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Prosody: Pali Metre (Meter) 2

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  • Ong Yong Peng
    Dear friends, this is a discussion base on Chapter 15 of Charles Duroiselle s Grammar. Unfortunately, the material I have is not complete. Sections §635 to
    Message 1 of 12 , Jan 2, 2009
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      Dear friends,

      this is a discussion base on Chapter 15 of Charles Duroiselle's
      Grammar. Unfortunately, the material I have is not complete. Sections
      §635 to §640 are missing. I like to appeal to anyone who have the
      missing sections to contact us and provide the materials for this study.

      Without further ado, let us continue.

      629. The eight-syllable feet, known in Paali as the a.t.thaga.na are
      as follows:

      Syllables Paali English
      ¯ ¯ ¯ ma Molossus
      ˘ ˘ ˘ na Tribach
      ¯ ˘ ˘ bhaa Dactyl
      ˘ ¯ ¯ ya Bacchic
      ˘ ¯ ˘ ja Amphibrach
      ˘ ˘ ¯ sa Anapaest
      ¯ ˘ ¯ ra Cretic
      ¯ ¯ ˘ ta Antibacchic

      <YP> As we have previously noted, the descriptions given by the author
      requires some clarification. The a.t.thaga.na is a set of "foot's" (or
      feet), each foot containing three syllables (trisyllabic), which can
      be either short or long and in any combination, hence giving us eight
      possible configurations. These are shown above, together with the Pali
      and English names of the feet.

      <YP>If you like to understand further the metrical foot in general,
      please read: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Foot_(prosody)

      630. The short vowels in Paali are a, i, u, the long vowels are aa,
      ii, uu, e, o. When a, i or u is followed by a double consonant, it is
      prosodically long. For instance, the first as well as the second a in
      cakka~nca, is long because followed by kk and ~nc respectively. Before
      niggahita (.m) a short vowel is also always prosodically long. Thus in
      sacca.m, the a before .m is long. In poetry, a naturally short vowel
      is occasionally lengthened and a naturally long one shortened to meet
      the exigencies of the metre. In order to make a short vowel long, the
      consonant following it is sometimes doubled.

      <YP> In summary, a vowel is Pali prosody is usually long, with the
      exception: it is a short vowel NOT followed by a double consonant.

      631. There are three classes of metres, termed sama, addhasama, and
      visama. When the syllables in all the paadas are exactly alike the
      metre is called sama; when those in the first and third and those in
      the second and fourth paadas are alike it is addhasama; and when all
      the paadas or verses are different, the metre is termed visama.

      <YP> The term sama means equal, a Sama metre means all the lines have
      the same syllables. The term addha means half, so addhasama literally
      means halfly equal. An Addhasama metre occurs when the odd-numbered
      lines employ one set of syllables, while the even-numbered lines
      employ another. Visama, meaning unequal, is the opposite of sama. In a
      Visama metre, there is no common syllabic arrangement between any two
      lines.

      1. The Sama Class

      632. In gaathas of this class, the syllables in each paada may range
      from six up to twenty-two. The names of the seventeen kinds of metres
      are as follows:

      * gaayatti 6 syllables
      * u.nhi 7 syllables
      * anu.t.thubha.m 8 syllables
      * brahati 9 syllables
      * panti 10 syllables
      * tu.t.thubha.m 11 syllables
      * jagati 12 syllables
      * atijagati 13 syllables
      * sakkarii 14 syllables
      * atisakkarii 15 syllables
      * a.t.thi 16 syllables
      * atya.t.thi 17 syllables
      * dhuti 18 syllables
      * atidhuti 19 syllables
      * kati 20 syllables
      * pakati 21 syllables
      * akati 22 syllables

      <YP> The Sama metres are further classified according to the number of
      syllables in each paada.



      metta,
      Yong Peng.
    • George Bedell
      Yong Peng, Maybe you have filled the gap by now, but I have a pdf copy of Duroiselle which has sections 635 to 640 (pages 341-342). I don t remember where I
      Message 2 of 12 , Jan 7, 2009
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        Yong Peng,

        Maybe you have filled the gap by now, but I have a pdf copy of Duroiselle which has sections 635 to 640 (pages 341-342). I don't remember where I downloaded it from, but if you are still looking I can send a copy.

