Dear Nina and DC,
following our previous discussion, I have done a very simple online research about the jhana factors. I primarily refer to materials from Access to Insight (USA) and BuddhaNet (Australia).
The two main references I use are
1. The Jhanas in Theravada Buddhist Meditation http://www.accesstoinsight.org/lib/authors/gunaratana/wheel351.html
2. A Critical Analysis of the Jhanas in Theravada Buddhist Meditation http://www.buddhanet.net/pdf_file/scrnguna.pdf
Both are by the scholar monk Ven. Henepola Gunaratana.
I have first completed the second half of the sutta translation exercise to provide a better context for this discussion. This is a very simple summary of the key findings I made about the jhana factors as I do not claim to be an expert on the topic. As we progress with our sutta study, I am sure we will have more opportunities to revisit jhana and related topics, and further our discussion.
Here goes the summary.
1. There are four basic jhana states, some would also mention a fifth depending on the meditator's individual progress.
2. Each jhana state has its own set of factors.
3. The first jhana has five factors: savitakka, savicaara, piiti and sukha resulting from seclusion, and cetaso ekodibhaava (one-pointedness of mind).
4. The last factor is not explicitly mentioned in the formula because it is already implied by the jhana.
5. The first jhana is obtained through the temporary removal of the five hindrances through seclusion (viveka).
6. It is temporary because jhana is not a permanent meditative state.
7. When the five factors are acquired, the meditator is already in the first jhana state.
8. The meditator attains the second jhana state as savitakka and savicaara subsided.
9. The three factors of the second jhana are piiti and sukha resulting from samadhi, and one-pointedness of mind.
10. This state is described as inwardly calm.
11. The meditator progresses to the third jhana state with the cessation of piiti.
12. The factors of the third jhana are sukha and one-pointedness of mind.
13. In addition, three cetasikas are present: upekkhaa, sati and sampaja~n~na.
14. In the fourth jhana state, the meditator abandons sukha, dukkha, somanassa and domanassa.
15. Through equanimity, he attains the purity of mindfulness.
16. The two factors of this state are adukkhamasukha and one-pointedness of mind.
--- In Pali@yahoogroups.com, Ong Yong Peng wrote:
thank you for this interesting description. Let me do some research and reply to you and Nina.
> If the above assumption is right, then savitakka and savicara is thought about the meditation object. May be in the next Jhana even that will be gone and you are just an observer.