups.com
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              [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]







              [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
            • Kumara Bhikkhu
              ... A much later book, Selfless Mind by Peter Harvey, also has a chapter on this. kb
              Message 6 of 12 , Oct 12, 2010
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                Bryan Levman wrote thus at 04:31 12/10/2010:
                >Steven Collins has a whole chapter in his book "Selfless Persons" (p. 225-261)
                >on the bhavan"ga citta which you will find very helpful,

                A much later book, "Selfless Mind" by Peter Harvey, also has a chapter on this.

                kb
              • Nina van Gorkom
                Dear Brett, your questions are appreciated. ... N:Yes, all seven latent tendencies are lying dormant in each citta so long as they have not been eradicated by
                Message 7 of 12 , Oct 12, 2010
                • 0 Attachment
                  Dear Brett,
                  your questions are appreciated.
                  Op 11-okt-2010, om 17:12 heeft Brett Morris het volgende geschreven:
                  >
                  > >B: According to the Abhidhamma can there be a latent tendency
                  > lying dormant? In
                  > >a wholesome mind how can there be a latent tendency to hate
                  > according to the
                  > >Abhidhamma?
                  --------
                  N:Yes, all seven latent tendencies are lying dormant in each citta so
                  long as they have not been eradicated by the lokuttara magga-citta.
                  I quote from my recent Abhidhamma Series (no 23):

                  <Since each citta that arises and falls away is immediately succeeded
                  by the next citta, unwholesome and wholesome behaviour and
                  inclinations are accumulated from moment to moment and from life to
                  life.
                  The latent tendencies which are unwholesome inclinations that are
                  accumulated are the following: sense-desire (kaama-raaga), aversion
                  (pa.tigha), conceit (maana), wrong view (di.t.thi), doubt
                  (vicikicchaa), desire for becoming (continued existence, bhavaraaga),
                  and ignorance (avijjaa).
                  It is essential to have more understanding of the latent tendencies
                  and their power. They are called subtle defilements because they do
                  not arise with the akusala citta, but they are powerful. Since they
                  have not been eradicated they can strongly condition and influence
                  our behaviour. They lie dormant in the citta like microbes infesting
                  the body. So long as they have not been eradicated we are like sick
                  people, because they can condition the arising of akusala citta when
                  there are the appropriate conditions..>
                  Thus, it is explained in the Yamaka commentary (anusaya Yamaka) that
                  the anusayas, the latent tendencies, do not arise but that they can
                  condition the arising of akusala citta when there is an opportunity.
                  Thus even when the citta is kusala, there are the latent tendencies
                  lying dormant in that citta like microbes.
                  --------
                  > B:Also along the same lines is the bhava'nga citta of a hell being
                  > pure and luminous? It seems that the mind that took this being to
                  > hell, i.e. the last active mind of the previous life would be
                  > filled with torment? This is getting at one of my questions, in the
                  > Suttas (and our experience) it seems that there certainly are
                  > latent defilements, but I am not clear how the Abhidhamma accounts
                  > for these.
                  ------
                  N: This citta is akusala vipaakacitta, citta which is result. It is
                  of the same type as the rebirth-consciousness. The anusayas lie
                  dormant in each citta, also in the bhavangacitta of that being. That
                  citta is not akusala, it is vipaakacitta, it does not motivate any
                  akusala. It has no aversion. So long as we are in samsara, there are
                  the latent tendencies carried on from one moment to the next moment,
                  until arahatship has been reached.
                  --------
                  B:>But bhavanga seems to be used more to explain how the mind
                  continues from moment>to moment with some continuity and in states
                  like deep dreamless sleep. In
                  > >addition the Abhidhamma (I think) says that only one mind can
                  > arise at any given
                  > >moment and so (as my questions above) how do the latent defilement
                  > continue in a
                  > >wholesome bhavanga.
                  --------
                  N: It is right that only one citta can arise at a time. There cannot
                  be kusala citta at the same time as akusala citta. But the anusayas
                  are lying dormant in each citta, they themselves do not arise.
                  Bhavanga-citta is neither kusala citta nor akusala citta. It is
                  merely result, it can be the result of kusala kamma, thus, kusala
                  vipaaka, or of akusala kamma, thus, akusala vipaaka.
                  We are born in the human plane, thus, the rebirth-consciousness was
                  kusala vipaaka and all bhavangacittas (even arising now, in between
                  the different processes of cittas that experience colour, sound,
                  etc.) are kusala vipaakacittas. Still, so long as we are not ariyans,
                  all seven anusayas are lying dormant in each and every citta. When in
                  deep sleep there are no lobha, dosa and moha arising. When we wake up
                  we cling at once to all objects. Where does this clinging come from?
                  Not without there being conditions for it. It is conditioned by the
                  latent tendency of sensuous clinging.
                  -------
                  > B:For me this notion of a latent defilement is very much a reality
                  > of dailylife, as it is clear that until that potential is
                  > eradicated I am in somebondage yet I would like to know how these
                  > ancients dealt with it.
                  ----------
                  N: Yes, they are dangerous, it is so unpredictable what kind of
                  akusala will arise at which moment. They are tenacious, powerful. How
                  to deal with them: develop the eightfold Path leading to their
                  eradication stage by stage. The latent tendencies of wrong view and
                  doubt are eradicated first, at the first stage of enlightenment. Only
                  the arahat has eradicated all latent tendencies.
                  -------
                  Nina.



