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Re: Prosody: Pali Metre (Meter) 2

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  • Ong Yong Peng
    Dear George, thanks, I have indeed already located the missing portions. I will post them to the group as soon as I get to transcribe the text in PDF. metta,
    Message 1 of 12 , Jan 9, 2009
      Dear George,

      thanks, I have indeed already located the missing portions. I will
      post them to the group as soon as I get to transcribe the text in PDF.

      metta,
      Yong Peng.


      --- In Pali@yahoogroups.com, George Bedell wrote:

      Maybe you have filled the gap by now, but I have a pdf copy of
      Duroiselle which has sections 635 to 640 (pages 341-342). I don't
      remember where I downloaded it from, but if you are still looking I
      can send a copy.
    • Ong Yong Peng
      Dear friends, this is a discussion based upon Chapter 15 of Charles Duroiselle s Grammar. From some materials I recently acquired, I learnt that this chapter
      Message 2 of 12 , Jan 10, 2009
        Dear friends,

        this is a discussion based upon Chapter 15 of Charles Duroiselle's
        Grammar. From some materials I recently acquired, I learnt that this
        chapter is primarily based on the classical text Vuttodaya. I further
        learnt that Vuttodaya may not be a representative account of canonical
        prosody.

        633. These are again subdivided according to the kind of feet employed
        in each stanza; as the four paadas are similar, the scheme of only one
        paada is given for each kind of metre:

        1. gaayatti, having paadas of six syllables. There is one variety.
        (i) tanumajjhaa, ¯ ¯ ˘ | ˘ ¯ ¯

        2. u.nhi, having paadas of seven syllables. There is one variety.
        (i) kumaaralatitaa, ˘ ¯ ˘ | ˘ ˘ ¯ | ¯

        3. anu.t.thubha.m, having paadas of eight syllables. There are five
        varieties.
        (i) citrapadaa, ¯ ˘ ˘ | ¯ ˘ ˘ | ¯ ¯
        (ii) vijjummala, ¯ ¯ ¯ | ¯ ¯ ¯ | ¯ ¯
        (iii) maa.navaka.m, ¯ ˘ ˘ | ¯ ¯ ˘ | ˘ ¯
        (iv) saama.nika, ¯ ˘ ¯ | ˘ ¯ ˘ | ¯ ˘
        (v) paama.nikaa, ˘ ¯ ˘ | ¯ ˘ ¯ | ¯ ¯

        4. brahati, having paadas of nine syllables. There are two varieties.
        (i) halamukhii, ¯ ˘ ¯ | ˘ ˘ ˘ | ˘ ˘ ¯
        (ii) bhujagasusu, ˘ ˘ ˘ | ˘ ˘ ˘ | ¯ ¯ ¯

        5. panti, having paadas of ten syllables. There are seven varieties.
        (i) suddhaviraajitam, ¯ ¯ ¯ | ˘ ˘ ¯ | ˘ ¯ ˘ | ¯
        (ii) panavo, ¯ ¯ ¯ | ˘ ˘ ˘ | ˘ ¯ ¯ | ¯
        (iii) rummavati, ¯ ˘ ˘ | ¯ ¯ ¯ | ˘ ˘ ¯ | ¯
        (iv) matta, ¯ ¯ ¯ | ¯ ˘ ˘ | ˘ ˘ ¯ | ¯
        (v) campakamala, ¯ ˘ ˘ | ¯ ¯ ¯ | ˘ ˘ ¯ | ¯
        (vi) manorama, ˘ ˘ ˘ | ¯ ˘ ¯ | ˘ ¯ ˘ | ¯
        (vii) ubbhasakam, ¯ ¯ ˘ | ¯ ¯ ¯ | ¯ ˘ ¯ | ¯

