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Prosody: Pali Metre (Meter) 1

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  • Ong Yong Peng
    Dear friends, the following is from Chapter 15 of Charles Duroiselle s Grammar. I shall include my own comments for discussion. I do not claim any expertise in
    Message 1 of 12 , Dec 28, 2008
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      Dear friends,

      the following is from Chapter 15 of Charles Duroiselle's Grammar. I
      shall include my own comments for discussion. I do not claim any
      expertise in this area, but would like to explore more as part of my
      study of Pali. If you like to understand prosody in general, please
      read: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prosody

      I will try to make this a regular series, maybe on a weekly basis,
      covering the entire chapter in as much details as I can gather, within
      the bounds of my understanding of course.

      I hope the symbols used below: macron (¯) and breve (˘) show up just
      fine for everyone, including me.

      Without further ado,

      626. Prosody is that part of Grammar which treats of the laws of
      versification.

      * A gaathaa in Paali poetry, is a stanza.
      * A paada is the fourth part of a stanza, called also a quarter verse.
      * A va.n.na is a syllable in a paada.
      * A short syllable is termed lahu.
      * A long syllable is called garu.
      * A foot is termed ga.na.

      <YP> As we shall see below, in spoken Pali, syllables are either short
      or long. I guess this is true in speech for most languages, it can
      become technically cumbersome if there are syllables of various
      lengths other than simply short and long.

      <YP> Terminology: lahu = short syllable, garu = long syllable, ga.na =
      foot. A foot is made up of two or more syllables.

      <YP> More definitions: gaathaa = stanza, paada = last quarter portion
      of a stanza, va.n.na = a syllable in a paada.

      ---------------------------------------------

      627. The mark ¯ represents a short syallable, and the mark ˘ a long
      syllable. A foot containing two long syllables is termed gaa, that is,
      ga+ga, the initial syllable ga of the word garu being used to
      represent a long syllable. A foot of two short syllables is termed
      laa, that is la+la, the initial syllable of the word lahu being
      employed to represent a short syllable.

      <YP> The symbol used to mark a short syllable is a macron: ¯

      <YP> The symbol used to mark a long syllable is a breve: ˘

      <YP> New definitions: gaa = a foot containing two long syllables, laa
      = a foot containing two short syllables.

      ---------------------------------------------

      628. The following are the four varieties of a dis-syllabic foot.

      Syllables Paali English
      ˘ ˘ la la or laa Pyrrhic
      ¯ ¯ ga ga or gaa Spondee
      ˘ ¯ la ga Lambus
      ¯ ˘ ga la Trochee

      <YP> There are four possible combinations for a two-syllable foot:
      long-long, short-short, long-short, and short-long.


      metta,
      Yong Peng.
    • Nina van Gorkom
      Dear Yong Peng, thank you for all the trouble. I get a bit mixed up with this: The mark ¯ represents a short syallable, and the mark ˘ a long syllable. You
      Message 2 of 12 , Dec 28, 2008
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        Dear Yong Peng,
        thank you for all the trouble.
        I get a bit mixed up with this: The mark �� represents a short
        syallable, and the mark �� a long
        syllable. You also mention breve for the last one, is this not short?
        And further you write:
        �� �� la la or laa Pyrrhic
        �� �� ga ga or gaa Spondee,
        but la is short and ga long? Thus, �� stands for short?
        What about the added words Pyrrhic and Spondee, only sound examples?
        Nina.
        Op 28-dec-2008, om 18:47 heeft Ong Yong Peng het volgende geschreven:

        > The mark �� represents a short syallable, and the mark �� a long
        > syllable.



        [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
      • Ong Yong Peng
        Dear Nina, thank you for spotting the mistake. ;-) A typo has crept in without me noticing it. The corrections are as follows: 627. The mark ˘ represents a
        Message 3 of 12 , Dec 28, 2008
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          Dear Nina,

          thank you for spotting the mistake. ;-) A typo has crept in without me
          noticing it.

          The corrections are as follows:

          627. The mark ˘ represents a short syallable, and the mark ¯ a long
          syllable.

          <YP> The symbol used to mark a short syllable is a breve: ˘

          <YP> The symbol used to mark a long syllable is a macron: ¯

          ---------------------------------------------------

          Pyrrhic, Spondee, etc. are English names of laa, gaa, etc., the
          disyllabic feet. More general information of the names are be found
          here: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Metrical_foot


          metta,
          Yong Peng.



          --- In Pali@yahoogroups.com, Nina van Gorkom wrote:

          You also mention breve for the last one, is this not short?
          What about the added words Pyrrhic and Spondee, only sound examples?
        • Ong Yong Peng
          Dear Nina and friends, allow me to include the following: Each gaathaa consists of four verses, each quarter may also be known as a paada. Hence, there are
          Message 4 of 12 , Dec 28, 2008
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            Dear Nina and friends,

            allow me to include the following:

            Each gaathaa consists of four verses, each quarter may also be known
            as a paada. Hence, there are four paadas in a gaathaa.

            metta,
            Yong Peng.


            --- In Pali@yahoogroups.com, Ong Yong Peng wrote:

            626. Prosody is that part of Grammar which treats of the laws of
            versification.

            * A paada is the fourth part of a stanza, called also a quarter verse.