        George B

        * * * * *
        George Bedell
        230/5 Suan Lanna Village, Huay Kaew Road,
        t. Chang Phuak, a. Muang
        Chiang Mai 50300, Thailand
        +66-53-414100




        ________________________________
        From: Ong Yong Peng <palismith@...>
        To: Pali@yahoogroups.com
        Sent: Saturday, January 3, 2009 10:14:56
        Subject: [Pali] Prosody: Pali Metre (Meter) 2


        Dear friends,

        this is a discussion base on Chapter 15 of Charles Duroiselle's
        Grammar. Unfortunately, the material I have is not complete. Sections
        §635 to §640 are missing. I like to appeal to anyone who have the
        missing sections to contact us and provide the materials for this study.

        Without further ado, let us continue.

        629. The eight-syllable feet, known in Paali as the a.t.thaga.na are
        as follows:

        Syllables Paali English
        ¯ ¯ ¯ ma Molossus
        ˘ ˘ ˘ na Tribach
        ¯ ˘ ˘ bhaa Dactyl
        ˘ ¯ ¯ ya Bacchic
        ˘ ¯ ˘ ja Amphibrach
        ˘ ˘ ¯ sa Anapaest
        ¯ ˘ ¯ ra Cretic
        ¯ ¯ ˘ ta Antibacchic

        <YP> As we have previously noted, the descriptions given by the author
        requires some clarification. The a.t.thaga.na is a set of "foot's" (or
        feet), each foot containing three syllables (trisyllabic) , which can
        be either short or long and in any combination, hence giving us eight
        possible configurations. These are shown above, together with the Pali
        and English names of the feet.

        <YP>If you like to understand further the metrical foot in general,
        please read: http://en.wikipedia .org/wiki/ Foot_(prosody)

        630. The short vowels in Paali are a, i, u, the long vowels are aa,
        ii, uu, e, o. When a, i or u is followed by a double consonant, it is
        prosodically long. For instance, the first as well as the second a in
        cakka~nca, is long because followed by kk and ~nc respectively. Before
        niggahita (.m) a short vowel is also always prosodically long. Thus in
        sacca.m, the a before .m is long. In poetry, a naturally short vowel
        is occasionally lengthened and a naturally long one shortened to meet
        the exigencies of the metre. In order to make a short vowel long, the
        consonant following it is sometimes doubled.

        <YP> In summary, a vowel is Pali prosody is usually long, with the
        exception: it is a short vowel NOT followed by a double consonant.

        631. There are three classes of metres, termed sama, addhasama, and
        visama. When the syllables in all the paadas are exactly alike the
        metre is called sama; when those in the first and third and those in
        the second and fourth paadas are alike it is addhasama; and when all
        the paadas or verses are different, the metre is termed visama.

        <YP> The term sama means equal, a Sama metre means all the lines have
        the same syllables. The term addha means half, so addhasama literally
        means halfly equal. An Addhasama metre occurs when the odd-numbered
        lines employ one set of syllables, while the even-numbered lines
        employ another. Visama, meaning unequal, is the opposite of sama. In a
        Visama metre, there is no common syllabic arrangement between any two
        lines.

        1. The Sama Class

        632. In gaathas of this class, the syllables in each paada may range
        from six up to twenty-two. The names of the seventeen kinds of metres
        are as follows:

        * gaayatti 6 syllables
        * u.nhi 7 syllables
        * anu.t.thubha. m 8 syllables
        * brahati 9 syllables
        * panti 10 syllables
        * tu.t.thubha. m 11 syllables
        * jagati 12 syllables
        * atijagati 13 syllables
        * sakkarii 14 syllables
        * atisakkarii 15 syllables
        * a.t.thi 16 syllables
        * atya.t.thi 17 syllables
        * dhuti 18 syllables
        * atidhuti 19 syllables
        * kati 20 syllables
        * pakati 21 syllables
        * akati 22 syllables

        <YP> The Sama metres are further classified according to the number of
        syllables in each paada.

        metta,
        Yong Peng.