                  [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                • Brett Morris
                  Dear Nina, I am grateful for your time and answers. It all makes good sense. I may have some follow up questions in this area after some time of researching
                  Message 8 of 12 , Oct 12, 2010
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                    Dear Nina,
                    I am grateful for your time and answers. It all makes good sense. I may have
                    some follow up questions in this area after some time of researching and
                    processing:)

                    much metta,
                    Brett





                    ________________________________
                    From: Nina van Gorkom <vangorko@...>
                    To: Pali@yahoogroups.com
                    Sent: Tue, October 12, 2010 8:22:00 AM
                    Subject: Q. Re: [Pali] bhava'nga - etymology -questions


                    Dear Brett,
                    your questions are appreciated.
                    Op 11-okt-2010, om 17:12 heeft Brett Morris het volgende geschreven:
                    >
                    > >B: According to the Abhidhamma can there be a latent tendency
                    > lying dormant? In
                    > >a wholesome mind how can there be a latent tendency to hate
                    > according to the
                    > >Abhidhamma?
                    --------
                    N:Yes, all seven latent tendencies are lying dormant in each citta so
                    long as they have not been eradicated by the lokuttara magga-citta.
                    I quote from my recent Abhidhamma Series (no 23):

                    <Since each citta that arises and falls away is immediately succeeded
                    by the next citta, unwholesome and wholesome behaviour and
                    inclinations are accumulated from moment to moment and from life to
                    life.
                    The latent tendencies which are unwholesome inclinations that are
                    accumulated are the following: sense-desire (kaama-raaga), aversion
                    (pa.tigha), conceit (maana), wrong view (di.t.thi), doubt
                    (vicikicchaa), desire for becoming (continued existence, bhavaraaga),
                    and ignorance (avijjaa).
                    It is essential to have more understanding of the latent tendencies
                    and their power. They are called subtle defilements because they do
                    not arise with the akusala citta, but they are powerful. Since they
                    have not been eradicated they can strongly condition and influence
                    our behaviour. They lie dormant in the citta like microbes infesting
                    the body. So long as they have not been eradicated we are like sick
                    people, because they can condition the arising of akusala citta when
                    there are the appropriate conditions..>
                    Thus, it is explained in the Yamaka commentary (anusaya Yamaka) that
                    the anusayas, the latent tendencies, do not arise but that they can
                    condition the arising of akusala citta when there is an opportunity.
                    Thus even when the citta is kusala, there are the latent tendencies
                    lying dormant in that citta like microbes.
                    --------
                    > B:Also along the same lines is the bhava'nga citta of a hell being
                    > pure and luminous? It seems that the mind that took this being to
                    > hell, i.e. the last active mind of the previous life would be
                    > filled with torment? This is getting at one of my questions, in the
                    > Suttas (and our experience) it seems that there certainly are
                    > latent defilements, but I am not clear how the Abhidhamma accounts
                    > for these.
                    ------
                    N: This citta is akusala vipaakacitta, citta which is result. It is
                    of the same type as the rebirth-consciousness. The anusayas lie
                    dormant in each citta, also in the bhavangacitta of that being. That
                    citta is not akusala, it is vipaakacitta, it does not motivate any
                    akusala. It has no aversion. So long as we are in samsara, there are
                    the latent tendencies carried on from one moment to the next moment,
                    until arahatship has been reached.
                    --------
                    B:>But bhavanga seems to be used more to explain how the mind