            <YP> More definitions: gaathaa = stanza, paada = last quarter portion
            of a stanza, va.n.na = a syllable in a paada.
          • Mahinda Palihawadana
            On 12/28/08, Ong Yong Peng wrote, quting Durosille: 626. Prosody is that part of Grammar which treats of the laws of ... It seems to me
            Message 5 of 12 , Dec 28, 2008
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              On 12/28/08, Ong Yong Peng <palismith@...> wrote, quting
              Durosille: >626. Prosody is that part of Grammar which treats of the
              laws of
              > versification.
              >
              > * A gaathaa in Paali poetry, is a stanza.
              > * A paada is the fourth part of a stanza, called also a quarter verse.
              > * A va.n.na is a syllable in a paada.
              > * A short syllable is termed lahu.
              > * A long syllable is called garu.
              > * A foot is termed ga.na.

              It seems to me these definitions are confusing. A paada is a fourth of
              a 4 lined verse, that is correct. So it means what we now understand
              to be a 'line'. Its literal meaning is 'foot', On the analogy of a
              four-footed animal, a line of a normal gaathaa came to be called a
              'paada'. Now, to define a 'ga.na' also as a 'foot' is confusing. A
              ga.na as I understand is a unit of 3 syllables. A ga.na may have 3
              short syllables, 3 long syllables, 2 short and 1 long or any other
              such combination; but essentially it is a unit of 3 syllables.
              Maybe Warder's book on metrics explains it better.

              > <YP> Terminology: lahu = short syllable, garu = long syllable.
              OK

              >ga.na =
              > foot. A foot is made up of two or more syllables.
              This is what has to be clarified. I have given above my understanding
              of it. It has to be 3 syllables, neither less, nor more.

              > <YP> paada = last quarter portion
              > of a stanza

              Not a last quarter, but a quarter of a gaathaa of 4 lines. Generaly
              it means a 'line' in the modern sense.

              > va.n.na = a syllable in a paada.

              Again, this needs clarifiaction. Just a syllable is better.

              Garu means heavy and lahu means light. In prosody they mean long and
              short. ga is shorthand for garu and la is short for lahu, as you later
              say. A long syllable has a long vowel or a short vowel followed by a
              double consonant.

              >. A foot containing two long syllables is termed gaa, that is,
              > ga+ga, the initial syllable ga of the word garu being used to
              > represent a long syllable. A foot of two short syllables is termed
              > laa, that is la+la, the initial syllable of the word lahu being
              > employed to represent a short syllable.

              This is confusing. A foot,i.e., a line of a verse, is unlikely to
              have just two syllables.

              If these points are overlooked, the whole discussion may go astray.
              Let's try to have them correct. I may be wrong in some places, I don't
              know.

              Best wishes.
              Mahinda
            • Ong Yong Peng
              Dear Mahinda and friends, yes, I do agree with you. I try to put the author s perspectives in order. But, additional assistance would be greatly helpful.
              Message 6 of 12 , Dec 28, 2008
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                Dear Mahinda and friends,

                yes, I do agree with you. I try to put the author's perspectives in
                order. But, additional assistance would be greatly helpful.

                Another matter, the text for this chapter is incomplete. I have
                checked most other online versions, and found that they all have the
                same parts missing. The missing section is from §635 to §640. If
                anyone can fill in with the gaps, that would be terrific.

                metta,
                Yong Peng.


                --- In Pali@yahoogroups.com, Mahinda Palihawadana wrote:

                If these points are overlooked, the whole discussion may go astray.
                Let's try to have them correct. I may be wrong in some places, I don't
                know.
              • Ong Yong Peng
                Dear friends, this is a discussion base on Chapter 15 of Charles Duroiselle s Grammar. Unfortunately, the material I have is not complete. Sections §635 to
                Message 7 of 12 , Jan 2, 2009
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                  Dear friends,

                  this is a discussion base on Chapter 15 of Charles Duroiselle's
                  Grammar. Unfortunately, the material I have is not complete. Sections
                  §635 to §640 are missing. I like to appeal to anyone who have the
                  missing sections to contact us and provide the materials for this study.

                  Without further ado, let us continue.

                  629. The eight-syllable feet, known in Paali as the a.t.thaga.na are
                  as follows:

                  Syllables Paali English
                  ¯ ¯ ¯ ma Molossus
                  ˘ ˘ ˘ na Tribach
                  ¯ ˘ ˘ bhaa Dactyl
                  ˘ ¯ ¯ ya Bacchic
                  ˘ ¯ ˘ ja Amphibrach
                  ˘ ˘ ¯ sa Anapaest
                  ¯ ˘ ¯ ra Cretic
                  ¯ ¯ ˘ ta Antibacchic

                  <YP> As we have previously noted, the descriptions given by the author
                  requires some clarification. The a.t.thaga.na is a set of "foot's" (or
                  feet), each foot containing three syllables (trisyllabic), which can
                  be either short or long and in any combination, hence giving us eight
                  possible configurations. These are shown above, together with the Pali
                  and English names of the feet.