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      • Ong Yong Peng
        Dear George, thanks, I have indeed already located the missing portions. I will post them to the group as soon as I get to transcribe the text in PDF. metta,
        Message 3 of 12 , Jan 9, 2009
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          Dear George,

          thanks, I have indeed already located the missing portions. I will
          post them to the group as soon as I get to transcribe the text in PDF.

          metta,
          Yong Peng.


          --- In Pali@yahoogroups.com, George Bedell wrote:

          Maybe you have filled the gap by now, but I have a pdf copy of
          Duroiselle which has sections 635 to 640 (pages 341-342). I don't
          remember where I downloaded it from, but if you are still looking I
          can send a copy.
        • Ong Yong Peng
          Dear friends, this is a discussion based upon Chapter 15 of Charles Duroiselle s Grammar. From some materials I recently acquired, I learnt that this chapter
          Message 4 of 12 , Jan 10, 2009
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            Dear friends,

            this is a discussion based upon Chapter 15 of Charles Duroiselle's
            Grammar. From some materials I recently acquired, I learnt that this
            chapter is primarily based on the classical text Vuttodaya. I further
            learnt that Vuttodaya may not be a representative account of canonical
            prosody.

            633. These are again subdivided according to the kind of feet employed
            in each stanza; as the four paadas are similar, the scheme of only one
            paada is given for each kind of metre:

            1. gaayatti, having paadas of six syllables. There is one variety.
            (i) tanumajjhaa, ¯ ¯ ˘ | ˘ ¯ ¯

            2. u.nhi, having paadas of seven syllables. There is one variety.
            (i) kumaaralatitaa, ˘ ¯ ˘ | ˘ ˘ ¯ | ¯

            3. anu.t.thubha.m, having paadas of eight syllables. There are five
            varieties.
            (i) citrapadaa, ¯ ˘ ˘ | ¯ ˘ ˘ | ¯ ¯
            (ii) vijjummala, ¯ ¯ ¯ | ¯ ¯ ¯ | ¯ ¯
            (iii) maa.navaka.m, ¯ ˘ ˘ | ¯ ¯ ˘ | ˘ ¯
            (iv) saama.nika, ¯ ˘ ¯ | ˘ ¯ ˘ | ¯ ˘
            (v) paama.nikaa, ˘ ¯ ˘ | ¯ ˘ ¯ | ¯ ¯

            4. brahati, having paadas of nine syllables. There are two varieties.
            (i) halamukhii, ¯ ˘ ¯ | ˘ ˘ ˘ | ˘ ˘ ¯
            (ii) bhujagasusu, ˘ ˘ ˘ | ˘ ˘ ˘ | ¯ ¯ ¯

            5. panti, having paadas of ten syllables. There are seven varieties.
            (i) suddhaviraajitam, ¯ ¯ ¯ | ˘ ˘ ¯ | ˘ ¯ ˘ | ¯
            (ii) panavo, ¯ ¯ ¯ | ˘ ˘ ˘ | ˘ ¯ ¯ | ¯
            (iii) rummavati, ¯ ˘ ˘ | ¯ ¯ ¯ | ˘ ˘ ¯ | ¯
            (iv) matta, ¯ ¯ ¯ | ¯ ˘ ˘ | ˘ ˘ ¯ | ¯
            (v) campakamala, ¯ ˘ ˘ | ¯ ¯ ¯ | ˘ ˘ ¯ | ¯
            (vi) manorama, ˘ ˘ ˘ | ¯ ˘ ¯ | ˘ ¯ ˘ | ¯
            (vii) ubbhasakam, ¯ ¯ ˘ | ¯ ¯ ¯ | ¯ ˘ ¯ | ¯