                    continues from moment>to moment with some continuity and in states
                    like deep dreamless sleep. In
                    > >addition the Abhidhamma (I think) says that only one mind can
                    > arise at any given
                    > >moment and so (as my questions above) how do the latent defilement
                    > continue in a
                    > >wholesome bhavanga.
                    --------
                    N: It is right that only one citta can arise at a time. There cannot
                    be kusala citta at the same time as akusala citta. But the anusayas
                    are lying dormant in each citta, they themselves do not arise.
                    Bhavanga-citta is neither kusala citta nor akusala citta. It is
                    merely result, it can be the result of kusala kamma, thus, kusala
                    vipaaka, or of akusala kamma, thus, akusala vipaaka.
                    We are born in the human plane, thus, the rebirth-consciousness was
                    kusala vipaaka and all bhavangacittas (even arising now, in between
                    the different processes of cittas that experience colour, sound,
                    etc.) are kusala vipaakacittas. Still, so long as we are not ariyans,
                    all seven anusayas are lying dormant in each and every citta. When in
                    deep sleep there are no lobha, dosa and moha arising. When we wake up
                    we cling at once to all objects. Where does this clinging come from?
                    Not without there being conditions for it. It is conditioned by the
                    latent tendency of sensuous clinging.
                    -------
                    > B:For me this notion of a latent defilement is very much a reality
                    > of dailylife, as it is clear that until that potential is
                    > eradicated I am in somebondage yet I would like to know how these
                    > ancients dealt with it.
                    ----------
                    N: Yes, they are dangerous, it is so unpredictable what kind of
                    akusala will arise at which moment. They are tenacious, powerful. How
                    to deal with them: develop the eightfold Path leading to their
                    eradication stage by stage. The latent tendencies of wrong view and
                    doubt are eradicated first, at the first stage of enlightenment. Only
                    the arahat has eradicated all latent tendencies.
                    -------
                    Nina.

                    [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]







                    [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                  • Nina van Gorkom
                    Dear Brett, ... N: You are welcome. Just now I am studying the Pali and Thai of the Yamaka commentary on the anusaya. It is interesting that you just asked,
                    Message 9 of 12 , Oct 13, 2010
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                      Dear Brett,
                      Op 12-okt-2010, om 16:39 heeft Brett Morris het volgende geschreven:

                      > I am grateful for your time and answers. It all makes good sense. I
                      > may have
                      > some follow up questions in this area after some time of
                      > researching and
                      > processing:)
                      ------
                      N: You are welcome. Just now I am studying the Pali and Thai of the
                      Yamaka commentary on the anusaya. It is interesting that you just
                      asked, how the anusayas are also lying dormant in kusala citta and
                      vipaakacitta. The text says: also in avyaakatacitta and this includes
                      vipaakacitta and kiriyacitta. It is asked all the time kasmaa: why.
                      People at that time were also wondering, not only you and I at this
                      moment.
                      At the moment of akusala citta with sensuous desire, the latent
                      tendency of sensuous desire conditions its arising. Then the citta
                      falls away and the accumulation of the latent tendency of sense
                      desire continues. This cannot be said at the moment of kusala citta
                      and vipaakacitta. Then the anusayas do not condition the arising of
                      akusala at such moments. Still, they are lying dormant in these
                      cittas and this is so because they have not been eradicated yet. I
                      enjoy studying the Pali of all these texts.