                  <YP>If you like to understand further the metrical foot in general,
                  please read: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Foot_(prosody)

                  630. The short vowels in Paali are a, i, u, the long vowels are aa,
                  ii, uu, e, o. When a, i or u is followed by a double consonant, it is
                  prosodically long. For instance, the first as well as the second a in
                  cakka~nca, is long because followed by kk and ~nc respectively. Before
                  niggahita (.m) a short vowel is also always prosodically long. Thus in
                  sacca.m, the a before .m is long. In poetry, a naturally short vowel
                  is occasionally lengthened and a naturally long one shortened to meet
                  the exigencies of the metre. In order to make a short vowel long, the
                  consonant following it is sometimes doubled.

                  <YP> In summary, a vowel is Pali prosody is usually long, with the
                  exception: it is a short vowel NOT followed by a double consonant.

                  631. There are three classes of metres, termed sama, addhasama, and
                  visama. When the syllables in all the paadas are exactly alike the
                  metre is called sama; when those in the first and third and those in
                  the second and fourth paadas are alike it is addhasama; and when all
                  the paadas or verses are different, the metre is termed visama.

                  <YP> The term sama means equal, a Sama metre means all the lines have
                  the same syllables. The term addha means half, so addhasama literally
                  means halfly equal. An Addhasama metre occurs when the odd-numbered
                  lines employ one set of syllables, while the even-numbered lines
                  employ another. Visama, meaning unequal, is the opposite of sama. In a
                  Visama metre, there is no common syllabic arrangement between any two
                  lines.

                  1. The Sama Class

                  632. In gaathas of this class, the syllables in each paada may range
                  from six up to twenty-two. The names of the seventeen kinds of metres
                  are as follows:

                  * gaayatti 6 syllables
                  * u.nhi 7 syllables
                  * anu.t.thubha.m 8 syllables
                  * brahati 9 syllables
                  * panti 10 syllables
                  * tu.t.thubha.m 11 syllables
                  * jagati 12 syllables
                  * atijagati 13 syllables
                  * sakkarii 14 syllables
                  * atisakkarii 15 syllables
                  * a.t.thi 16 syllables
                  * atya.t.thi 17 syllables
                  * dhuti 18 syllables
                  * atidhuti 19 syllables
                  * kati 20 syllables
                  * pakati 21 syllables
                  * akati 22 syllables

                  <YP> The Sama metres are further classified according to the number of
                  syllables in each paada.



                  metta,
                  Yong Peng.
                • George Bedell
                  Yong Peng, Maybe you have filled the gap by now, but I have a pdf copy of Duroiselle which has sections 635 to 640 (pages 341-342). I don t remember where I
                  Message 8 of 12 , Jan 7, 2009
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                    Yong Peng,

                    Maybe you have filled the gap by now, but I have a pdf copy of Duroiselle which has sections 635 to 640 (pages 341-342). I don't remember where I downloaded it from, but if you are still looking I can send a copy.

                    George B

                    * * * * *
                    George Bedell
                    230/5 Suan Lanna Village, Huay Kaew Road,
                    t. Chang Phuak, a. Muang
                    Chiang Mai 50300, Thailand
                    +66-53-414100




                    ________________________________
                    From: Ong Yong Peng <palismith@...>
                    To: Pali@yahoogroups.com
                    Sent: Saturday, January 3, 2009 10:14:56
                    Subject: [Pali] Prosody: Pali Metre (Meter) 2


                    Dear friends,

                    this is a discussion base on Chapter 15 of Charles Duroiselle's
                    Grammar. Unfortunately, the material I have is not complete. Sections
                    §635 to §640 are missing. I like to appeal to anyone who have the
                    missing sections to contact us and provide the materials for this study.

                    Without further ado, let us continue.

                    629. The eight-syllable feet, known in Paali as the a.t.thaga.na are
                    as follows:

                    Syllables Paali English
                    ¯ ¯ ¯ ma Molossus
                    ˘ ˘ ˘ na Tribach
                    ¯ ˘ ˘ bhaa Dactyl
                    ˘ ¯ ¯ ya Bacchic
                    ˘ ¯ ˘ ja Amphibrach
                    ˘ ˘ ¯ sa Anapaest
                    ¯ ˘ ¯ ra Cretic
                    ¯ ¯ ˘ ta Antibacchic

                    <YP> As we have previously noted, the descriptions given by the author
                    requires some clarification. The a.t.thaga.na is a set of "foot's" (or
                    feet), each foot containing three syllables (trisyllabic) , which can
                    be either short or long and in any combination, hence giving us eight
                    possible configurations. These are shown above, together with the Pali
                    and English names of the feet.

                    <YP>If you like to understand further the metrical foot in general,
                    please read: http://en.wikipedia .org/wiki/ Foot_(prosody)

                    630. The short vowels in Paali are a, i, u, the long vowels are aa,
                    ii, uu, e, o. When a, i or u is followed by a double consonant, it is
                    prosodically long. For instance, the first as well as the second a in
                    cakka~nca, is long because followed by kk and ~nc respectively. Before
                    niggahita (.m) a short vowel is also always prosodically long. Thus in
                    sacca.m, the a before .m is long. In poetry, a naturally short vowel
                    is occasionally lengthened and a naturally long one shortened to meet
                    the exigencies of the metre. In order to make a short vowel long, the
                    consonant following it is sometimes doubled.

                    <YP> In summary, a vowel is Pali prosody is usually long, with the
                    exception: it is a short vowel NOT followed by a double consonant.