            6. tu.t.thubha.m, having paadas of eleven syllables. There are eleven
            varieties.
            (i) upa.t.thitaa, ¯ ¯ ˘ | ˘ ¯ ˘ | ˘ ¯ ˘ | ¯ ¯
            (ii) indavajiraa, ¯ ¯ ˘ | ¯ ¯ ˘ | ˘ ¯ ˘ | ¯ ¯
            (iii) upavajiraa, ˘ ¯ ˘ | ¯ ¯ ˘ | ˘ ¯ ˘ | ¯ ¯
            Remark. When the quarter-verses of indavajiraa and upavajiraa are
            mixed together in a stanza in any order, the stanza is them called
            upajaati.
            (iv) sumukkhii, ˘ ˘ ¯ | ˘ ¯ ˘ | ˘ ¯ ˘ | ˘ ¯
            (v) dodhaka.m, ¯ ˘ ˘ | ¯ ˘ ˘ | ¯ ˘ ˘ | ¯ ¯
            (vi) saalinii, ¯ ¯ ¯ | ¯ ¯ ˘ | ¯ ¯ ˘ | ¯ ¯
            (vii) vaatummissaa, ¯ ¯ ¯ | ¯ ˘ ˘ | ¯ ¯ ˘ | ¯ ¯
            Remark. There are pauses after the fourth and seventh syllables.
            (viii) surasasirii, ¯ ˘ ˘ | ¯ ¯ ˘ | ˘ ˘ ˘ | ¯ ¯
            (ix) rathoddhataa, ¯ ˘ ¯ | ˘ ˘ ˘ | ¯ ˘ ¯ | ˘ ¯
            (x) svaagata, ¯ ˘ ¯ | ˘ ˘ ˘ | ¯ ˘ ˘ | ¯ ¯
            (xi) bhaddikaa, ˘ ˘ ˘ | ˘ ˘ ˘ | ¯ ˘ ¯ | ˘ ¯

            7. jagati, having paadas of twelve syllables. There are fourteen
            varieties.
            (i) vasama.t.tha, ˘ ¯ ˘ | ¯ ¯ ˘ | ˘ ¯ ˘ | ¯ ˘ ¯
            (ii) indava.msaa, ¯ ¯ ˘ | ¯ ¯ ˘ | ˘ ¯ ˘ | ¯ ˘ ¯
            (iii) to.taka, ˘ ˘ ¯ | ˘ ˘ ¯ | ˘ ˘ ¯ | ˘ ˘ ¯
            (iv) dutavila.mbita, ˘ ˘ ˘ | ¯ ˘ ˘ | ¯ ˘ ˘ | ¯ ˘ ¯
            (v) pu.ta, ˘ ˘ ˘ | ˘ ˘ ˘ | ¯ ¯ ¯ | ˘ ¯ ¯
            Remark. There are pauses after the fourth and twelfth syllables.
            (vi) kusumavicittaa, ˘ ˘ ˘ | ˘ ¯ ¯ | ˘ ˘ ˘ | ˘ ¯ ¯
            (vii) bhuja`ngappayaata, ˘ ¯ ¯ | ˘ ¯ ¯ | ˘ ¯ ¯ | ˘ ¯ ¯
            (viii) piyamvada, ˘ ˘ ˘ | ¯ ˘ ˘ | ˘ ¯ ˘ | ¯ ˘ ¯
            (ix) lalitaa, ¯ ¯ ˘ | ¯ ˘ ˘ | ˘ ¯ ˘ | ¯ ˘ ¯
            (x) pamitakkaraa, ˘ ˘ ¯ | ˘ ¯ ˘ | ˘ ˘ ¯ | ˘ ˘ ¯
            (xi) ujjalaa, ˘ ˘ ˘ | ˘ ˘ ˘ | ¯ ˘ ˘ | ¯ ˘ ¯
            (xii) vessadevii, ¯ ¯ ¯ | ¯ ¯ ¯ | ˘ ¯ ¯ | ˘ ¯ ¯
            Remark. There are pauses after the fifth and twelfth syllables.
            (xiii) taamarasa.m, ˘ ˘ ˘ | ˘ ¯ ˘ | ˘ ¯ ˘ | ˘ ¯ ¯
            (xiv) kamalaa, ˘ ˘ ¯ | ˘ ¯ ¯ | ˘ ˘ ¯ | ˘ ¯ ¯