        6. tu.t.thubha.m, having paadas of eleven syllables. There are eleven
        varieties.
        (i) upa.t.thitaa, ¯ ¯ ˘ | ˘ ¯ ˘ | ˘ ¯ ˘ | ¯ ¯
        (ii) indavajiraa, ¯ ¯ ˘ | ¯ ¯ ˘ | ˘ ¯ ˘ | ¯ ¯
        (iii) upavajiraa, ˘ ¯ ˘ | ¯ ¯ ˘ | ˘ ¯ ˘ | ¯ ¯
        Remark. When the quarter-verses of indavajiraa and upavajiraa are
        mixed together in a stanza in any order, the stanza is them called
        upajaati.
        (iv) sumukkhii, ˘ ˘ ¯ | ˘ ¯ ˘ | ˘ ¯ ˘ | ˘ ¯
        (v) dodhaka.m, ¯ ˘ ˘ | ¯ ˘ ˘ | ¯ ˘ ˘ | ¯ ¯
        (vi) saalinii, ¯ ¯ ¯ | ¯ ¯ ˘ | ¯ ¯ ˘ | ¯ ¯
        (vii) vaatummissaa, ¯ ¯ ¯ | ¯ ˘ ˘ | ¯ ¯ ˘ | ¯ ¯
        Remark. There are pauses after the fourth and seventh syllables.
        (viii) surasasirii, ¯ ˘ ˘ | ¯ ¯ ˘ | ˘ ˘ ˘ | ¯ ¯
        (ix) rathoddhataa, ¯ ˘ ¯ | ˘ ˘ ˘ | ¯ ˘ ¯ | ˘ ¯
        (x) svaagata, ¯ ˘ ¯ | ˘ ˘ ˘ | ¯ ˘ ˘ | ¯ ¯
        (xi) bhaddikaa, ˘ ˘ ˘ | ˘ ˘ ˘ | ¯ ˘ ¯ | ˘ ¯

        7. jagati, having paadas of twelve syllables. There are fourteen
        varieties.
        (i) vasama.t.tha, ˘ ¯ ˘ | ¯ ¯ ˘ | ˘ ¯ ˘ | ¯ ˘ ¯
        (ii) indava.msaa, ¯ ¯ ˘ | ¯ ¯ ˘ | ˘ ¯ ˘ | ¯ ˘ ¯
        (iii) to.taka, ˘ ˘ ¯ | ˘ ˘ ¯ | ˘ ˘ ¯ | ˘ ˘ ¯
        (iv) dutavila.mbita, ˘ ˘ ˘ | ¯ ˘ ˘ | ¯ ˘ ˘ | ¯ ˘ ¯
        (v) pu.ta, ˘ ˘ ˘ | ˘ ˘ ˘ | ¯ ¯ ¯ | ˘ ¯ ¯
        Remark. There are pauses after the fourth and twelfth syllables.
        (vi) kusumavicittaa, ˘ ˘ ˘ | ˘ ¯ ¯ | ˘ ˘ ˘ | ˘ ¯ ¯
        (vii) bhuja`ngappayaata, ˘ ¯ ¯ | ˘ ¯ ¯ | ˘ ¯ ¯ | ˘ ¯ ¯
        (viii) piyamvada, ˘ ˘ ˘ | ¯ ˘ ˘ | ˘ ¯ ˘ | ¯ ˘ ¯
        (ix) lalitaa, ¯ ¯ ˘ | ¯ ˘ ˘ | ˘ ¯ ˘ | ¯ ˘ ¯
        (x) pamitakkaraa, ˘ ˘ ¯ | ˘ ¯ ˘ | ˘ ˘ ¯ | ˘ ˘ ¯
        (xi) ujjalaa, ˘ ˘ ˘ | ˘ ˘ ˘ | ¯ ˘ ˘ | ¯ ˘ ¯
        (xii) vessadevii, ¯ ¯ ¯ | ¯ ¯ ¯ | ˘ ¯ ¯ | ˘ ¯ ¯
        Remark. There are pauses after the fifth and twelfth syllables.
        (xiii) taamarasa.m, ˘ ˘ ˘ | ˘ ¯ ˘ | ˘ ¯ ˘ | ˘ ¯ ¯
        (xiv) kamalaa, ˘ ˘ ¯ | ˘ ¯ ¯ | ˘ ˘ ¯ | ˘ ¯ ¯

        8. atijagati, having paadas of thirteen syllables. There are two
        varieties.
        (i) pahaasinii, ¯ ¯ ¯ | ˘ ˘ ˘ | ˘ ¯ ˘ | ¯ ˘ ¯ | ¯
        Remark. There are pauses after the third and thirteenth syllables.
        (ii) ruciraa, ˘ ¯ ˘ | ¯ ˘ ˘ | ˘ ˘ ¯ | ˘ ¯ ˘ | ¯
        Remark. There are pauses after the fourth and thirteenth syllables.