                    631. There are three classes of metres, termed sama, addhasama, and
                    visama. When the syllables in all the paadas are exactly alike the
                    metre is called sama; when those in the first and third and those in
                    the second and fourth paadas are alike it is addhasama; and when all
                    the paadas or verses are different, the metre is termed visama.

                    <YP> The term sama means equal, a Sama metre means all the lines have
                    the same syllables. The term addha means half, so addhasama literally
                    means halfly equal. An Addhasama metre occurs when the odd-numbered
                    lines employ one set of syllables, while the even-numbered lines
                    employ another. Visama, meaning unequal, is the opposite of sama. In a
                    Visama metre, there is no common syllabic arrangement between any two
                    lines.

                    1. The Sama Class

                    632. In gaathas of this class, the syllables in each paada may range
                    from six up to twenty-two. The names of the seventeen kinds of metres
                    are as follows:

                    * gaayatti 6 syllables
                    * u.nhi 7 syllables
                    * anu.t.thubha. m 8 syllables
                    * brahati 9 syllables
                    * panti 10 syllables
                    * tu.t.thubha. m 11 syllables
                    * jagati 12 syllables
                    * atijagati 13 syllables
                    * sakkarii 14 syllables
                    * atisakkarii 15 syllables
                    * a.t.thi 16 syllables
                    * atya.t.thi 17 syllables
                    * dhuti 18 syllables
                    * atidhuti 19 syllables
                    * kati 20 syllables
                    * pakati 21 syllables
                    * akati 22 syllables

                    <YP> The Sama metres are further classified according to the number of
                    syllables in each paada.

                    metta,
                    Yong Peng.




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                    [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                  • Ong Yong Peng
                    Dear George, thanks, I have indeed already located the missing portions. I will post them to the group as soon as I get to transcribe the text in PDF. metta,
                    Message 9 of 12 , Jan 9, 2009
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                      Dear George,

                      thanks, I have indeed already located the missing portions. I will
                      post them to the group as soon as I get to transcribe the text in PDF.

                      metta,
                      Yong Peng.


                      --- In Pali@yahoogroups.com, George Bedell wrote:

                      Maybe you have filled the gap by now, but I have a pdf copy of
                      Duroiselle which has sections 635 to 640 (pages 341-342). I don't
                      remember where I downloaded it from, but if you are still looking I
                      can send a copy.
                    • Ong Yong Peng
                      Dear friends, this is a discussion based upon Chapter 15 of Charles Duroiselle s Grammar. From some materials I recently acquired, I learnt that this chapter
                      Message 10 of 12 , Jan 10, 2009
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                        Dear friends,

                        this is a discussion based upon Chapter 15 of Charles Duroiselle's
                        Grammar. From some materials I recently acquired, I learnt that this
                        chapter is primarily based on the classical text Vuttodaya. I further
                        learnt that Vuttodaya may not be a representative account of canonical
                        prosody.

                        633. These are again subdivided according to the kind of feet employed
                        in each stanza; as the four paadas are similar, the scheme of only one
                        paada is given for each kind of metre:

                        1. gaayatti, having paadas of six syllables. There is one variety.
                        (i) tanumajjhaa, ¯ ¯ ˘ | ˘ ¯ ¯

                        2. u.nhi, having paadas of seven syllables. There is one variety.
                        (i) kumaaralatitaa, ˘ ¯ ˘ | ˘ ˘ ¯ | ¯

                        3. anu.t.thubha.m, having paadas of eight syllables. There are five
                        varieties.
                        (i) citrapadaa, ¯ ˘ ˘ | ¯ ˘ ˘ | ¯ ¯
                        (ii) vijjummala, ¯ ¯ ¯ | ¯ ¯ ¯ | ¯ ¯
                        (iii) maa.navaka.m, ¯ ˘ ˘ | ¯ ¯ ˘ | ˘ ¯
                        (iv) saama.nika, ¯ ˘ ¯ | ˘ ¯ ˘ | ¯ ˘
                        (v) paama.nikaa, ˘ ¯ ˘ | ¯ ˘ ¯ | ¯ ¯

                        4. brahati, having paadas of nine syllables. There are two varieties.
                        (i) halamukhii, ¯ ˘ ¯ | ˘ ˘ ˘ | ˘ ˘ ¯
                        (ii) bhujagasusu, ˘ ˘ ˘ | ˘ ˘ ˘ | ¯ ¯ ¯

                        5. panti, having paadas of ten syllables. There are seven varieties.
                        (i) suddhaviraajitam, ¯ ¯ ¯ | ˘ ˘ ¯ | ˘ ¯ ˘ | ¯
                        (ii) panavo, ¯ ¯ ¯ | ˘ ˘ ˘ | ˘ ¯ ¯ | ¯
                        (iii) rummavati, ¯ ˘ ˘ | ¯ ¯ ¯ | ˘ ˘ ¯ | ¯
                        (iv) matta, ¯ ¯ ¯ | ¯ ˘ ˘ | ˘ ˘ ¯ | ¯
                        (v) campakamala, ¯ ˘ ˘ | ¯ ¯ ¯ | ˘ ˘ ¯ | ¯
                        (vi) manorama, ˘ ˘ ˘ | ¯ ˘ ¯ | ˘ ¯ ˘ | ¯
                        (vii) ubbhasakam, ¯ ¯ ˘ | ¯ ¯ ¯ | ¯ ˘ ¯ | ¯