            8. atijagati, having paadas of thirteen syllables. There are two
            varieties.
            (i) pahaasinii, ¯ ¯ ¯ | ˘ ˘ ˘ | ˘ ¯ ˘ | ¯ ˘ ¯ | ¯
            Remark. There are pauses after the third and thirteenth syllables.
            (ii) ruciraa, ˘ ¯ ˘ | ¯ ˘ ˘ | ˘ ˘ ¯ | ˘ ¯ ˘ | ¯
            Remark. There are pauses after the fourth and thirteenth syllables.

            9. sakkarii, having paadas of fourteen syllables. There are three
            varieties.
            (i) aparaajitaa, ˘ ˘ ˘ | ˘ ˘ ˘ | ¯ ˘ ¯ | ˘ ˘ ¯ | ˘ ¯
            Remark. There are pauses after the seventh and fourteenth syllables.
            (ii) pahara.nakalikaa, ˘ ˘ ˘ | ˘ ˘ ˘ | ¯ ˘ ˘ | ˘ ˘ ˘ | ˘ ¯
            Remark. There are pauses after the seventh and fourteenth syllables.
            (iii) vasantatilakaa, ¯ ¯ ˘ | ¯ ˘ ˘ | ˘ ¯ ˘ | ˘ ¯ ˘ | ¯ ¯

            10. atisakkarii, fifteen syllables. There are four varieties.
            (i) sasikala, ˘ ˘ ˘ | ˘ ˘ ˘ | ˘ ˘ ˘ | ˘ ˘ ˘ | ˘ ˘ ¯
            (ii) ma.nigunaanikaro, ˘ ˘ ˘ | ˘ ˘ ˘ | ˘ ˘ ˘ | ˘ ˘ ˘ | ˘ ˘ ¯
            Remark. There are pauses after the eighth and fifteenth syllables.
            (iii) malinii, ˘ ˘ ˘ | ˘ ˘ ˘ | ¯ ¯ ¯ | ˘ ¯ ¯ | ˘ ¯ ¯
            Remark. There is a pause after the eighth syllable.
            (iv) pabhaddaka.m, ˘ ˘ ˘ | ˘ ¯ ˘ | ¯ ˘ ˘ | ˘ ¯ ˘ | ¯ ˘ ¯

            11. a.t.thi, having paadas of sixteen syllables. There is one variety.
            (i) vaaninii, ˘ ˘ ˘ | ˘ ¯ ˘ | ¯ ˘ ˘ | ˘ ¯ ˘ | ¯ ˘ ¯ | ¯

            12. atya.t.thi, having paadas of seventeen syllables. There are three
            varieties.
            (i) sikharinii, ˘ ¯ ¯ | ¯ ¯ ¯ | ˘ ˘ ˘ | ˘ ˘ ¯ | ¯ ˘ ˘ | ˘ ¯
            Remark. There are pauses after the sixth and seventeenth syllables.
            (ii) harinii, ˘ ˘ ˘ | ˘ ˘ ¯ | ¯ ¯ ¯ | ¯ ˘ ¯ | ˘ ˘ ¯ | ˘ ¯
            (iii) mandakkantaa, ¯ ¯ ¯ | ¯ ˘ ˘ | ˘ ˘ ˘ | ¯ ¯ ˘ | ¯ ¯ ˘ | ¯ ¯
            Remark. There are pauses after the fourth, tenth and seventeenth
            syllables.

            13. dhuti, having paadas of eighteen syllables. There is one variety.
            (i) kusumitalataavellitaa, ¯ ¯ ¯ | ¯ ¯ ˘ | ˘ ˘ ˘ | ˘ ¯ ¯ | ˘ ¯ ¯ | ˘ ¯ ¯

            14. atidhuti, having paadas of nineteen syllables. There are two
            varieties.
            (i) meghavipphujjitaa, ¯ ¯ ¯ | ¯ ¯ ¯ | ˘ ˘ ˘ | ˘ ˘ ¯ | ¯ ¯ ˘ | ¯ ¯ ˘ | ¯
            Remark. There are pauses after the sixth and thirteenth, and
            nineteenth syllables.
            (ii) sadduulavikkiiitii, ¯ ¯ ¯ | ˘ ˘ ¯ | ˘ ¯ ˘ | ˘ ˘ ¯ | ¯ ¯ ˘ | ¯ ¯ ˘ | ¯
            Remark. There are pauses after the twelfth and nineteenth syllables.