        9. sakkarii, having paadas of fourteen syllables. There are three
        varieties.
        (i) aparaajitaa, ˘ ˘ ˘ | ˘ ˘ ˘ | ¯ ˘ ¯ | ˘ ˘ ¯ | ˘ ¯
        Remark. There are pauses after the seventh and fourteenth syllables.
        (ii) pahara.nakalikaa, ˘ ˘ ˘ | ˘ ˘ ˘ | ¯ ˘ ˘ | ˘ ˘ ˘ | ˘ ¯
        Remark. There are pauses after the seventh and fourteenth syllables.
        (iii) vasantatilakaa, ¯ ¯ ˘ | ¯ ˘ ˘ | ˘ ¯ ˘ | ˘ ¯ ˘ | ¯ ¯

        10. atisakkarii, fifteen syllables. There are four varieties.
        (i) sasikala, ˘ ˘ ˘ | ˘ ˘ ˘ | ˘ ˘ ˘ | ˘ ˘ ˘ | ˘ ˘ ¯
        (ii) ma.nigunaanikaro, ˘ ˘ ˘ | ˘ ˘ ˘ | ˘ ˘ ˘ | ˘ ˘ ˘ | ˘ ˘ ¯
        Remark. There are pauses after the eighth and fifteenth syllables.
        (iii) malinii, ˘ ˘ ˘ | ˘ ˘ ˘ | ¯ ¯ ¯ | ˘ ¯ ¯ | ˘ ¯ ¯
        Remark. There is a pause after the eighth syllable.
        (iv) pabhaddaka.m, ˘ ˘ ˘ | ˘ ¯ ˘ | ¯ ˘ ˘ | ˘ ¯ ˘ | ¯ ˘ ¯

        11. a.t.thi, having paadas of sixteen syllables. There is one variety.
        (i) vaaninii, ˘ ˘ ˘ | ˘ ¯ ˘ | ¯ ˘ ˘ | ˘ ¯ ˘ | ¯ ˘ ¯ | ¯

        12. atya.t.thi, having paadas of seventeen syllables. There are three
        varieties.
        (i) sikharinii, ˘ ¯ ¯ | ¯ ¯ ¯ | ˘ ˘ ˘ | ˘ ˘ ¯ | ¯ ˘ ˘ | ˘ ¯
        Remark. There are pauses after the sixth and seventeenth syllables.
        (ii) harinii, ˘ ˘ ˘ | ˘ ˘ ¯ | ¯ ¯ ¯ | ¯ ˘ ¯ | ˘ ˘ ¯ | ˘ ¯
        (iii) mandakkantaa, ¯ ¯ ¯ | ¯ ˘ ˘ | ˘ ˘ ˘ | ¯ ¯ ˘ | ¯ ¯ ˘ | ¯ ¯
        Remark. There are pauses after the fourth, tenth and seventeenth
        syllables.

        13. dhuti, having paadas of eighteen syllables. There is one variety.
        (i) kusumitalataavellitaa, ¯ ¯ ¯ | ¯ ¯ ˘ | ˘ ˘ ˘ | ˘ ¯ ¯ | ˘ ¯ ¯ | ˘ ¯ ¯

        14. atidhuti, having paadas of nineteen syllables. There are two
        varieties.
        (i) meghavipphujjitaa, ¯ ¯ ¯ | ¯ ¯ ¯ | ˘ ˘ ˘ | ˘ ˘ ¯ | ¯ ¯ ˘ | ¯ ¯ ˘ | ¯
        Remark. There are pauses after the sixth and thirteenth, and
        nineteenth syllables.
        (ii) sadduulavikkiiitii, ¯ ¯ ¯ | ˘ ˘ ¯ | ˘ ¯ ˘ | ˘ ˘ ¯ | ¯ ¯ ˘ | ¯ ¯ ˘ | ¯
        Remark. There are pauses after the twelfth and nineteenth syllables.