                        6. tu.t.thubha.m, having paadas of eleven syllables. There are eleven
                        varieties.
                        (i) upa.t.thitaa, ¯ ¯ ˘ | ˘ ¯ ˘ | ˘ ¯ ˘ | ¯ ¯
                        (ii) indavajiraa, ¯ ¯ ˘ | ¯ ¯ ˘ | ˘ ¯ ˘ | ¯ ¯
                        (iii) upavajiraa, ˘ ¯ ˘ | ¯ ¯ ˘ | ˘ ¯ ˘ | ¯ ¯
                        Remark. When the quarter-verses of indavajiraa and upavajiraa are
                        mixed together in a stanza in any order, the stanza is them called
                        upajaati.
                        (iv) sumukkhii, ˘ ˘ ¯ | ˘ ¯ ˘ | ˘ ¯ ˘ | ˘ ¯
                        (v) dodhaka.m, ¯ ˘ ˘ | ¯ ˘ ˘ | ¯ ˘ ˘ | ¯ ¯
                        (vi) saalinii, ¯ ¯ ¯ | ¯ ¯ ˘ | ¯ ¯ ˘ | ¯ ¯
                        (vii) vaatummissaa, ¯ ¯ ¯ | ¯ ˘ ˘ | ¯ ¯ ˘ | ¯ ¯
                        Remark. There are pauses after the fourth and seventh syllables.
                        (viii) surasasirii, ¯ ˘ ˘ | ¯ ¯ ˘ | ˘ ˘ ˘ | ¯ ¯
                        (ix) rathoddhataa, ¯ ˘ ¯ | ˘ ˘ ˘ | ¯ ˘ ¯ | ˘ ¯
                        (x) svaagata, ¯ ˘ ¯ | ˘ ˘ ˘ | ¯ ˘ ˘ | ¯ ¯
                        (xi) bhaddikaa, ˘ ˘ ˘ | ˘ ˘ ˘ | ¯ ˘ ¯ | ˘ ¯

                        7. jagati, having paadas of twelve syllables. There are fourteen
                        varieties.
                        (i) vasama.t.tha, ˘ ¯ ˘ | ¯ ¯ ˘ | ˘ ¯ ˘ | ¯ ˘ ¯
                        (ii) indava.msaa, ¯ ¯ ˘ | ¯ ¯ ˘ | ˘ ¯ ˘ | ¯ ˘ ¯
                        (iii) to.taka, ˘ ˘ ¯ | ˘ ˘ ¯ | ˘ ˘ ¯ | ˘ ˘ ¯
                        (iv) dutavila.mbita, ˘ ˘ ˘ | ¯ ˘ ˘ | ¯ ˘ ˘ | ¯ ˘ ¯
                        (v) pu.ta, ˘ ˘ ˘ | ˘ ˘ ˘ | ¯ ¯ ¯ | ˘ ¯ ¯
                        Remark. There are pauses after the fourth and twelfth syllables.
                        (vi) kusumavicittaa, ˘ ˘ ˘ | ˘ ¯ ¯ | ˘ ˘ ˘ | ˘ ¯ ¯
                        (vii) bhuja`ngappayaata, ˘ ¯ ¯ | ˘ ¯ ¯ | ˘ ¯ ¯ | ˘ ¯ ¯
                        (viii) piyamvada, ˘ ˘ ˘ | ¯ ˘ ˘ | ˘ ¯ ˘ | ¯ ˘ ¯
                        (ix) lalitaa, ¯ ¯ ˘ | ¯ ˘ ˘ | ˘ ¯ ˘ | ¯ ˘ ¯
                        (x) pamitakkaraa, ˘ ˘ ¯ | ˘ ¯ ˘ | ˘ ˘ ¯ | ˘ ˘ ¯
                        (xi) ujjalaa, ˘ ˘ ˘ | ˘ ˘ ˘ | ¯ ˘ ˘ | ¯ ˘ ¯
                        (xii) vessadevii, ¯ ¯ ¯ | ¯ ¯ ¯ | ˘ ¯ ¯ | ˘ ¯ ¯
                        Remark. There are pauses after the fifth and twelfth syllables.
                        (xiii) taamarasa.m, ˘ ˘ ˘ | ˘ ¯ ˘ | ˘ ¯ ˘ | ˘ ¯ ¯
                        (xiv) kamalaa, ˘ ˘ ¯ | ˘ ¯ ¯ | ˘ ˘ ¯ | ˘ ¯ ¯

                        8. atijagati, having paadas of thirteen syllables. There are two
                        varieties.
                        (i) pahaasinii, ¯ ¯ ¯ | ˘ ˘ ˘ | ˘ ¯ ˘ | ¯ ˘ ¯ | ¯
                        Remark. There are pauses after the third and thirteenth syllables.
                        (ii) ruciraa, ˘ ¯ ˘ | ¯ ˘ ˘ | ˘ ˘ ¯ | ˘ ¯ ˘ | ¯
                        Remark. There are pauses after the fourth and thirteenth syllables.