            15. kati, having paadas of twenty syllables. There is one variety.
            (i) vutta, ¯ ˘ ¯ | ˘ ¯ ˘ | ¯ ˘ ¯ | ˘ ¯ ˘ | ¯ ˘ ¯ | ¯ ¯ ˘ | ¯ ˘

            16. pakati, having paadas of twenty-one syllables. There is one variety.
            (i) saddharaa, ¯ ¯ ¯ | ¯ ˘ ¯ | ¯ ˘ ˘ | ˘ ˘ ˘ | ˘ ¯ ¯ | ¯ ¯ ¯ | ˘ ¯ ¯

            17. akati, having paadas of twenty-two syllables. There is one variety.
            (i) bhaddaka, ¯ ˘ ˘ | ¯ ˘ ¯ | ˘ ˘ ˘ | ¯ ˘ ¯ | ˘ ˘ ˘ | ¯ ˘ ¯ | ˘ ˘ ˘ | ¯



            metta,
            Yong Peng.
          • Ong Yong Peng
            Dear friends, as you may already know, this discussion is based on Chapter 15 of A Practical Grammar of the Paali Language by Charles Duroiselle. 634. In the
            Message 5 of 12 , Jan 17, 2009
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              Dear friends,

              as you may already know, this discussion is based on Chapter 15 of A
              Practical Grammar of the Paali Language by Charles Duroiselle.

              634. In the addhasama class of metres, the first and the third, and
              the second and fourth paadas are similar. The following table shows
              eleven kinds of metres that come under this head:

              Name of Metre Odd quarter - verses 1st.-3rd. Even quarter -
              verses 2nd.-4th.
              upacitta ˘ ˘ ¯ ˘ ˘ ¯ ˘ ˘ ¯ ˘ ¯ ¯ ˘ ˘ ¯ ˘ ˘ ¯ ˘ ˘ ¯ ¯
              ratamajjhaa ¯ ˘ ˘ ¯ ˘ ˘ ¯ ˘ ˘ ¯ ¯ ˘ ˘ ˘ ˘ ¯ ˘ ˘ ¯ ˘ ˘ ¯ ¯
              vegavati ˘ ˘ ¯ ˘ ˘ ¯ ˘ ˘ ¯ ¯ ¯ ˘ ˘ ¯ ˘ ˘ ¯ ˘ ˘ ¯ ¯
              bhaddaviraaja.m ¯ ¯ ˘ ˘ ¯ ˘ ¯ ˘ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ˘ ˘ ¯ ˘ ¯ ˘ ¯ ¯
              ketumati ˘ ˘ ¯ ˘ ¯ ˘ ¯ ˘ ¯ ¯ ¯ ˘ ˘ ¯ ˘ ¯ ˘ ˘ ˘ ¯ ¯
              akhyaanikaa ¯ ¯ ˘ ¯ ¯ ˘ ˘ ¯ ˘ ¯ ¯ ˘ ¯ ˘ ¯ ¯ ˘ ˘ ¯ ˘ ¯ ¯
              viparitapubba ˘ ¯ ˘ ¯ ¯ ˘ ˘ ¯ ˘ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ˘ ¯ ¯ ˘ ˘ ¯ ˘ ¯ ¯
              hari.napaluta ˘ ˘ ¯ ˘ ˘ ¯ ˘ ˘ ¯ ˘ ¯ ˘ ˘ ˘ ¯ ˘ ˘ ¯ ˘ ˘ ¯ ˘ ¯
              aparavutta ˘ ˘ ˘ ˘ ˘ ˘ ¯ ˘ ¯ ˘ ¯ ˘ ˘ ˘ ˘ ¯ ˘ ˘ ¯ ˘ ¯ ˘ ¯
              pubbittaggaa ˘ ˘ ˘ ˘ ˘ ˘ ¯ ˘ ¯ ˘ ¯ ¯ ˘ ˘ ˘ ˘ ¯ ˘ ˘ ¯ ˘ ¯ ˘ ¯ ¯
              yavaadikaamatii ˘ ¯ ˘ ¯ ˘ ¯ ˘ ¯ ˘ ¯ ˘ ¯ ¯ ˘ ¯ ˘ ¯ ˘ ¯ ˘ ¯ ˘ ¯ ˘ ¯