        15. kati, having paadas of twenty syllables. There is one variety.
        (i) vutta, ¯ ˘ ¯ | ˘ ¯ ˘ | ¯ ˘ ¯ | ˘ ¯ ˘ | ¯ ˘ ¯ | ¯ ¯ ˘ | ¯ ˘

        16. pakati, having paadas of twenty-one syllables. There is one variety.
        (i) saddharaa, ¯ ¯ ¯ | ¯ ˘ ¯ | ¯ ˘ ˘ | ˘ ˘ ˘ | ˘ ¯ ¯ | ¯ ¯ ¯ | ˘ ¯ ¯

        17. akati, having paadas of twenty-two syllables. There is one variety.
        (i) bhaddaka, ¯ ˘ ˘ | ¯ ˘ ¯ | ˘ ˘ ˘ | ¯ ˘ ¯ | ˘ ˘ ˘ | ¯ ˘ ¯ | ˘ ˘ ˘ | ¯



        metta,
        Yong Peng.
      • Ong Yong Peng
        Dear friends, as you may already know, this discussion is based on Chapter 15 of A Practical Grammar of the Paali Language by Charles Duroiselle. 634. In the
        Message 3 of 12 , Jan 17, 2009
          Dear friends,

          as you may already know, this discussion is based on Chapter 15 of A
          Practical Grammar of the Paali Language by Charles Duroiselle.

          634. In the addhasama class of metres, the first and the third, and
          the second and fourth paadas are similar. The following table shows
          eleven kinds of metres that come under this head:

          Name of Metre Odd quarter - verses 1st.-3rd. Even quarter -
          verses 2nd.-4th.
          upacitta ˘ ˘ ¯ ˘ ˘ ¯ ˘ ˘ ¯ ˘ ¯ ¯ ˘ ˘ ¯ ˘ ˘ ¯ ˘ ˘ ¯ ¯
          ratamajjhaa ¯ ˘ ˘ ¯ ˘ ˘ ¯ ˘ ˘ ¯ ¯ ˘ ˘ ˘ ˘ ¯ ˘ ˘ ¯ ˘ ˘ ¯ ¯
          vegavati ˘ ˘ ¯ ˘ ˘ ¯ ˘ ˘ ¯ ¯ ¯ ˘ ˘ ¯ ˘ ˘ ¯ ˘ ˘ ¯ ¯
          bhaddaviraaja.m ¯ ¯ ˘ ˘ ¯ ˘ ¯ ˘ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ˘ ˘ ¯ ˘ ¯ ˘ ¯ ¯
          ketumati ˘ ˘ ¯ ˘ ¯ ˘ ¯ ˘ ¯ ¯ ¯ ˘ ˘ ¯ ˘ ¯ ˘ ˘ ˘ ¯ ¯
          akhyaanikaa ¯ ¯ ˘ ¯ ¯ ˘ ˘ ¯ ˘ ¯ ¯ ˘ ¯ ˘ ¯ ¯ ˘ ˘ ¯ ˘ ¯ ¯
          viparitapubba ˘ ¯ ˘ ¯ ¯ ˘ ˘ ¯ ˘ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ˘ ¯ ¯ ˘ ˘ ¯ ˘ ¯ ¯
          hari.napaluta ˘ ˘ ¯ ˘ ˘ ¯ ˘ ˘ ¯ ˘ ¯ ˘ ˘ ˘ ¯ ˘ ˘ ¯ ˘ ˘ ¯ ˘ ¯
          aparavutta ˘ ˘ ˘ ˘ ˘ ˘ ¯ ˘ ¯ ˘ ¯ ˘ ˘ ˘ ˘ ¯ ˘ ˘ ¯ ˘ ¯ ˘ ¯
          pubbittaggaa ˘ ˘ ˘ ˘ ˘ ˘ ¯ ˘ ¯ ˘ ¯ ¯ ˘ ˘ ˘ ˘ ¯ ˘ ˘ ¯ ˘ ¯ ˘ ¯ ¯
          yavaadikaamatii ˘ ¯ ˘ ¯ ˘ ¯ ˘ ¯ ˘ ¯ ˘ ¯ ¯ ˘ ¯ ˘ ¯ ˘ ¯ ˘ ¯ ˘ ¯ ˘ ¯