                        9. sakkarii, having paadas of fourteen syllables. There are three
                        varieties.
                        (i) aparaajitaa, ˘ ˘ ˘ | ˘ ˘ ˘ | ¯ ˘ ¯ | ˘ ˘ ¯ | ˘ ¯
                        Remark. There are pauses after the seventh and fourteenth syllables.
                        (ii) pahara.nakalikaa, ˘ ˘ ˘ | ˘ ˘ ˘ | ¯ ˘ ˘ | ˘ ˘ ˘ | ˘ ¯
                        Remark. There are pauses after the seventh and fourteenth syllables.
                        (iii) vasantatilakaa, ¯ ¯ ˘ | ¯ ˘ ˘ | ˘ ¯ ˘ | ˘ ¯ ˘ | ¯ ¯

                        10. atisakkarii, fifteen syllables. There are four varieties.
                        (i) sasikala, ˘ ˘ ˘ | ˘ ˘ ˘ | ˘ ˘ ˘ | ˘ ˘ ˘ | ˘ ˘ ¯
                        (ii) ma.nigunaanikaro, ˘ ˘ ˘ | ˘ ˘ ˘ | ˘ ˘ ˘ | ˘ ˘ ˘ | ˘ ˘ ¯
                        Remark. There are pauses after the eighth and fifteenth syllables.
                        (iii) malinii, ˘ ˘ ˘ | ˘ ˘ ˘ | ¯ ¯ ¯ | ˘ ¯ ¯ | ˘ ¯ ¯
                        Remark. There is a pause after the eighth syllable.
                        (iv) pabhaddaka.m, ˘ ˘ ˘ | ˘ ¯ ˘ | ¯ ˘ ˘ | ˘ ¯ ˘ | ¯ ˘ ¯

                        11. a.t.thi, having paadas of sixteen syllables. There is one variety.
                        (i) vaaninii, ˘ ˘ ˘ | ˘ ¯ ˘ | ¯ ˘ ˘ | ˘ ¯ ˘ | ¯ ˘ ¯ | ¯

                        12. atya.t.thi, having paadas of seventeen syllables. There are three
                        varieties.
                        (i) sikharinii, ˘ ¯ ¯ | ¯ ¯ ¯ | ˘ ˘ ˘ | ˘ ˘ ¯ | ¯ ˘ ˘ | ˘ ¯
                        Remark. There are pauses after the sixth and seventeenth syllables.
                        (ii) harinii, ˘ ˘ ˘ | ˘ ˘ ¯ | ¯ ¯ ¯ | ¯ ˘ ¯ | ˘ ˘ ¯ | ˘ ¯
                        (iii) mandakkantaa, ¯ ¯ ¯ | ¯ ˘ ˘ | ˘ ˘ ˘ | ¯ ¯ ˘ | ¯ ¯ ˘ | ¯ ¯
                        Remark. There are pauses after the fourth, tenth and seventeenth
                        syllables.

                        13. dhuti, having paadas of eighteen syllables. There is one variety.
                        (i) kusumitalataavellitaa, ¯ ¯ ¯ | ¯ ¯ ˘ | ˘ ˘ ˘ | ˘ ¯ ¯ | ˘ ¯ ¯ | ˘ ¯ ¯

                        14. atidhuti, having paadas of nineteen syllables. There are two
                        varieties.
                        (i) meghavipphujjitaa, ¯ ¯ ¯ | ¯ ¯ ¯ | ˘ ˘ ˘ | ˘ ˘ ¯ | ¯ ¯ ˘ | ¯ ¯ ˘ | ¯
                        Remark. There are pauses after the sixth and thirteenth, and
                        nineteenth syllables.
                        (ii) sadduulavikkiiitii, ¯ ¯ ¯ | ˘ ˘ ¯ | ˘ ¯ ˘ | ˘ ˘ ¯ | ¯ ¯ ˘ | ¯ ¯ ˘ | ¯
                        Remark. There are pauses after the twelfth and nineteenth syllables.

                        15. kati, having paadas of twenty syllables. There is one variety.
                        (i) vutta, ¯ ˘ ¯ | ˘ ¯ ˘ | ¯ ˘ ¯ | ˘ ¯ ˘ | ¯ ˘ ¯ | ¯ ¯ ˘ | ¯ ˘

                        16. pakati, having paadas of twenty-one syllables. There is one variety.
                        (i) saddharaa, ¯ ¯ ¯ | ¯ ˘ ¯ | ¯ ˘ ˘ | ˘ ˘ ˘ | ˘ ¯ ¯ | ¯ ¯ ¯ | ˘ ¯ ¯

                        17. akati, having paadas of twenty-two syllables. There is one variety.
                        (i) bhaddaka, ¯ ˘ ˘ | ¯ ˘ ¯ | ˘ ˘ ˘ | ¯ ˘ ¯ | ˘ ˘ ˘ | ¯ ˘ ¯ | ˘ ˘ ˘ | ¯



                        metta,
                        Yong Peng.
                      • Ong Yong Peng
                        Dear friends, as you may already know, this discussion is based on Chapter 15 of A Practical Grammar of the Paali Language by Charles Duroiselle. 634. In the
                        Message 11 of 12 , Jan 17, 2009
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                          Dear friends,

                          as you may already know, this discussion is based on Chapter 15 of A
                          Practical Grammar of the Paali Language by Charles Duroiselle.