              metta,
              Yong Peng.
            • Ong Yong Peng
              Dear friends, this discussion is based on Chapter 15 of A Practical Grammar of the Paali Language by Charles Duroiselle. A new symbol ( ̶̆ )is introduced in
              Message 6 of 12 , Jan 26, 2009
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                Dear friends,

                this discussion is based on Chapter 15 of A Practical Grammar of the
                Paali Language by Charles Duroiselle. A new symbol ( ̶̆ )is introduced
                in this post, hopefully everyone can properly view it. If not, please
                consult the html version:
                http://www.tipitaka.net/pali/synthesis/grammar.15.cdv

                635. The paadas in this division of verses are all dissimilar. Under
                this head comes the metre known as Vatta, the heroic measure of Pali
                literature, eight syllables being employed in each paada, the first
                and last syllables therein being free, and this, a short or long
                syllable may be optionally used in those syllables. The syllables
                between the first and last, form two seats, having three syllables in
                each seat of foot. In the first seat in all the quarters, any foot may
                be employed except a Tribrach and an Anapaest, that is to say, three
                short syllables ( ˘ ˘ ˘ ) or two short and one long ( ˘ ˘ ¯ ) must not
                be used. In the second seat of the first and third quarters, any foot
                may be used, but in the second seat of the second and fourth quarters
                only ya (Bacchic) or ja (Amphibrach) (i.e., ˘ ¯ ¯ or ˘ ¯ ˘ ) must be
                employed. It should be noted, however, that the Vatta proper has ja in
                the second seat of both the second and the fourth paadas.

                636. (i) Vatta Proper

                Free 1st seat 2nd seat Free
                1st paada ̶̆ ̶̆ ̶̆ ̶̆ ̶̆ ̶̆ ̶̆ ̶̆
                2nd paada ̶̆ ̶̆ ̶̆ ̶̆ ˘ ¯ ¯ ̶̆
                3rd paada ̶̆ ̶̆ ̶̆ ̶̆ ̶̆ ̶̆ ̶̆ ̶̆
                4th paada ̶̆ ̶̆ ̶̆ ̶̆ ˘ ¯ ¯ ̶̆

                <YP> The sign ̶̆ means that the syllable may be optionally short or long.

                637. Sometimes the Gaathaa contains six paadas - the fifth following
                the rule for the first and third; the sixth that for the second and
                fourth.

                638. Besides the Vatta Proper above shown, there are six kinds of
                Vatta metres:

                (ii) Vipariitapathyaavatta

                Paadas 1 & 3: ̶̆ | ̶̆ ˘ ̶̆ | ˘ ¯ ˘ | ̶̆
                Paadas 2 & 4: ̶̆ | ̶̆ ˘ ̶̆ | ˘ ¯ ¯ | ̶̆

                (iii) Capalaavatta

                Paadas 1 & 3: ̶̆ | ̶̆ ̶̆ ̶̆ | ˘ ˘ ˘ | ̶̆
                Paadas 2 & 4: ̶̆ | ̶̆ ˘ ̶̆ | ˘ ¯ ¯ | ̶̆

                (iv) Na-Vipulaa

                Paadas 1 & 3: ̶̆ | ̶̆ ̶̆ ̶̆ | ˘ ˘ ˘ | ̶̆
                Paadas 2 & 4: ̶̆ | ̶̆ ˘ ̶̆ | ˘ ¯ ˘ | ̶̆
                or
                All paadas: ̶̆ | ̶̆ ̶̆ ̶̆ | ˘ ˘ ˘ | ̶̆