                      Text: < The latent tendencies lie dormant because the defilements
                      have not been eradicated. A person endowed with kusala citta or
                      avyåkata citta is called a person with attachment, aversion and
                      ignorance, since these have not been eradicated by the maggacitta.
                      The latentent tendencies lie dormant in the case of that person, also
                      at the moment of pa.tisandhicitta , because they have not been
                      eradicated by the magga-citta. The Buddha did not merely say that the
                      latent tendencies lie dormant, but it should be understood that they
                      lie dormant because they cannot yet been eradicated. >

                      Pali: <anusayaa ca akusalacittakkha.ne uppajjanti,
                      na vipaakacittakkha.neti tasmi.m kha.ne anuppajjanato tathaa attho na
                      gahetabbo. katha.m pana gahetabboti? yathaa labbhati tathaa gahetabbo.
                      katha~nca labbhati? appahiina.t.thena. yathaa hi raagadosamohaana.m
                      appahiinattaa. kusalaabyaakatacittasama"ngii puggalo ``saraago sadoso
                      samoho''ti vuccati, eva.m maggabhaavanaaya appahiinattaa
                      pa.tisandhikkha.nepi
                      tassa tassa puggalassa te te anusayaa anusentiiti vuccanti. na
                      kevala~nca
                      vuccanti, appahiinattaa pana te anusentiyeva naamaati veditabbaa.>

                      *******
                      Nina.






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                    • Brett Morris
                      Dear Nina, Again this is all much appreciated. If you want to share any other such reference you come across they are, of course, most welcome. much metta,
                      Message 10 of 12 , Oct 13, 2010
                      • 0 Attachment
                        Dear Nina,
                        Again this is all much appreciated. If you want to share any other such
                        reference you come across they are, of course, most welcome.
                        much metta,

                        Brett




                        ________________________________
                        From: Nina van Gorkom <vangorko@...>
                        To: Pali@yahoogroups.com
                        Sent: Wed, October 13, 2010 8:27:39 AM
                        Subject: Re: Q. Re: [Pali] bhava'nga - etymology -questions


                        Dear Brett,
                        Op 12-okt-2010, om 16:39 heeft Brett Morris het volgende geschreven:

                        > I am grateful for your time and answers. It all makes good sense. I
                        > may have
                        > some follow up questions in this area after some time of
                        > researching and
                        > processing:)
                        ------
                        N: You are welcome. Just now I am studying the Pali and Thai of the
                        Yamaka commentary on the anusaya. It is interesting that you just
                        asked, how the anusayas are also lying dormant in kusala citta and
                        vipaakacitta. The text says: also in avyaakatacitta and this includes
                        vipaakacitta and kiriyacitta. It is asked all the time kasmaa: why.
                        People at that time were also wondering, not only you and I at this
                        moment.
                        At the moment of akusala citta with sensuous desire, the latent
                        tendency of sensuous desire conditions its arising. Then the citta
                        falls away and the accumulation of the latent tendency of sense
                        desire continues. This cannot be said at the moment of kusala citta
                        and vipaakacitta. Then the anusayas do not condition the arising of
                        akusala at such moments. Still, they are lying dormant in these
                        cittas and this is so because they have not been eradicated yet. I
                        enjoy studying the Pali of all these texts.

                        Text: < The latent tendencies lie dormant because the defilements
                        have not been eradicated. A person endowed with kusala citta or
                        avyåkata citta is called a person with attachment, aversion and
                        ignorance, since these have not been eradicated by the maggacitta.
                        The latentent tendencies lie dormant in the case of that person, also
                        at the moment of pa.tisandhicitta , because they have not been
                        eradicated by the magga-citta. The Buddha did not merely say that the
                        latent tendencies lie dormant, but it should be understood that they
                        lie dormant because they cannot yet been eradicated. >

                        Pali: <anusayaa ca akusalacittakkha.ne uppajjanti,
                        na vipaakacittakkha.neti tasmi.m kha.ne anuppajjanato tathaa attho na
                        gahetabbo. katha.m pana gahetabboti? yathaa labbhati tathaa gahetabbo.
                        katha~nca labbhati? appahiina.t.thena. yathaa hi raagadosamohaana.m
                        appahiinattaa. kusalaabyaakatacittasama"ngii puggalo ``saraago sadoso
                        samoho''ti vuccati, eva.m maggabhaavanaaya appahiinattaa
                        pa.tisandhikkha.nepi
                        tassa tassa puggalassa te te anusayaa anusentiiti vuccanti. na
                        kevala~nca
                        vuccanti, appahiinattaa pana te anusentiyeva naamaati veditabbaa.>

                        *******
                        Nina.

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