                          634. In the addhasama class of metres, the first and the third, and
                          the second and fourth paadas are similar. The following table shows
                          eleven kinds of metres that come under this head:

                          Name of Metre Odd quarter - verses 1st.-3rd. Even quarter -
                          verses 2nd.-4th.
                          upacitta ˘ ˘ ¯ ˘ ˘ ¯ ˘ ˘ ¯ ˘ ¯ ¯ ˘ ˘ ¯ ˘ ˘ ¯ ˘ ˘ ¯ ¯
                          ratamajjhaa ¯ ˘ ˘ ¯ ˘ ˘ ¯ ˘ ˘ ¯ ¯ ˘ ˘ ˘ ˘ ¯ ˘ ˘ ¯ ˘ ˘ ¯ ¯
                          vegavati ˘ ˘ ¯ ˘ ˘ ¯ ˘ ˘ ¯ ¯ ¯ ˘ ˘ ¯ ˘ ˘ ¯ ˘ ˘ ¯ ¯
                          bhaddaviraaja.m ¯ ¯ ˘ ˘ ¯ ˘ ¯ ˘ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ˘ ˘ ¯ ˘ ¯ ˘ ¯ ¯
                          ketumati ˘ ˘ ¯ ˘ ¯ ˘ ¯ ˘ ¯ ¯ ¯ ˘ ˘ ¯ ˘ ¯ ˘ ˘ ˘ ¯ ¯
                          akhyaanikaa ¯ ¯ ˘ ¯ ¯ ˘ ˘ ¯ ˘ ¯ ¯ ˘ ¯ ˘ ¯ ¯ ˘ ˘ ¯ ˘ ¯ ¯
                          viparitapubba ˘ ¯ ˘ ¯ ¯ ˘ ˘ ¯ ˘ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ˘ ¯ ¯ ˘ ˘ ¯ ˘ ¯ ¯
                          hari.napaluta ˘ ˘ ¯ ˘ ˘ ¯ ˘ ˘ ¯ ˘ ¯ ˘ ˘ ˘ ¯ ˘ ˘ ¯ ˘ ˘ ¯ ˘ ¯
                          aparavutta ˘ ˘ ˘ ˘ ˘ ˘ ¯ ˘ ¯ ˘ ¯ ˘ ˘ ˘ ˘ ¯ ˘ ˘ ¯ ˘ ¯ ˘ ¯
                          pubbittaggaa ˘ ˘ ˘ ˘ ˘ ˘ ¯ ˘ ¯ ˘ ¯ ¯ ˘ ˘ ˘ ˘ ¯ ˘ ˘ ¯ ˘ ¯ ˘ ¯ ¯
                          yavaadikaamatii ˘ ¯ ˘ ¯ ˘ ¯ ˘ ¯ ˘ ¯ ˘ ¯ ¯ ˘ ¯ ˘ ¯ ˘ ¯ ˘ ¯ ˘ ¯ ˘ ¯



                          metta,
                          Yong Peng.
                        • Ong Yong Peng
                          Dear friends, this discussion is based on Chapter 15 of A Practical Grammar of the Paali Language by Charles Duroiselle. A new symbol ( ̶̆ )is introduced in
                          Message 12 of 12 , Jan 26, 2009
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                            Dear friends,

                            this discussion is based on Chapter 15 of A Practical Grammar of the
                            Paali Language by Charles Duroiselle. A new symbol ( ̶̆ )is introduced
                            in this post, hopefully everyone can properly view it. If not, please
                            consult the html version:
                            http://www.tipitaka.net/pali/synthesis/grammar.15.cdv

                            635. The paadas in this division of verses are all dissimilar. Under
                            this head comes the metre known as Vatta, the heroic measure of Pali
                            literature, eight syllables being employed in each paada, the first
                            and last syllables therein being free, and this, a short or long
                            syllable may be optionally used in those syllables. The syllables
                            between the first and last, form two seats, having three syllables in
                            each seat of foot. In the first seat in all the quarters, any foot may
                            be employed except a Tribrach and an Anapaest, that is to say, three
                            short syllables ( ˘ ˘ ˘ ) or two short and one long ( ˘ ˘ ¯ ) must not
                            be used. In the second seat of the first and third quarters, any foot
                            may be used, but in the second seat of the second and fourth quarters
                            only ya (Bacchic) or ja (Amphibrach) (i.e., ˘ ¯ ¯ or ˘ ¯ ˘ ) must be
                            employed. It should be noted, however, that the Vatta proper has ja in
                            the second seat of both the second and the fourth paadas.

                            636. (i) Vatta Proper

                            Free 1st seat 2nd seat Free
                            1st paada ̶̆ ̶̆ ̶̆ ̶̆ ̶̆ ̶̆ ̶̆ ̶̆
                            2nd paada ̶̆ ̶̆ ̶̆ ̶̆ ˘ ¯ ¯ ̶̆
                            3rd paada ̶̆ ̶̆ ̶̆ ̶̆ ̶̆ ̶̆ ̶̆ ̶̆
                            4th paada ̶̆ ̶̆ ̶̆ ̶̆ ˘ ¯ ¯ ̶̆

                            <YP> The sign ̶̆ means that the syllable may be optionally short or long.

                            637. Sometimes the Gaathaa contains six paadas - the fifth following
                            the rule for the first and third; the sixth that for the second and
                            fourth.