          metta,
          Yong Peng.
        • Ong Yong Peng
          Dear friends, this discussion is based on Chapter 15 of A Practical Grammar of the Paali Language by Charles Duroiselle. A new symbol ( ̶̆ )is introduced in
          Message 4 of 12 , Jan 26, 2009
            Dear friends,

            this discussion is based on Chapter 15 of A Practical Grammar of the
            Paali Language by Charles Duroiselle. A new symbol ( ̶̆ )is introduced
            in this post, hopefully everyone can properly view it. If not, please
            consult the html version:
            http://www.tipitaka.net/pali/synthesis/grammar.15.cdv

            635. The paadas in this division of verses are all dissimilar. Under
            this head comes the metre known as Vatta, the heroic measure of Pali
            literature, eight syllables being employed in each paada, the first
            and last syllables therein being free, and this, a short or long
            syllable may be optionally used in those syllables. The syllables
            between the first and last, form two seats, having three syllables in
            each seat of foot. In the first seat in all the quarters, any foot may
            be employed except a Tribrach and an Anapaest, that is to say, three
            short syllables ( ˘ ˘ ˘ ) or two short and one long ( ˘ ˘ ¯ ) must not
            be used. In the second seat of the first and third quarters, any foot
            may be used, but in the second seat of the second and fourth quarters
            only ya (Bacchic) or ja (Amphibrach) (i.e., ˘ ¯ ¯ or ˘ ¯ ˘ ) must be
            employed. It should be noted, however, that the Vatta proper has ja in
            the second seat of both the second and the fourth paadas.

            636. (i) Vatta Proper

            Free 1st seat 2nd seat Free
            1st paada ̶̆ ̶̆ ̶̆ ̶̆ ̶̆ ̶̆ ̶̆ ̶̆
            2nd paada ̶̆ ̶̆ ̶̆ ̶̆ ˘ ¯ ¯ ̶̆
            3rd paada ̶̆ ̶̆ ̶̆ ̶̆ ̶̆ ̶̆ ̶̆ ̶̆
            4th paada ̶̆ ̶̆ ̶̆ ̶̆ ˘ ¯ ¯ ̶̆

            <YP> The sign ̶̆ means that the syllable may be optionally short or long.

            637. Sometimes the Gaathaa contains six paadas - the fifth following
            the rule for the first and third; the sixth that for the second and
            fourth.

            638. Besides the Vatta Proper above shown, there are six kinds of
            Vatta metres:

            (ii) Vipariitapathyaavatta

            Paadas 1 & 3: ̶̆ | ̶̆ ˘ ̶̆ | ˘ ¯ ˘ | ̶̆
            Paadas 2 & 4: ̶̆ | ̶̆ ˘ ̶̆ | ˘ ¯ ¯ | ̶̆

            (iii) Capalaavatta

            Paadas 1 & 3: ̶̆ | ̶̆ ̶̆ ̶̆ | ˘ ˘ ˘ | ̶̆
            Paadas 2 & 4: ̶̆ | ̶̆ ˘ ̶̆ | ˘ ¯ ¯ | ̶̆

            (iv) Na-Vipulaa

            Paadas 1 & 3: ̶̆ | ̶̆ ̶̆ ̶̆ | ˘ ˘ ˘ | ̶̆
            Paadas 2 & 4: ̶̆ | ̶̆ ˘ ̶̆ | ˘ ¯ ˘ | ̶̆
            or
            All paadas: ̶̆ | ̶̆ ̶̆ ̶̆ | ˘ ˘ ˘ | ̶̆