                (v) Vipulaa of Setava

                (vi) Vipulaa of Pi`ngala

                (vii) Bha-Vipulaa

                Paadas 1 & 3: ̶̆ | ̶̆ ̶̆ ̶̆ | ¯ ˘ ˘ | ̶̆
                Paadas 2 & 4: ̶̆ | ̶̆ ˘ ̶̆ | ˘ ¯ ˘ | ̶̆
                or
                All paadas: ̶̆ | ̶̆ ̶̆ ̶̆ | ¯ ˘ ˘ | ̶̆

                (viii) Ra-Vipulaa

                Paadas 1 & 3: ̶̆ | ̶̆ ̶̆ ̶̆ | ¯ ˘ ¯ | ̶̆
                Paadas 2 & 4: ̶̆ | ̶̆ ˘ ̶̆ | ˘ ¯ ˘ | ̶̆
                or
                All paadas: ̶̆ | ̶̆ ̶̆ ̶̆ | ¯ ˘ ¯ | ̶̆

                (ix) Ta-Vipulaa

                Paadas 1 & 3: ̶̆ | ̶̆ ̶̆ ̶̆ | ¯ ¯ ˘ | ̶̆
                Paadas 2 & 4: ̶̆ | ̶̆ ˘ ̶̆ | ˘ ¯ ˘ | ̶̆
                or
                All paadas: ̶̆ | ̶̆ ̶̆ ̶̆ | ¯ ¯ ˘ | ̶̆

                640. Besides the metres noted above, there are some that are regulated
                by time (kaala). Such metres are termed Jaati. They are of three kinds:-

                1. Ariyaa
                2. Vetaaliya, and
                3. Mattaasamaka

                641. In the first of these, the ariyaa, the first two paadas of half a
                gaathaa contain seven and a half feet; in the even, that is, in the
                second, fourth, and sixth feet, any of the following, namely, bha, ja,
                sa, gaa, or four short syllables may be employed, but ja must not be
                used in the odd feet, that is, in the first, third, and fifth. The
                sixth foot may be la or four short syllables. The second-half stanza
                must fulfil the same conditions. It is necessary to observe that in
                the jaati metre a foot consists of four syllabic instants, the time
                taken up in pronouncing a short syllable being taken as an instant of
                time; thus a long syllable being taken equal to two short ones, each
                foot used in the ariyaa is equal to four syllabic instants. The
                following is an illustration of an ariyaa stanza:

                1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th 7th 8th foot
                First half stanza ¯ ¯, ˘˘˘˘, ¯ ¯, ˘˘¯, ¯ ¯, ˘¯˘, ¯˘˘, ¯
                Second half stanza ˘˘¯, ˘˘˘, ¯ ¯, ¯ ¯, ¯ ¯, ˘, ¯ ¯, ¯

                642. The vetaaliya is so formed that it usually consists of fourteen
                syllabic instants in the odd quarters and sixteen in the even, while
                the mattaasamaka consists of sixteen syllabic instants in each
                quarter. The metres of the jaati class furnish many varieties, but it
                is not within the scope of this work to treat of them in detail. As,
                however, the vetaaliya is of rather frequent occurrence, we give below
                the scheme of it. Each paada is divided into three seats; the first
                seat in the first and third paadas must have six syllabic instants;
                the first seat of the second and fourth paadas must contain eight
                syllabic instants; the second seat must be a cretic foot and the third
                a lambic foot:

                Number of 1st seat 2nd seat 3rd seat
                syllabic Cretic Lambus
                instants
                1st paada 6 six syllabic instants ¯ ˘ ¯ ˘ ¯
                2nd paada 8 eight syllabic instants ¯ ˘ ¯ ˘ ¯
                3rd paada 6 six syllabic instants ¯ ˘ ¯ ˘ ¯
                4th paada 8 eight syllabic instants ¯ ˘ ¯ ˘ ¯

                This is the final post.

                metta,
                Yong Peng.
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