                            638. Besides the Vatta Proper above shown, there are six kinds of
                            Vatta metres:

                            (ii) Vipariitapathyaavatta

                            Paadas 1 & 3: ̶̆ | ̶̆ ˘ ̶̆ | ˘ ¯ ˘ | ̶̆
                            Paadas 2 & 4: ̶̆ | ̶̆ ˘ ̶̆ | ˘ ¯ ¯ | ̶̆

                            (iii) Capalaavatta

                            Paadas 1 & 3: ̶̆ | ̶̆ ̶̆ ̶̆ | ˘ ˘ ˘ | ̶̆
                            Paadas 2 & 4: ̶̆ | ̶̆ ˘ ̶̆ | ˘ ¯ ¯ | ̶̆

                            (iv) Na-Vipulaa

                            Paadas 1 & 3: ̶̆ | ̶̆ ̶̆ ̶̆ | ˘ ˘ ˘ | ̶̆
                            Paadas 2 & 4: ̶̆ | ̶̆ ˘ ̶̆ | ˘ ¯ ˘ | ̶̆
                            or
                            All paadas: ̶̆ | ̶̆ ̶̆ ̶̆ | ˘ ˘ ˘ | ̶̆

                            (v) Vipulaa of Setava

                            (vi) Vipulaa of Pi`ngala

                            (vii) Bha-Vipulaa

                            Paadas 1 & 3: ̶̆ | ̶̆ ̶̆ ̶̆ | ¯ ˘ ˘ | ̶̆
                            Paadas 2 & 4: ̶̆ | ̶̆ ˘ ̶̆ | ˘ ¯ ˘ | ̶̆
                            or
                            All paadas: ̶̆ | ̶̆ ̶̆ ̶̆ | ¯ ˘ ˘ | ̶̆

                            (viii) Ra-Vipulaa

                            Paadas 1 & 3: ̶̆ | ̶̆ ̶̆ ̶̆ | ¯ ˘ ¯ | ̶̆
                            Paadas 2 & 4: ̶̆ | ̶̆ ˘ ̶̆ | ˘ ¯ ˘ | ̶̆
                            or
                            All paadas: ̶̆ | ̶̆ ̶̆ ̶̆ | ¯ ˘ ¯ | ̶̆

                            (ix) Ta-Vipulaa

                            Paadas 1 & 3: ̶̆ | ̶̆ ̶̆ ̶̆ | ¯ ¯ ˘ | ̶̆
                            Paadas 2 & 4: ̶̆ | ̶̆ ˘ ̶̆ | ˘ ¯ ˘ | ̶̆
                            or
                            All paadas: ̶̆ | ̶̆ ̶̆ ̶̆ | ¯ ¯ ˘ | ̶̆

                            640. Besides the metres noted above, there are some that are regulated
                            by time (kaala). Such metres are termed Jaati. They are of three kinds:-

                            1. Ariyaa
                            2. Vetaaliya, and
                            3. Mattaasamaka

                            641. In the first of these, the ariyaa, the first two paadas of half a
                            gaathaa contain seven and a half feet; in the even, that is, in the
                            second, fourth, and sixth feet, any of the following, namely, bha, ja,
                            sa, gaa, or four short syllables may be employed, but ja must not be
                            used in the odd feet, that is, in the first, third, and fifth. The
                            sixth foot may be la or four short syllables. The second-half stanza
                            must fulfil the same conditions. It is necessary to observe that in
                            the jaati metre a foot consists of four syllabic instants, the time
                            taken up in pronouncing a short syllable being taken as an instant of
                            time; thus a long syllable being taken equal to two short ones, each
                            foot used in the ariyaa is equal to four syllabic instants. The
                            following is an illustration of an ariyaa stanza:

                            1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th 7th 8th foot
                            First half stanza ¯ ¯, ˘˘˘˘, ¯ ¯, ˘˘¯, ¯ ¯, ˘¯˘, ¯˘˘, ¯
                            Second half stanza ˘˘¯, ˘˘˘, ¯ ¯, ¯ ¯, ¯ ¯, ˘, ¯ ¯, ¯

                            642. The vetaaliya is so formed that it usually consists of fourteen
                            syllabic instants in the odd quarters and sixteen in the even, while
                            the mattaasamaka consists of sixteen syllabic instants in each
                            quarter. The metres of the jaati class furnish many varieties, but it
                            is not within the scope of this work to treat of them in detail. As,
                            however, the vetaaliya is of rather frequent occurrence, we give below
                            the scheme of it. Each paada is divided into three seats; the first
                            seat in the first and third paadas must have six syllabic instants;
                            the first seat of the second and fourth paadas must contain eight
                            syllabic instants; the second seat must be a cretic foot and the third
                            a lambic foot:

                            Number of 1st seat 2nd seat 3rd seat
                            syllabic Cretic Lambus
                            instants
                            1st paada 6 six syllabic instants ¯ ˘ ¯ ˘ ¯
                            2nd paada 8 eight syllabic instants ¯ ˘ ¯ ˘ ¯
                            3rd paada 6 six syllabic instants ¯ ˘ ¯ ˘ ¯
                            4th paada 8 eight syllabic instants ¯ ˘ ¯ ˘ ¯

                            This is the final post.

                            metta,
                            Yong Peng.
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