            (v) Vipulaa of Setava

            (vi) Vipulaa of Pi`ngala

            (vii) Bha-Vipulaa

            Paadas 1 & 3: ̶̆ | ̶̆ ̶̆ ̶̆ | ¯ ˘ ˘ | ̶̆
            Paadas 2 & 4: ̶̆ | ̶̆ ˘ ̶̆ | ˘ ¯ ˘ | ̶̆
            or
            All paadas: ̶̆ | ̶̆ ̶̆ ̶̆ | ¯ ˘ ˘ | ̶̆

            (viii) Ra-Vipulaa

            Paadas 1 & 3: ̶̆ | ̶̆ ̶̆ ̶̆ | ¯ ˘ ¯ | ̶̆
            Paadas 2 & 4: ̶̆ | ̶̆ ˘ ̶̆ | ˘ ¯ ˘ | ̶̆
            or
            All paadas: ̶̆ | ̶̆ ̶̆ ̶̆ | ¯ ˘ ¯ | ̶̆

            (ix) Ta-Vipulaa

            Paadas 1 & 3: ̶̆ | ̶̆ ̶̆ ̶̆ | ¯ ¯ ˘ | ̶̆
            Paadas 2 & 4: ̶̆ | ̶̆ ˘ ̶̆ | ˘ ¯ ˘ | ̶̆
            or
            All paadas: ̶̆ | ̶̆ ̶̆ ̶̆ | ¯ ¯ ˘ | ̶̆

            640. Besides the metres noted above, there are some that are regulated
            by time (kaala). Such metres are termed Jaati. They are of three kinds:-

            1. Ariyaa
            2. Vetaaliya, and
            3. Mattaasamaka

            641. In the first of these, the ariyaa, the first two paadas of half a
            gaathaa contain seven and a half feet; in the even, that is, in the
            second, fourth, and sixth feet, any of the following, namely, bha, ja,
            sa, gaa, or four short syllables may be employed, but ja must not be
            used in the odd feet, that is, in the first, third, and fifth. The
            sixth foot may be la or four short syllables. The second-half stanza
            must fulfil the same conditions. It is necessary to observe that in
            the jaati metre a foot consists of four syllabic instants, the time
            taken up in pronouncing a short syllable being taken as an instant of
            time; thus a long syllable being taken equal to two short ones, each
            foot used in the ariyaa is equal to four syllabic instants. The
            following is an illustration of an ariyaa stanza:

            1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th 7th 8th foot
            First half stanza ¯ ¯, ˘˘˘˘, ¯ ¯, ˘˘¯, ¯ ¯, ˘¯˘, ¯˘˘, ¯
            Second half stanza ˘˘¯, ˘˘˘, ¯ ¯, ¯ ¯, ¯ ¯, ˘, ¯ ¯, ¯

            642. The vetaaliya is so formed that it usually consists of fourteen
            syllabic instants in the odd quarters and sixteen in the even, while
            the mattaasamaka consists of sixteen syllabic instants in each
            quarter. The metres of the jaati class furnish many varieties, but it
            is not within the scope of this work to treat of them in detail. As,
            however, the vetaaliya is of rather frequent occurrence, we give below
            the scheme of it. Each paada is divided into three seats; the first
            seat in the first and third paadas must have six syllabic instants;
            the first seat of the second and fourth paadas must contain eight
            syllabic instants; the second seat must be a cretic foot and the third
            a lambic foot:

            Number of 1st seat 2nd seat 3rd seat
            syllabic Cretic Lambus
            instants
            1st paada 6 six syllabic instants ¯ ˘ ¯ ˘ ¯
            2nd paada 8 eight syllabic instants ¯ ˘ ¯ ˘ ¯
            3rd paada 6 six syllabic instants ¯ ˘ ¯ ˘ ¯
            4th paada 8 eight syllabic instants ¯ ˘ ¯ ˘ ¯

            This is the final post.

            metta,
            Yong Peng.
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